Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a fatal, rapidly progressive neurodegenerative disease with limited symptomatic treatment options. Discrimination of MSA from other degenerative disorders crucially depends on the presence of early and severe cardiovascular autonomic failure (CAF). We have previously shown that neuropathologic lesions in the central autonomic nuclei similar to the human disease are present in transgenic MSA mice generated by targeted oligodendroglial overexpression of α-syn using the PLP promoter. We here explore whether such lesions result in abnormalities of heart rate variability (HRV) and circadian rhythmicity which are typically impaired in MSA patients.
HRV analysis was performed in five month old transgenic PLP-α-syn (tg) MSA mice and age-matched wild type controls. Decreased HRV and alterations in the circadian rhythmicity were detected in the tg MSA group. The number of choline-acetyltransferase-immunoreactive neurons in the nucleus ambiguus was significantly decreased in the tg group, whereas the levels of arginine-vasopressin neurons in the suprachiasmatic and paraventricular nucleus were not affected. Our finding of impaired HRV and circadian rhythmicity in tg MSA mice associated with degeneration of the nucleus ambiguus suggests that a cardinal non-motor feature of human MSA can be reproduced in the mouse model strengthening its role as a valuable testbed for studying selective vulnerability and assessing translational therapies.
► In the current study we assessed the cardiovascular phenotype of tg MSA mice. ► The α-syn-overexpressing MSA mice had decreased HRV. ► We detected depletion of cholinergic neurons in the nucleus ambiguus in MSA mice. ► The reduced HRV might be associated with neurodegeneration in the nucleus ambiguus.
PLP, proteolipid protein promoter; MSA, multiple system atrophy; MSA-P, parkinsonian variant of MSA; MSA-C, cerebellar variant of MSA; α-syn, alpha-synuclein; SND, striatonigral degeneration; OPCA, olivopontocerebellar atrophy; GCI, (oligodendro-)glial cytoplasmic inclusions; SAOA, sporadic adult onset ataxia; ECG, electrocardiogram; UMSARS, unified MSA rating scale; wt, wild type; tg, transgenic; RMSSD, root mean square of successive RR interval differences; LF, low frequency; HF, high frequency; MR, magnetic resonance; SPECT, single-photon emission computed tomography; PET, positron emission tomography; ChAT, choline-acetyltransferase; AVP, arginine-vasopressin; TH, tyrosine hydroxylase; Multiple system atrophy; Transgenic animal model; Alpha-synuclein; Heart rate variability; Autonomic failure
Various neuropsychiatric conditions, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), are characterized by deficient fear extinction, but individuals differ greatly in risk for these. While there is growing evidence that fear extinction is influenced by certain procedural variables, it is unclear how these influences might vary across individuals and subpopulations. To model individual differences in fear extinction, prior studies identified a strain of inbred mouse, 129S1/SvImJ (S1), which exhibits a profound deficit in fear extinction, as compared to other inbred strains, such as C57BL/6J (B6).
Here, we assessed the effects of procedural variables on the impaired extinction phenotype of the S1 strain and, by comparison, the extinction-intact B6 strain. The variables studied were 1) the interval between conditioning and extinction, 2) the interval between cues during extinction training, 3) single-cue exposure before extinction training, and 4) extinction of a second-order conditioned cue.
Conducting extinction training soon after (‘immediately’) conditioning attenuated fear retrieval in S1 mice and impaired extinction in B6 mice. Spacing cue presentations with long inter-trial intervals during extinction training augmented fear in S1 and B6 mice. The effect of spacing was lost with one-trial fear conditioning in B6, but not S1 mice. A single exposure to a conditioned cue before extinction training did not alter extinction retrieval, either in B6 or S1 mice. Both the S1 and B6 strains exhibited robust second-order fear conditioning, in which a cue associated with footshock was sufficient to serve as a conditioned exciter to condition a fear association to a second cue. B6 mice extinguished the fear response to the second-order conditioned cue, but S1 mice failed to do so.
These data provide further evidence that fear extinction is strongly influenced by multiple procedural variables and is so in a highly strain-dependent manner. This suggests that the efficacy of extinction-based behavioral interventions, such as exposure therapy, for trauma-related anxiety disorders will be determined by the procedural parameters employed and the degree to which the patient can extinguish.
Mouse; Gene; Behavior; Fear; Second order conditioning; PTSD; Prefrontal cortex; Amygdala; Anxiety; Rodent; Exposure-based therapy
Increasing evidence suggests that high-frequency deep brain stimulation of the nucleus accumbens (NAcb-DBS) may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for individuals suffering from treatment-resistant depression, although the underlying mechanisms of action remain largely unknown. In this study, using a unique mouse model of enhanced depression- and anxiety-like behavior (HAB), we investigated behavioral and neurobiological effects of NAcb-DBS. HAB mice either underwent chronic treatment with one of three different selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or received NAcb-DBS for 1 h per day for 7 consecutive days. Animals were tested in established paradigms revealing depression- and anxiety-related behaviors. The enhanced depression-like behavior of HAB mice was not influenced by chronic SSRI treatment. In contrast, repeated, but not single, NAcb-DBS induced robust antidepressant and anxiolytic responses in HAB animals, while these behaviors remained unaffected in normal depression/anxiety animals (NAB), suggesting a preferential effect of NAcb-DBS on pathophysiologically deranged systems. NAcb-DBS caused a modulation of challenge-induced activity in various stress- and depression-related brain regions, including an increase in c-Fos expression in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and enhanced hippocampal neurogenesis in HABs. Taken together, these findings show that the normalization of the pathophysiologically enhanced, SSRI-insensitive depression-like behavior by repeated NAcb-DBS was associated with the reversal of reported aberrant brain activity and impaired adult neurogenesis in HAB mice, indicating that NAcb-DBS affects neuronal activity as well as plasticity in a defined, mood-associated network. Thus, HAB mice may represent a clinically relevant model for elucidating the neurobiological correlates of NAcb-DBS.
animal models; antidepressant; behavioral science; deep brain stimulation; depression; depression; Unipolar/Bipolar; neurogenesis; nucleus accumbens; Psychopharmacology; treatment-resistant depression; antidepressant; neurogenesis; deep brain stimulation; nucleus accumbens; c-Fos
Mood and anxiety disorders develop in some but not all individuals following exposure to stress and psychological trauma. However, the factors underlying individual differences in risk and resilience for these disorders, including genetic variation, remain to be determined. Isogenic inbred mouse strains provide a valuable approach to elucidating these factors. Here, we performed a comprehensive examination of the extinction-impaired 129S1/SvImJ (S1) inbred mouse strain for multiple behavioral, autonomic, neuroendocrine, and corticolimbic neuronal morphology phenotypes. We found that S1 exhibited fear overgeneralization to ambiguous contexts and cues, impaired context extinction and impaired safety learning, relative to the (good-extinguishing) C57BL/6J (B6) strain. Fear overgeneralization and impaired extinction was rescued by treatment with the front-line anxiety medication fluoxetine. Telemetric measurement of electrocardiogram signals demonstrated autonomic disturbances in S1 including poor recovery of fear-induced suppression of heart rate variability. S1 with a history of chronic restraint stress displayed an attenuated corticosterone (CORT) response to a novel, swim stressor. Conversely, previously stress-naive S1 showed exaggerated CORT responses to acute restraint stress or extinction training, insensitivity to dexamethasone challenge, and reduced hippocampal CA3 glucocorticoid receptor mRNA, suggesting downregulation of negative feedback control of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. Analysis of neuronal morphology in key neural nodes within the fear and extinction circuit revealed enlarged dendritic arbors in basolateral amygdala neurons in S1, but normal infralimbic cortex and prelimbic cortex dendritic arborization. Collectively, these data provide convergent support for the utility of the S1 strain as a tractable model for elucidating the neural, molecular and genetic basis of persistent, excessive fear.
gene; vmPFC; anxiety; depression; PTSD; infralimbic; stress; mood; anxiety; stress disorders; learning and memory; psychiatry and behavioral sciences; biological psychiatry; extinction; gene; mouse; amygdala; prefrontal
The group III metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors mGlu7 and mGlu8 are receiving increased attention as potential novel therapeutic targets for anxiety disorders. The effects mediated by these receptors appear to result from a complex interplay of facilitatory and inhibitory actions at different brain sites in the anxiety/fear circuits. To better understand the effect of mGlu7 and mGlu8 receptors on extinction of contextual fear and their critical sites of action in the fear networks, we focused on the amygdala. Direct injection into the basolateral complex of the amygdala of the mGlu7 receptor agonist AMN082 facilitated extinction, whereas the mGlu8 receptor agonist (S)-3,4-DCPG sustained freezing during the extinction acquisition trial. We also determined at the ultrastructural level the synaptic distribution of these receptors in the basal nucleus (BA) and intercalated cell clusters (ITCs) of the amygdala. Both areas are thought to exert key roles in fear extinction. We demonstrate that mGlu7 and mGlu8 receptors are located in different presynaptic terminals forming both asymmetric and symmetric synapses, and that they preferentially target neurons expressing mGlu1α receptors mostly located around ITCs. In addition we show that mGlu7 and mGlu8 receptors were segregated to different inputs to a significant extent. In particular, mGlu7a receptors were primarily onto glutamatergic afferents arising from the BA or midline thalamic nuclei, but not the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), as revealed by combined anterograde tracing and pre-embedding electron microscopy. On the other hand, mGlu8a showed a more restricted distribution in the BA and appeared absent from thalamic, mPFC and intrinsic inputs. This segregation of mGlu7 and mGlu8 receptors in different neuronal pathways of the fear circuit might explain the distinct effects on fear extinction training observed with mGlu7 and mGlu8 receptor agonists.
This article is part of a Special Issue entitled ‘Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors’.
► The mGlu7 receptor agonist AMN082 facilitated extinction of contextual fear. ► The mGlu8 receptor agonist DCPG exerted an anxiogenic-effect amygdala mediated. ► mGlu7a and mGlu8a receptors segregate mostly to different inputs in the BA. ► Inputs innervating large ITC neurons are enriched in mGlu7a and mGlu8a receptors. ► Thalamic and BA inputs, but not mPFC, to the amygdala possess mGlu7a receptors.
Amygdala; Intercalated cell; Prefrontal cortex; Tract tracing; Electron microscopy
Anxiety disorders are characterized by persistent, excessive fear. Therapeutic interventions that reverse deficits in fear extinction represent a tractable approach to treating these disorders. We previously reported that 129S1/SvImJ (S1) mice show no extinction learning following normal fear conditioning. We now demonstrate that weak fear conditioning does permit fear reduction during massed extinction training in S1 mice, but reveals specific deficiency in extinction memory consolidation/retrieval. Rescue of this impaired extinction consolidation/retrieval was achieved with d-cycloserine (N-methly-d-aspartate partial agonist) or MS-275 (histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor), applied after extinction training. We next examined the ability of different drugs and non-pharmacological manipulations to rescue the extreme fear extinction deficit in S1 following normal fear conditioning with the ultimate aim to produce low fear levels in extinction retrieval tests. Results showed that deep brain stimulation (DBS) by applying high frequency stimulation to the nucleus accumbens (ventral striatum) during extinction training, indeed significantly reduced fear during extinction retrieval compared to sham stimulation controls. Rescue of both impaired extinction acquisition and deficient extinction consolidation/retrieval was achieved with prior extinction training administration of valproic acid (a GABAergic enhancer and HDAC inhibitor) or AMN082 [metabotropic glutamate receptor 7 (mGlu7) agonist], while MS-275 or PEPA (AMPA receptor potentiator) failed to affect extinction acquisition in S1 mice. Collectively, these data identify potential beneficial effects of DBS and various drug treatments, including those with HDAC inhibiting or mGlu7 agonism properties, as adjuncts to overcome treatment resistance in exposure-based therapies.
This article is part of a Special Issue entitled ‘Cognitive Enhancers’.
► Nucleus accumbens stimulation during training rescues deficient extinction in S1. ► mGluR7 agonism or duel HDAC inhibition/GABA enhancement rescues S1 extinction. ► Weak fear conditioning permit extinction learning, not retrieval, in S1 mice. ► HDAC inhibitor, MS-275, rescues S1 extinction after weak, not strong, conditioning. ► d-cycloserine, NMDAR partial agonist, rescues S1 extinction after weak conditioning.
Fear extinction; Metabotropic glutamate receptor; Epigenetics; HDAC inhibitor; Ventral striatum deep brain stimulation; NMDA receptor
Fear extinction is impaired in neuropsychiatric disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder. Identifying drugs that facilitate fear extinction in animal models provides leads for novel pharmacological treatments for these disorders. Zinc (Zn) is expressed in neurons in a cortico-amygdala circuit mediating fear extinction, and modulates neurotransmitter systems regulating extinction. We previously found that the 129S1/SvImJ mouse strain (S1) exhibited a profound impairment in fear extinction, coupled with abnormalities in the activation of the extinction circuit. Here, we tested the role of Zn in fear extinction in S1 and C57BL/6N reference strain (B6) by feeding the mice a Zn-restricted diet (ZnR) and testing for fear extinction, as well as neuronal activation of the extinction circuit via quantification of the immediate-early genes c-Fos and Zif268. Results showed that (preconditioning or postconditioning) ZnR completely rescued deficient extinction learning and long-term extinction retrieval in S1 and expedited extinction learning in B6, without affecting fear acquisition or fear expression. The extinction-facilitating effects of ZnR were associated with the normalization of Zif268 and/or c-Fos expression in cortico-amygdala regions of S1. Specifically, ZnR increased activity in infralimbic cortex, lateral and basolateral amygdala nuclei, and lateral central amygdala nucleus, and decreased activity in prelimbic and insular cortices and medial central amygdala nucleus. ZnR also increased activation in the main intercalated nucleus and decreased activation of the medial paracapsular intercalated mass in S1. Our findings reveal a novel role for Zn in fear extinction and further support the utility of the S1 model for identifying extinction facilitating drugs.
Mice are increasingly overtaking the rat model organism in important aspects of anxiety research, including drug development. However, translating the results obtained in mouse studies into information that can be applied in clinics remains challenging. One reason may be that most of the studies so far have used animals displaying ‘normal’ anxiety rather than ‘psychopathological’ animal models with abnormal (elevated) anxiety, which more closely reflect core features and sensitivities to therapeutic interventions of human anxiety disorders, and which would, thus, narrow the translational gap. Here, we discuss manipulations aimed at persistently enhancing anxiety-related behavior in the laboratory mouse using phenotypic selection, genetic techniques and/or environmental manipulations. It is hoped that such models with enhanced construct validity will provide improved ways of studying the neurobiology and treatment of pathological anxiety. Examples of findings from mouse models of enhanced anxiety-related behavior will be discussed, as well as their relation to findings in anxiety disorder patients regarding neuroanatomy, neurobiology, genetic involvement and epigenetic modifications. Finally, we highlight novel targets for potential anxiolytic pharmacotherapeutics that have been established with the help of research involving mice. Since the use of psychopathological mouse models is only just beginning to increase, it is still unclear as to the extent to which such approaches will enhance the success rate of drug development in translating identified therapeutic targets into clinical trials and, thus, helping to introduce the next anxiolytic class of drugs.
anxiety disorders; anxiolytic; benzodiazepine; drug development; inborn anxiety; mutant mice; neurokinin 1 receptor; neuropeptide S; psychopathology; stress
Intracerebral microdialysis in conjunction with a highly sensitive radioimmunoassay was used to study the in vivo release of neuropeptide S (NPS) within the amygdala of freely moving rats. NPS was consistently detected in basolateral amygdala dialysates and the release considerably enhanced in response to local depolarisation as well as exposure to forced swim stress. Thus, our data demonstrate for the first time emotional stress-induced release of NPS in the amygdala supporting a functional role of endogenous NPS in stress/anxiety-related phenomena.
Neuropeptide S antibody; Anxiety; Depression; Stress-related disorders; Microdialysis; Radioimmunoassay
Anxiety is integrated in the amygdaloid nuclei and involves the interplay of the amygdala and various other areas of the brain. Neuropeptides play a critical role in regulating this process. Neuropeptide Y (NPY), a 36 aa peptide, is highly expressed in the amygdala. It exerts potent anxiolytic effects through cognate postsynaptic Y1 receptors, but augments anxiety through presynaptic Y2 receptors. To identify the precise anatomical site(s) of Y2-mediated anxiogenic action, we investigated the effect of site-specific deletion of the Y2 gene in amygdaloid nuclei on anxiety and depression-related behaviors in mice. Ablating the Y2 gene in the basolateral and central amygdala resulted in an anxiolytic phenotype, whereas deletion in the medial amygdala or in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis had no obvious effect on emotion-related behavior. Deleting the Y2 receptor gene in the central amygdala, but not in any other amygdaloid nucleus, resulted in an added antidepressant-like effect. It was associated with a reduction of presumably presynaptic Y2 receptors in the stria terminalis/bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the nucleus accumbens, and the locus ceruleus. Our results are evidence of the highly site-specific nature of the Y2-mediated function of NPY in the modulation of anxiety- and depression-related behavior. The activity of NPY is likely mediated by the presynaptic inhibition of GABA and/or NPY release from interneurons and/or efferent projection neurons of the basolateral and central amygdala.
The lateral septum (LS) has been shown to have a key role in emotional processes and stress responses. However, the exact role of the LS on stress modulation is not clear, as previous lesion studies mostly used electrolytic lesions, thereby destroying the whole septal area, including medial components and/or fibers of passage. The aim of the present study was therefore, to investigate the effects of selective excitotoxic ablation of the LS on neuroendocrine and behavioral stress responses in rats. Bilateral ibotenic acid lesions of the LS increased hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenocortical (HPA) axis responses to forced swim stress indicated by enhanced plasma ACTH and corticosterone responses and higher stress-induced c-Fos-like immunoreactivity in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus. Moreover, LS-lesioned animals showed a more passive coping style in the forced swim test indicated by increased floating and reduced struggling/swimming behavior compared with sham-lesioned controls. Interestingly, intraseptal corticosteroid receptor blockade modulated behavioral stress coping but failed to change HPA axis stress responses. Further experiments aimed at elucidating underlying neurochemical mechanisms revealed that intraseptal administration of the selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635 increased and prolonged stress-induced ACTH and corticosterone levels mimicking lesion effects, while the agonist 8-OH-DPAT suppressed HPA axis activity facilitating the inhibitory role of the LS. In addition, 8-OH-DPAT-injected animals showed increased active and decreased passive coping strategies during forced swimming suggesting antidepressant efficacy. Taken together, our data suggest that the LS promotes active stress coping behavior and is involved in a HPA-inhibitory mechanism that is at least in part mediated by septal 5-HT1A receptors and does not involve a glucocorticoid mediated feedback mechanism.
forced swimming; HPA axis; ACTH; corticosterone; glucocorticoids; serotonin; mood/anxiety/stress disorders; neurochemistry; neuroendocrinology; neuropharmacology; septum; HPA axis; stress; coping; glucocorticoids
The propensity to develop an anxiety disorder is thought to be determined by genetic and environmental factors. Here we investigated the relationship between a genetic predisposition to trait anxiety and experience-based learned fear in a psychopathological mouse model. Male CD-1 mice selectively bred for either high (HAB), or normal (NAB) anxiety-related behaviour on the elevated plus maze were subjected to classical fear conditioning. During conditioning both mouse lines showed increased fear responses as assessed by freezing behaviour. However, 24 h later, HAB mice displayed more pronounced conditioned responses to both a contextual or cued stimulus when compared with NAB mice. Interestingly, 6 h and already 1 h after fear conditioning, freezing levels were high in HAB mice but not in NAB mice. These results suggest that trait anxiety determines stronger fear memory and/or a weaker ability to inhibit fear responses in the HAB line. The enhanced fear response of HAB mice was attenuated by treatment with either the α2,3,5-subunit selective benzodiazepine partial agonist L-838,417, corticosterone or the selective neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist L-822,429. Overall, the HAB mouse line may represent an interesting model (i) for identifying biological factors underlying misguided conditioned fear responses and (ii) for studying novel anxiolytic pharmacotherapies for patients with fear-associated disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder and phobias.
In different behavioral paradigms including the elevated plus maze (EPM), it was observed previously that deletion of the neuropeptide Y Y2 receptor subtype results in potent suppression of anxiety-related and stress-related behaviors. To identify neurobiological correlates underlying this behavioral reactivtiy, expression of c-Fos, an established early marker of neuronal activation, was examined in Y2 receptor knockout (Y2−/−) vs. wildtype (WT) mice. Mice were placed on the open arm (OA) or closed arm (CA) of the EPM for 10 min and the effect on regional c-Fos expression in the brain was investigated. The number of c-Fos positive neurons was significantly increased in both WT and Y2−/− lines after OA and CA exposure in 51 of 54 regions quantified. These regions included various cortical, limbic, thalamic, hypothalamic, and hindbrain regions. Genotype influenced c-Fos responses to arm exposures in 6 of the 51 activated regions: the cingulate cortex, barrel field of the primary somatosensory cortex, nucleus accumbens, dorsal lateral septum, amygdala and lateral periaqueductal gray. These differences in neuronal activity responses to the novel environments were more pronounced after OA than after CA exposure. Mice lacking Y2 receptors exhibited reduced neuronal activation when compared to WT animals in response to the emotional stressors. Reduced neuronal excitability in the identified brain areas relevant to the processing of motivated, explorative as well as anxiety-related behaviors is suggested to contribute to the reduced anxiety-related behavior observed in Y2−/− mice.
anxiety; c-Fos mapping; elevated plus maze; neuropeptide Y; Y2 receptor knockout mice
Fear extinction is impaired in psychiatric disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder and schizophrenia, which have a major genetic component. However, the genetic factors underlying individual variability in fear extinction remain to be determined. By comparing a panel of inbred mouse strains, we recently identified a strain, 129S1/SvImJ (129S1), that exhibits a profound and selective deficit in Pavlovian fear extinction, and associated abnormalities in functional activation of a key prefrontal-amygdala circuit, as compared to C57BL/6J. The first aim of the present study was to assess fear extinction across multiple 129 substrains representing the strain’s four different genetic lineages (Parental, Steel, Teratoma, Contaminated). Results showed that 129P1/ReJ, 129P3/J, 129T2/SvEmsJ, and 129X1/SvJ exhibited poor fear extinction, relative to C57BL/6J, while 129S1 showed evidence of fear incubation. Based on these results, the second aim was to further characterize the nature and specificity of the extinction phenotype in 129S1, as an exemplar of the 129 substrains. Results showed that the extinction deficit in 129S1 was neither the result of a failure to habituate to a sensitized fear response, nor an artifact of a fear response to (unconditioned) tone per se. A stronger conditioning protocol (i.e., five × higher intensity shocks) produced an increase in fear expression in 129S1, relative to C57BL/6J, due to rapid rise in freezing during tone presentation. Taken together, these data demonstrate that impaired fear extinction is a phenotypic feature common across 129 substrains, and provide preliminary evidence that impaired fear extinction in 129S1 may be reflect a pro-fear incubation-like process.
gene; behavior; PTSD; prefrontal cortex; amygdala; anxiety; rodent; genetics; sensitization; incubation
The serotonin1A receptor (5-HT1A R) knock-out mouse (KO) is a widely used animal model for anxiety and cognitive function and regulation of signaling cascades by this receptor has been reported. We aimed to determine individual representatives of signaling cascades in order to screen 5-HT1A R-dependent signaling proteins (SPs).
Hippocampal proteins from wild type and 5-HT1A R KO mice were extracted, run on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, proteins were identified by MALDI and nano-ESI-LC-MS/MS and SPs were quantified by specific software.
Nucleoside diphosphate kinase A (NDK A, synonym: nm23), Dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MAPKK1, synonym: MEK), Serine/threonine-protein phosphatase PP1-gamma catalytic subunit (PP-1G), Septin-5, were reduced in the KO mice. Novel phosphorylation sites at T386 on MAPKK1 and at S225 and Y265 on Septin-5 were observed.
MAPKK1 and PP-1G are known 5-HT1A R-dependent signaling compounds and are in agreement with receptor knock-out and septin-5 is involved in serotonin transport, although regulation by 5-HT1A R has not been reported. 5-HT1A R – dependent levels for NDK A have not been demonstrated so far and we herewith propose a role for NDK A in 5-HT1A R signaling.
Reduced SP levels along with findings of two novel phosphorylation sites may be relevant for interpretation of previous and the design of future studies on this receptor system.
Serotonin; Serotonin receptor; Signaling; Hippocampus; Knock-out mouse