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1.  Sustained Photosynthetic Performance of Coffea spp. under Long-Term Enhanced [CO2] 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(12):e82712.
Coffee is one of the world’s most traded agricultural products. Modeling studies have predicted that climate change will have a strong impact on the suitability of current cultivation areas, but these studies have not anticipated possible mitigating effects of the elevated atmospheric [CO2] because no information exists for the coffee plant. Potted plants from two genotypes of Coffea arabica and one of C. canephora were grown under controlled conditions of irradiance (800 μmol m-2 s-1), RH (75%) and 380 or 700 μL CO2 L-1 for 1 year, without water, nutrient or root development restrictions. In all genotypes, the high [CO2] treatment promoted opposite trends for stomatal density and size, which decreased and increased, respectively. Regardless of the genotype or the growth [CO2], the net rate of CO2 assimilation increased (34-49%) when measured at 700 than at 380 μL CO2 L-1. This result, together with the almost unchanged stomatal conductance, led to an instantaneous water use efficiency increase. The results also showed a reinforcement of photosynthetic (and respiratory) components, namely thylakoid electron transport and the activities of RuBisCo, ribulose 5-phosphate kinase, malate dehydrogenase and pyruvate kinase, what may have contributed to the enhancements in the maximum rates of electron transport, carboxylation and photosynthetic capacity under elevated [CO2], although these responses were genotype dependent. The photosystem II efficiency, energy driven to photochemical events, non-structural carbohydrates, photosynthetic pigment and membrane permeability did not respond to [CO2] supply. Some alterations in total fatty acid content and the unsaturation level of the chloroplast membranes were noted but, apparently, did not affect photosynthetic functioning. Despite some differences among the genotypes, no clear species-dependent responses to elevated [CO2] were observed. Overall, as no apparent sign of photosynthetic down-regulation was found, our data suggest that Coffea spp. plants may successfully cope with high [CO2] under the present experimental conditions.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0082712
PMCID: PMC3855777  PMID: 24324823
2.  Bacteria and Protozoa Differentially Modulate the Expression of Rab Proteins 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(7):e39858.
Phagocytic cells represent an important line of innate defense against microorganisms. Uptake of microorganisms by these cells involves the formation of a phagosome that matures by fusing with endocytic compartments, resulting in killing of the enclosed microbe. Small GTPases of the Rab family are key regulators of vesicular trafficking in the endocytic pathway. Intracellular pathogens can interfere with the function of these proteins in order to subvert host immune responses. However, it is unknown if this subversion can be achieved through the modulation of Rab gene expression. We compared the expression level of 23 distinct Rab GTPases in mouse macrophages after infection with the protozoan Plasmodium berghei, and the bacteria Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. We found that P. berghei induces an increase in the expression of a different set of Rab genes than E. coli and S. enterica, which behaved similarly. Strikingly, when one of the Rab proteins whose expression was increased by P. berghei, namely Rab14, was silenced, we observed a significant increase in the phagocytosis of P. berghei, whereas Rab14 overexpression led to a decrease in phagocytosis. This suggests that the parasite might induce the increase of Rab14 expression for its own advantage. Similarly, when Rab9a, whose expression was increased by E. coli and S. enterica, was silenced, we observed an increase in the phagocytosis of both bacterial species, whereas Rab9a overexpression caused a reduction in phagocytosis. This further suggests that the modulation of Rab gene expression could represent a mechanism of immune evasion. Thus, our study analyzes the modulation of Rab gene expression induced by bacteria and protozoa and suggests that this modulation could be necessary for the success of microbial infection.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0039858
PMCID: PMC3401185  PMID: 22911692
3.  Exophilin8 transiently clusters insulin granules at the actin-rich cell cortex prior to exocytosis 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  2011;22(10):1716-1726.
The molecular mechanism for the transport of newly formed secretory granules to the cell periphery is largely unknown. This work shows that the Rab27a effector exophilin8 is essential for the delivery and fusion of insulin granules to the plasma membrane by transiently trapping granules in the cortical actin network close to the microtubule plus-ends.
Exophilin8/MyRIP/Slac2-c is an effector protein of the small GTPase Rab27a and is specifically localized on retinal melanosomes and secretory granules. We investigated the role of exophilin8 in insulin granule trafficking. Exogenous expression of exophilin8 in pancreatic β cells or their cell line, MIN6, polarized (exophilin8-positive) insulin granules at the cell corners, where both cortical actin and the microtubule plus-end–binding protein, EB1, were present. Mutation analyses indicated that the ability of exophilin8 to act as a linker between Rab27a and myosin Va is essential for its granule-clustering activity. Moreover, exophilin8 and exophilin8-associated insulin granules were markedly stable and immobile. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy indicated that exophilin8 restricts the motion of insulin granules at a region deeper than that where another Rab27a effector, granuphilin, accumulates docked granules directly attached to the plasma membrane. However, the exophilin8-induced immobility of insulin granules was eliminated upon secretagogue stimulation and did not inhibit evoked exocytosis. Furthermore, exophilin8 depletion prevents insulin granules from being transported close to the plasma membrane and inhibits their fusion. These findings indicate that exophilin8 transiently traps insulin granules into the cortical actin network close to the microtubule plus-ends and supplies them for release during the stimulation.
doi:10.1091/mbc.E10-05-0404
PMCID: PMC3093323  PMID: 21441305
4.  The Chaperone-Dependent Ubiquitin Ligase CHIP Targets HIF-1α for Degradation in the Presence of Methylglyoxal 
PLoS ONE  2010;5(11):e15062.
Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) plays a key role in cell adaptation to low oxygen and stabilization of HIF-1 is vital to ensure cell survival under hypoxia. Diabetes has been associated with impairment of the cell response to hypoxia and downregulation of HIF-1 is most likely the event that transduces hyperglycemia into increased cell death in diabetes-associated hypoxia. In this study, we aimed at identifying the molecular mechanism implicated in destabilization of HIF-1 by high glucose. In this work, we identified a new molecular mechanism whereby methylglyoxal (MGO), which accumulates in high-glucose conditions, led to a rapid proteasome-dependent degradation of HIF-1α under hypoxia. Significantly, MGO-induced degradation of HIF-1α did not require the recruitment of the ubiquitin ligase pVHL nor did it require hydroxylation of the proline residues P402/P564 of HIF-1α. Moreover, we identified CHIP (Carboxy terminus of Hsp70-Interacting Protein) as the E3 ligase that ubiquitinated HIF-1α in the presence of MGO. Consistently, silencing of endogenous CHIP and overexpression of glyoxalase I both stabilized HIF-1α under hypoxia in the presence of MGO. Data shows that increased association of Hsp40/70 with HIF-1α led to recruitment of CHIP, which promoted polyubiquitination and degradation of HIF-1α. Moreover, MGO-induced destabilization of HIF-1α led to a dramatic decrease in HIF-1 transcriptional activity. Altogether, data is consistent with a new pathway for degradation of HIF-1α in response to intracellular accumulation of MGO. Moreover, we suggest that accumulation of MGO is likely to be the link between high glucose and the loss of cell response to hypoxia in diabetes.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0015062
PMCID: PMC2993942  PMID: 21124777
6.  Rab3GEP Is the Non-redundant Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor for Rab27a in Melanocytes* 
The Journal of Biological Chemistry  2008;283(34):23209-23216.
Rab GTPases regulate discrete steps in vesicular transport pathways. Rabs require activation by specific guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) that stimulate the exchange of GDP for GTP. Rab27a controls motility and regulated exocytosis of secretory granules and related organelles. In melanocytes, Rab27a regulates peripheral transport of mature melanosomes by recruiting melanophilin and myosin Va. Here, we studied the activation of Rab27a in melanocytes. We identify Rab3GEP, previously isolated as a GEF for Rab3a, as the non-redundant Rab27a GEF. Similar to Rab27a-deficient ashen melanocytes, Rab3GEP-depleted cells show both clustering of melanosomes in the perinuclear area and loss of the Rab27a effector Mlph. Consistent with a role as an activator, levels of Rab27a-GTP are decreased in cells lacking Rab3GEP. Recombinant Rab3GEP exhibits guanine nucleotide exchange activity against Rab27a and Rab27b in vitro, in addition to its previously documented activity against Rab3. Our results indicate promiscuity in Rab GEF action and suggest that members of related but functionally distinct Rab subfamilies can be controlled by common activators.
doi:10.1074/jbc.M804134200
PMCID: PMC2516999  PMID: 18559336
7.  A Coiled-Coil Domain of Melanophilin Is Essential for Myosin Va Recruitment and Melanosome Transport in Melanocytes 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  2006;17(11):4720-4735.
Melanophilin (Mlph) regulates retention of melanosomes at the peripheral actin cytoskeleton of melanocytes, a process essential for normal mammalian pigmentation. Mlph is proposed to be a modular protein binding the melanosome-associated protein Rab27a, Myosin Va (MyoVa), actin, and microtubule end-binding protein (EB1), via distinct N-terminal Rab27a-binding domain (R27BD), medial MyoVa-binding domain (MBD), and C-terminal actin-binding domain (ABD), respectively. We developed a novel melanosome transport assay using a Mlph-null cell line to study formation of the active Rab27a:Mlph:MyoVa complex. Recruitment of MyoVa to melanosomes correlated with rescue of melanosome transport and required intact R27BD together with MBD exon F–binding region (EFBD) and unexpectedly a potential coiled-coil forming sequence within ABD. In vitro binding studies indicate that the coiled-coil region enhances binding of MyoVa by Mlph MBD. Other regions of Mlph reported to interact with MyoVa globular tail, actin, or EB1 are not essential for melanosome transport rescue. The strict correlation between melanosomal MyoVa recruitment and rescue of melanosome distribution suggests that stable interaction with Mlph and MyoVa activation are nondissociable events. Our results highlight the importance of the coiled-coil region together with R27BD and EFBD regions of Mlph in the formation of the active melanosomal Rab27a-Mlph-MyoVa complex.
doi:10.1091/mbc.E06-05-0457
PMCID: PMC1635380  PMID: 16914517
8.  The Ternary Rab27a–Myrip–Myosin VIIa Complex Regulates Melanosome Motility in the Retinal Pigment Epithelium 
Traffic (Copenhagen, Denmark)  2007;8(5):486-499.
The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) contains melanosomes similar to those found in the skin melanocytes, which undergo dramatic light-dependent movements in fish and amphibians. In mammals, those movements are more subtle and appear to be regulated by the Rab27a GTPase and the unconventional myosin, Myosin VIIa (MyoVIIa). Here we address the hypothesis that a recently identified Rab27a- and MyoVIIa-interacting protein, Myrip, promotes the formation of a functional tripartite complex. In heterologous cultured cells, all three proteins co-immunoprecipitated following overexpression. Rab27a and Myrip localize to the peripheral membrane of RPE melanosomes as observed by immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy. Melanosome dynamics were studied using live-cell imaging of mouse RPE primary cultures. Wild-type RPE melanosomes exhibited either stationary or slow movement interrupted by bursts of fast movement, with a peripheral directionality trend. Nocodazole treatment led to melanosome paralysis, suggesting that movement requires microtubule motors. Significant and similar alterations in melanosome dynamics were observed when any one of the three components of the complex was missing, as studied in ashen- (Rab27a defective) and shaker-1 (MyoVIIa mutant)-derived RPE cells, and in wild-type RPE cells transduced with adenovirus carrying specific sequences to knockdown Myrip expression. We observed a significant increase in the number of motile melanosomes, exhibiting more frequent and prolonged bursts of fast movement, and inversion of directionality. Similar alterations were observed upon cytochalasin D treatment, suggesting that the Rab27a–Myrip–MyoVIIa complex regulates tethering of melanosomes onto actin filaments, a process that ensures melanosome movement towards the cell periphery.
doi:10.1111/j.1600-0854.2007.00548.x
PMCID: PMC1920545  PMID: 17451552
melanosome motility; Myrip; Rab27a; RPE
9.  Independent degeneration of photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium in conditional knockout mouse models of choroideremia 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  2006;116(2):386-394.
Choroideremia (CHM) is an X-linked degeneration of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), photoreceptors, and choroid, caused by loss of function of the CHM/REP1 gene. REP1 is involved in lipid modification (prenylation) of Rab GTPases, key regulators of intracellular vesicular transport and organelle dynamics. To study the pathogenesis of CHM and to develop a model for assessing gene therapy, we have created a conditional mouse knockout of the Chm gene. Heterozygous-null females exhibit characteristic hallmarks of CHM: progressive degeneration of the photoreceptors, patchy depigmentation of the RPE, and Rab prenylation defects. Using tamoxifen-inducible and tissue-specific Cre expression in combination with floxed Chm alleles, we show that CHM pathogenesis involves independently triggered degeneration of photoreceptors and the RPE, associated with different subsets of defective Rabs.
doi:10.1172/JCI26617
PMCID: PMC1326146  PMID: 16410831
10.  The Role of Rab27a in the Regulation of Melanosome Distribution within Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  2004;15(5):2264-2275.
Melanosomes within the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) of mammals have long been thought to exhibit no movement in response to light, unlike fish and amphibian RPE. Here we show that the distribution of melanosomes within the mouse RPE undergoes modest but significant changes with the light cycle. Two hours after light onset, there is a threefold increase in the number of melanosomes in the apical processes that surround adjacent photoreceptors. In skin melanocytes, melanosomes are motile and evenly distributed throughout the cell periphery. This distribution is due to the interaction with the cortical actin cytoskeleton mediated by a tripartite complex of Rab27a, melanophilin, and myosin Va. In ashen (Rab27a null) mice RPE, melanosomes are unable to move beyond the adherens junction axis and do not enter apical processes, suggesting that Rab27a regulates melanosome distribution in the RPE. Unlike skin melanocytes, the effects of Rab27a are mediated through myosin VIIa in the RPE, as evidenced by the similar melanosome distribution phenotype observed in shaker-1 mice, defective in myosin VIIa. Rab27a and myosin VIIa are likely to be required for association with and movement through the apical actin cytoskeleton, which is a prerequisite for entry into the apical processes.
doi:10.1091/mbc.E03-10-0772
PMCID: PMC404021  PMID: 14978221
11.  Membrane Targeting of Rab GTPases Is Influenced by the Prenylation MotifD⃞ 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  2003;14(5):1882-1899.
Rab GTPases are regulators of membrane traffic. Rabs specifically associate with target membranes via the attachment of (usually) two geranylgeranyl groups in a reaction involving Rab escort protein and Rab geranylgeranyl transferase. In contrast, related GTPases are singly prenylated by CAAX prenyl transferases. We report that di-geranylgeranyl modification is important for targeting of Rab5a and Rab27a to endosomes and melanosomes, respectively. Transient expression of EGFP-Rab5 mutants containing two prenylatable cysteines (CGC, CC, CCQNI, and CCA) in HeLa cells did not affect endosomal targeting or function, whereas mono-cysteine mutants (CSLG, CVLL, or CVIM) were mistargeted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and were nonfunctional. Similarly, Rab27aCVLL mutant is also mistargeted to the ER and transgenic expression on a Rab27a null background (Rab27aash) did not rescue the coat color phenotype, suggesting that Rab27aCVLL is not functional in vivo. CAAX prenyl transferase inhibition and temperature-shift experiments further suggest that Rabs, singly or doubly modified are recruited to membranes via a Rab escort protein/Rab geranylgeranyl transferase-dependent mechanism that is distinct from the insertion of CAAX-containing GTPases. Finally, we show that both singly and doubly modified Rabs are extracted from membranes by RabGDIα and propose that the mistargeting of Rabs to the ER results from loss of targeting information.
doi:10.1091/mbc.E02-10-0639
PMCID: PMC165084  PMID: 12802062
12.  Rapid degradation of dominant-negative Rab27 proteins in vivo precludes their use in transgenic mouse models 
BMC Cell Biology  2002;3:26.
Background
Transgenic mice have proven to be a powerful system to study normal and pathological gene functions. Here we describe an attempt to generate a transgenic mouse model for choroideremia (CHM), a slow-onset X-linked retinal degeneration caused by mutations in the Rab Escort Protein-1 (REP1) gene. REP1 is part of the Rab geranylgeranylation machinery, a modification that is essential for Rab function in membrane traffic. The loss of REP1 in CHM patients may trigger retinal degeneration through its effects on Rab proteins. We have previously reported that Rab27a is the Rab most affected in CHM lymphoblasts and hypothesised that the selective dysfunction of Rab27a (and possibly a few other Rab GTPases) plays an essential role in the retinal degenerative process.
Results
To investigate this hypothesis, we generated several lines of dominant-negative, constitutively-active and wild-type Rab27a (and Rab27b) transgenic mice whose expression was driven either by the pigment cell-specific tyrosinase promoter or the ubiquitous β-actin promoter. High levels of mRNA and protein were observed in transgenic lines expressing wild-type or constitutively active Rab27a and Rab27b. However, only modest levels of transgenic protein were expressed. Pulse-chase experiments suggest that the dominant-negative proteins, but not the constitutively-active or wild type proteins, are rapidly degraded. Consistently, no significant phenotype was observed in our transgenic lines. Coat-colour was normal, indicating normal Rab27a activity. Retinal function as determined by fundoscopy, angiography, electroretinography and histology was also normal.
Conclusions
We suggest that the instability of the dominant-negative mutant Rab27 proteins in vivo precludes the use of this approach to generate mouse models of disease caused by Rab27 GTPases.
doi:10.1186/1471-2121-3-26
PMCID: PMC137576  PMID: 12401133
14.  Functional redundancy of Rab27 proteins and the pathogenesis of Griscelli syndrome 
Griscelli syndrome (GS) patients and the corresponding mouse model ashen exhibit defects mainly in two types of lysosome-related organelles, melanosomes in melanocytes and lytic granules in CTLs. This disease is caused by loss-of-function mutations in RAB27A, which encodes 1 of the 60 known Rab GTPases, critical regulators of vesicular transport. Here we present evidence that Rab27a function can be compensated by a closely related protein, Rab27b. Rab27b is expressed in platelets and other tissues but not in melanocytes or CTLs. Morphological and functional tests in platelets derived from ashen mice are all within normal limits. Both Rab27a and Rab27b are found associated with the limiting membrane of platelet-dense granules and to a lesser degree with α-granules. Ubiquitous transgenic expression of Rab27a or Rab27b rescues ashen coat color, and melanocytes derived from transgenic mice exhibit widespread peripheral distribution of melanosomes instead of the perinuclear clumping observed in ashen melanocytes. Finally, transient expression in ashen melanocytes of Rab27a or Rab27b, but not other Rab’s, restores peripheral distribution of melanosomes. Our data suggest that Rab27b is functionally redundant with Rab27a and that the pathogenesis of GS is determined by the relative expression of Rab27a and Rab27b in specialized cell types.
doi:10.1172/JCI15058
PMCID: PMC151050  PMID: 12122117
15.  Chromosomal mapping, gene structure and characterization of the human and murine RAB27B gene 
BMC Genetics  2001;2:2.
Background
Rab GTPases are regulators of intracellular membrane traffic. The Rab27 subfamily consists of Rab27a and Rab27b. Rab27a has been recently implicated in Griscelli Disease, a disease combining partial albinism with severe immunodeficiency. Rab27a plays a key role in the function of lysosomal-like organelles such as melanosomes in melanocytes and lytic granules in cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Little is known about Rab27b.
Results
The human RAB27B gene is organised in six exons, spanning about 69 kb in the chromosome 18q21.1 region. Exon 1 is non-coding and is separated from the others by 49 kb of DNA and exon 6 contains a long 3' untranslated sequence (6.4 kb). The mouse Rab27b cDNA shows 95% identity with the human cDNA at the protein level and maps to mouse chromosome 18. The mouse mRNA was detected in stomach, large intestine, spleen and eye by RT-PCR, and in heart, brain, spleen and kidney by Northern blot. Transient over-expression of EGF-Rab27b fusion protein in cultured melanocytes revealed that Rab27b is associated with melanosomes, as observed for EGF-Rab27a.
Conclusions
Our results indicate that the Rab27 subfamily of Ras-like GTPases is highly conserved in mammals. There is high degree of conservation in sequence and gene structure between RAB27A and RAB27B genes. Exogenous expression of Rab27b in melanocytes results in melanosomal association as observed for Rab27a, suggesting the two Rab27 proteins are functional homologues. As with RAB27A in Griscelli Disease, RAB27B may be also associated with human disease mapping to chromosome 18.
doi:10.1186/1471-2156-2-2
PMCID: PMC29082  PMID: 11178108

Results 1-15 (15)