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1.  Association of Inflammatory Biomarker C-Reactive Protein, Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Capacity Marker with HbF Level in Sickle Cell Disease Patients from Chattisgarh 
This study was undertaken to determine the association of inflammatory biomarker, oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity marker with fetal haemoglobin (HbF) level among sickle cell trait and sickle cell disease (SCD) patients in Chattisgarh. The study group consisted of 51 SCD (SS) patients with painful episode, 49 SCD (SS) patients with steady state, 50 sickle cell trait (AS) and 50 controls. Malondialdehyde (MDA), CRP, total antioxidant power (FARP), total thiol and HbF levels were quantified. We found a significant positive (p < 0.0001) association between CRP and MDA levels and its inverse association with HbF level in SS patients. We also observed that antioxidant capacity had significantly positively (p < 0.0001) associated with HbF level. The protective effect of HbF was found, because the increase in HbF levels resulted in decrease in lipid peroxidation and inflammation in SCD patients. A decrease in the HbF level and its antioxidant capacity has been associated with the pathogenesis of SCD. These finding may explain the high level of HbF is ameliorating oxidative stress and inflammation in SCD patients.
doi:10.1007/s12291-012-0231-x
PMCID: PMC3477464  PMID: 24082467
C-reactive protein; Oxidative stress; Antioxidant capacity; HbF level; Sickle cell disease
2.  Fetal Haemoglobin and β-globin Gene Cluster Haplotypes among Sickle Cell Patients in Chhattisgarh 
Background: Foetal Haemoglobin (HbF) is the best-known genetic modulator of sickle cell anaemia, which varies dramatically in concentration in the blood of these patients. The patients with SCA display a remarkable variability in the disease severity. High HbF levels and the β-globin gene cluster haplotypes influence the clinical presentation of sickle cell disease. To identify the genetic modifiers which influence the disease severity, we conducted a β-globin haplotype analysis in the sickle cell disease patients of Chhattisgarh.
Aim: The foetal haemoglobin and the β-globin gene haplotypes of the sickle cell trait and the sickle cell disease patients from Chhattisgarh were investigated.
Materials and Method: A total of 100 sickle cell patients (SS), 50 sickle cell trait patients (AS) and 50 healthy control individuals were included in the present study. The distribution of the β-globin gene haplotype was done by the PCR-RFLP method.
Result: PCR-RFLP showed that the homozygous Arab-Indian haplotype (65%) was the most frequent one, followed by the heterozygous Arab-Indian haplotype (11%) in the sickle cell patients (SS), while the AS patients had a higher frequency of the heterozygous Arab-Indian haplotype (38%) in comparison to homozygous one (32%). Four atypical haplotypes, 3 Benin and 1 Cameroon were also observed, although they were in lower frequencies. In the present study, the HbF levels were higher in the AS and the SS patients, with one or two Arab-Indian haplotypes as compared to the other haplotypes.
Conclusion: The presence of the Arab-Indian haplotype as the predominant haplotype might be suggestive of a gene flow to/from Saudi-Arabia or India and it was associated with higher HbF levels and a milder disease severity.
doi:10.7860/JCDR/2013/4381.2744
PMCID: PMC3592290  PMID: 23542314
Sickle cell anaemia; β-globin gene cluster haplotype; Foetal Haemoglobin
3.  Association between XmnI Polymorphism and HbF Level in Sickle Cell Disease Patients from Chhattisgarh 
The γG-158 (C→T) polymorphism plays important function in the disease severity of sickle cell anemia. The XmnI restriction site at -158 position of the γG-gene is associated with increased expression of the γG-globin gene and higher production of HbF. This study aims to determine the frequency of the different genotypes of the γG Xmn I polymorphism in sickle cell anemia and sickle cell trait patients in Chhattisgarh and its association with high HbF level. The Xmn1 polymorphic site was determined by PCR-RFLP procedure. XmnI polymorphism were studied in 100 sickle cell patients (SS), 50 sickle cell trait (AS) and 50 controls individuals (AA). The presence of XmnI (+/+) site in SS and AS patients associated with the increase of HbF (P<0.0001) synthesis. we also find that presence of one XmnI (+/-) site in SS patients compared with XmnI-/- site had not shows difference in HbF level. Polymorphic association is found between presence and absence of XmnI site with HbF level, in AS and AA individuals.
PMCID: PMC3614849  PMID: 23675255
HbF level; sickle cell anemia; globin polymorphism
4.  Phylogeography of mtDNA haplogroup R7 in the Indian peninsula 
Background
Human genetic diversity observed in Indian subcontinent is second only to that of Africa. This implies an early settlement and demographic growth soon after the first 'Out-of-Africa' dispersal of anatomically modern humans in Late Pleistocene. In contrast to this perspective, linguistic diversity in India has been thought to derive from more recent population movements and episodes of contact. With the exception of Dravidian, which origin and relatedness to other language phyla is obscure, all the language families in India can be linked to language families spoken in different regions of Eurasia. Mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosome evidence has supported largely local evolution of the genetic lineages of the majority of Dravidian and Indo-European speaking populations, but there is no consensus yet on the question of whether the Munda (Austro-Asiatic) speaking populations originated in India or derive from a relatively recent migration from further East.
Results
Here, we report the analysis of 35 novel complete mtDNA sequences from India which refine the structure of Indian-specific varieties of haplogroup R. Detailed analysis of haplogroup R7, coupled with a survey of ~12,000 mtDNAs from caste and tribal groups over the entire Indian subcontinent, reveals that one of its more recently derived branches (R7a1), is particularly frequent among Munda-speaking tribal groups. This branch is nested within diverse R7 lineages found among Dravidian and Indo-European speakers of India. We have inferred from this that a subset of Munda-speaking groups have acquired R7 relatively recently. Furthermore, we find that the distribution of R7a1 within the Munda-speakers is largely restricted to one of the sub-branches (Kherwari) of northern Munda languages. This evidence does not support the hypothesis that the Austro-Asiatic speakers are the primary source of the R7 variation. Statistical analyses suggest a significant correlation between genetic variation and geography, rather than between genes and languages.
Conclusion
Our high-resolution phylogeographic study, involving diverse linguistic groups in India, suggests that the high frequency of mtDNA haplogroup R7 among Munda speaking populations of India can be explained best by gene flow from linguistically different populations of Indian subcontinent. The conclusion is based on the observation that among Indo-Europeans, and particularly in Dravidians, the haplogroup is, despite its lower frequency, phylogenetically more divergent, while among the Munda speakers only one sub-clade of R7, i.e. R7a1, can be observed. It is noteworthy that though R7 is autochthonous to India, and arises from the root of hg R, its distribution and phylogeography in India is not uniform. This suggests the more ancient establishment of an autochthonous matrilineal genetic structure, and that isolation in the Pleistocene, lineage loss through drift, and endogamy of prehistoric and historic groups have greatly inhibited genetic homogenization and geographical uniformity.
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-8-227
PMCID: PMC2529308  PMID: 18680585

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