Human cells (HEK 293, HeLa, MCF-7) and zebrafish embryos were metabolically tagged with an alkynyl myristic acid probe, lysed with an SDS buffer and tagged proteomes ligated to multifunctional capture reagents via copper-catalyzed alkyne azide cycloaddition (CuAAC). This allowed for affinity enrichment and high-confidence identification, by delivering direct MS/MS evidence for the modification site, of 87 and 61 co-translationally myristoylated proteins in human cells and zebrafish, respectively. The data have been deposited to ProteomeXchange Consortium (Vizcaíno et al., 2014 Nat. Biotechnol., 32, 223–6) (PXD001863 and PXD001876) and are described in detail in Multifunctional reagents for quantitative proteome-wide analysis of protein modification in human cells and dynamic protein lipidation during vertebrate development׳ by Broncel et al., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.
Protein modification; Myristoylation; Tagging by substrate; Modification site
Novel multifunctional reagents were applied in combination with a lipid probe for affinity enrichment of myristoylated proteins and direct detection of lipid-modified tryptic peptides by mass spectrometry. This method enables high-confidence identification of the myristoylated proteome on an unprecedented scale in cell culture, and allowed the first quantitative analysis of dynamic changes in protein lipidation during vertebrate embryonic development.
capture reagents; lipidation; mass spectrometry; post-translational modification; proteomics
Dendritic cell (DC) derived cytokines play a key role in specifying adaptive immune responses tailored to the type of pathogen encountered and the local tissue environment. However, little is known about how DC perceive the local environment. We investigated whether endogenous Notch signaling could affect DC responses to pathogenic stimuli. We demonstrate that concurrent Notch and TLR stimulation results in a unique cytokine profile in mouse bone-marrow derived DC characterized by enhanced IL-10 and IL-2 and reduced IL-12 expression compared to TLR ligation alone. Unexpectedly, modulation of cytokine production occurred through a non-canonical Notch signaling pathway, independent of γ-secretase activity. Modulation required de novo protein synthesis and PI3K, JNK and ERK activity were necessary for enhanced IL-2 expression while modulation of IL-10 only required PI3K activity. Further, we show that this γ-secretase independent Notch pathway can induce PI3K activity. In contrast, expression of the canonical Notch target gene Hes1 was suppressed in DC stimulated with Notch and TLR ligands simultaneously. Thus, our data suggest that Notch acts as an endogenous signal that modulates cytokine expression of DC through a non-canonical pathway and therefore has the potential to tailor the subsequent adaptive immune response in a tissue and/or stage dependent manner.
We describe an angular multiplexed imaging technique for 3-D in vivo cell tracking of sparse cell distributions and optical projection tomography (OPT) with superior time-lapse resolution and a significantly reduced light dose compared to volumetric time-lapse techniques. We demonstrate that using dual axis OPT, where two images are acquired simultaneously at different projection angles, can enable localization and tracking of features in 3-D with a time resolution equal to the camera frame rate. This is achieved with a 200x reduction in light dose compared to an equivalent volumetric time-lapse single camera OPT acquisition with 200 projection angles. We demonstrate the application of this technique to mapping the 3-D neutrophil migration pattern observed over ~25.5 minutes in a live 2 day post-fertilisation transgenic LysC:GFP zebrafish embryo following a tail wound.
(170.2520) Fluorescence microscopy; (170.6900) Three-dimensional microscopy; (170.6920) Time-resolved imaging; (170.3010) Image reconstruction techniques
Prolonged ingestion of a cholesterol- or saturated fatty acid-enriched diet induces chronic, often systemic, auto-inflammatory responses resulting in significant health problems worldwide. In vivo information regarding the local and direct inflammatory effect of these dietary components in the intestine and, in particular, on the intestinal epithelium is lacking. Here we report that both mice and zebrafish exposed to high-fat (HFDs) or high-cholesterol (HCDs) diets develop acute innate inflammatory responses within hours, reflected in the localized interleukin-1β-dependent accumulation of myeloid cells in the intestine. Acute HCD-induced intestinal inflammation is dependent on cholesterol uptake via Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 and inflammasome activation involving apoptosis-associated Speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain, which leads to Caspase-1 activity in intestinal epithelial cells. Extended exposure to HCD results in localized, inflammation-dependent, functional dysregulation as well as systemic pathologies. Our model suggests that dietary cholesterol initiates intestinal inflammation in epithelial cells.
Chronic consumption of a Western-type diet leads to systemic inflammation of undefined origin, which contributes to metabolic disease. Here Progatzky et al. identify an immediate early step in the process by showing that dietary cholesterol rapidly activates inflammasomes in the gut epithelium.
We describe a remote focal scanning technique for optical projection tomography (OPT) implemented with an electrically tunable lens (ETL) that removes the need to scan the specimen or objective lens. Using a 4× objective lens the average spatial resolution is improved by ∼46% and the light collection efficiency by a factor of ∼6.76, thereby enabling increased acquisition speed and reduced light dose. This convenient implementation is particularly appropriate for lower magnifications and larger sample diameters where axial objective scanning would encounter problems with speed and stability.
(170.6900) Three-dimensional microscopy; (170.6960) Tomography
Alkynyl-cholesterol probes tag and track Hedgehog protein, illuminating the role of protein cholesterylation in secretion, transport complex formation and signalling, and enabling quantitative proteomic analysis, imaging, and detection of cholesterylation in developing zebrafish.
Sonic Hedgehog protein (Shh) is a morphogen molecule important in embryonic development and in the progression of many cancer types in which it is aberrantly overexpressed. Fully mature Shh requires attachment of cholesterol and palmitic acid to its C- and N-termini, respectively. The study of lipidated Shh has been challenging due to the limited array of tools available, and the roles of these posttranslational modifications are poorly understood. Herein, we describe the development and validation of optimised alkynyl sterol probes that efficiently tag Shh cholesterylation and enable its visualisation and analysis through bioorthogonal ligation to reporters. An optimised probe was shown to be an excellent cholesterol biomimetic in the context of Shh, enabling appropriate release of tagged Shh from signalling cells, formation of multimeric transport complexes and signalling. We have used this probe to determine the size of transport complexes of lipidated Shh in culture medium and expression levels of endogenous lipidated Shh in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cell lines through quantitative chemical proteomics, as well as direct visualisation of the probe by fluorescence microscopy and detection of cholesterylated Hedgehog protein in developing zebrafish embryos. These sterol probes provide a set of novel and well-validated tools that can be used to investigate the role of lipidation on activity of Shh, and potentially other members of the Hedgehog protein family.
Intravital microscopy has become increasingly popular over the past few decades because it provides high-resolution and real-time information about complex biological processes. Technological advances that allow deeper penetration in live tissues, such as the development of confocal and two-photon microscopy, together with the generation of ever-new fluorophores that facilitate bright labelling of cells and tissue components have made imaging of vertebrate model organisms efficient and highly informative. Genetic manipulation leading to expression of fluorescent proteins is undoubtedly the labelling method of choice and has been used to visualize several cell types in vivo. This approach, however, can be technically challenging and time consuming. Over the years, several dyes have been developed to allow rapid, effective and bright ex vivo labelling of cells for subsequent transplantation and imaging. Here, we review and discuss the advantages and limitations of a number of strategies commonly used to label and track cells at high resolution in vivo in mouse and zebrafish, using fluorescence microscopy. While the quest for the perfect label is far from achieved, current reagents are valuable tools enabling the progress of biological discovery, so long as they are selected and used appropriately.
cell biology; in vivo imaging; cancer; stem cells; fluorescence microscopy
CD46 is a complement regulator with important immune-related roles. CD46 functions as a pathogen receptor and is a potent co-stimulator for the induction of interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-secreting T helper 1 (TH1) effector T cells and their subsequent switch into interleukin-10 (IL-10)-producing regulatory T cells. Here, we identify the Notch protein family member Jagged1 as a new physiological ligand for CD46. Further, CD46 regulates Notch receptors and ligands expression during T cell activation and disturbance of the CD46-Notch crosstalk impedes IFN-γ induction and IL-10 switching. Importantly, CD4+ T cells from CD46-deficient patients and patients with hypomorphic Jagged1 mutations (Alagille Syndrome) fail to mount appropriate TH1 responses in vitro and in vivo suggesting that CD46-Jagged1 crosstalk is responsible for the recurrent infections in subpopulations of these patients.
A fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) technology platform intended to read out changes in Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) efficiency is presented for the study of protein interactions across the drug-discovery pipeline. FLIM provides a robust, inherently ratiometric imaging modality for drug discovery that could allow the same sensor constructs to be translated from automated cell-based assays through small transparent organisms such as zebrafish to mammals. To this end, an automated FLIM multiwell-plate reader is described for high content analysis of fixed and live cells, tomographic FLIM in zebrafish and FLIM FRET of live cells via confocal endomicroscopy. For cell-based assays, an exemplar application reading out protein aggregation using FLIM FRET is presented, and the potential for multiple simultaneous FLIM (FRET) readouts in microscopy is illustrated.
drug discovery; fluorescence lifetime imaging; FRET; high-throughput screening; proteins
We demonstrate the application of fluorescence lifetime optical projection tomography (FLIM-OPT) to in vivo imaging of lysC:GFP transgenic zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio). This method has been applied to unambiguously distinguish between the fluorescent protein (GFP) signal in myeloid cells from background autofluorescence based on the fluorescence lifetime. The combination of FLIM, an inherently ratiometric method, in conjunction with OPT results in a quantitative 3-D tomographic technique that could be used as a robust method for in vivo biological and pharmaceutical research, for example as a readout of Förster resonance energy transfer based interactions.
(170.3650) Lifetime-based sensing; (170.6900) Three-dimensional microscopy; (170.6920) Time-resolved imaging; (170.6960) Tomography
Affymetrix has recently developed whole-transcript GeneChips—‘Gene’ and ‘Exon’ arrays—which interrogate exons along the length of each gene. Although each probe on these arrays is intended to hybridize perfectly to only one transcriptional target, many probes match multiple transcripts located in different parts of the genome or alternative isoforms of the same gene. Existing statistical methods for estimating expression do not take this into account and are thus prone to producing inflated estimates. We propose a method, Multi-Mapping Bayesian Gene eXpression (MMBGX), which disaggregates the signal at ‘multi-match’ probes. When applied to Gene arrays, MMBGX removes the upward bias of gene-level expression estimates. When applied to Exon arrays, it can further disaggregate the signal between alternative transcripts of the same gene, providing expression estimates of individual splice variants. We demonstrate the performance of MMBGX on simulated data and a tissue mixture data set. We then show that MMBGX can estimate the expression of alternative isoforms within one experimental condition, confirming our results by RT-PCR. Finally, we show that our method for detecting differential splicing has a lower error rate than standard exon-level approaches on a previously validated colon cancer data set.
Choroideremia (CHM) is an X-linked degeneration of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), photoreceptors, and choroid, caused by loss of function of the CHM/REP1 gene. REP1 is involved in lipid modification (prenylation) of Rab GTPases, key regulators of intracellular vesicular transport and organelle dynamics. To study the pathogenesis of CHM and to develop a model for assessing gene therapy, we have created a conditional mouse knockout of the Chm gene. Heterozygous-null females exhibit characteristic hallmarks of CHM: progressive degeneration of the photoreceptors, patchy depigmentation of the RPE, and Rab prenylation defects. Using tamoxifen-inducible and tissue-specific Cre expression in combination with floxed Chm alleles, we show that CHM pathogenesis involves independently triggered degeneration of photoreceptors and the RPE, associated with different subsets of defective Rabs.
Notch signaling plays a fundamental role in determining the outcome of differentiation processes in many tissues. Notch signaling has been implicated in T versus B cell lineage commitment, thymic differentiation, and bone marrow hematopoietic precursor renewal and differentiation. Notch receptors and their ligands are also expressed on the surface of mature lymphocytes and APCs, but the effects of Notch signaling in the peripheral immune system remain poorly defined. The aim of the studies reported here was to investigate the effects of signaling through the Notch receptor using a ligand of the Delta-like family. We show that Notch ligation in the mature immune system markedly decreases responses to transplantation antigens. Constitutive expression of Delta-like 1 on alloantigen-bearing cells renders them nonimmunogenic and able to induce specific unresponsiveness to a challenge with the same alloantigen, even in the form of a cardiac allograft. These effects could be reversed by depletion of CD8+ cells at the time of transplantation. Ligation of Notch on splenic CD8+ cells results in a dramatic decrease in IFN-γ with a concomitant enhancement of IL-10 production, suggesting that Notch signaling can alter the differentiation potential of CD8+ cells. These data implicate Notch signaling in regulation of peripheral immunity and suggest a novel approach for manipulating deleterious immune responses.
We have generated mice lacking the gene for beta interferon and report that they are highly susceptible to vaccinia virus infection. Furthermore, in cultured embryo fibroblasts, viral induction of alpha interferon and of 2-5A synthetase genes is impaired. We also show that beta interferon does not prime its own expression.
Chaos and oscillations continue to capture the interest of both the scientific and public domains. Yet despite the importance of these qualitative features, most attempts at constructing mathematical models of such phenomena have taken an indirect, quantitative approach, for example, by fitting models to a finite number of data points. Here we develop a qualitative inference framework that allows us to both reverse-engineer and design systems exhibiting these and other dynamical behaviours by directly specifying the desired characteristics of the underlying dynamical attractor. This change in perspective from quantitative to qualitative dynamics, provides fundamental and new insights into the properties of dynamical systems.
Modelling of chaos and oscillations is usually done indirectly and quantitatively by fitting models to a finite number of data-points. Here, a qualitative framework is developed where the characteristics of the underlying dynamical system are directly specified, revealing new properties of such systems.
The recruitment and migration of macrophages and neutrophils is an important process during the early stages of the innate immune system in response to acute injury. Transgenic pu.1:EGFP zebrafish permit the acquisition of leukocyte migration trajectories during inflammation. Currently, these high-quality live-imaging data are mainly analysed using general statistics, for example, cell velocity. Here, we present a spatio-temporal analysis of the cell dynamics using transition matrices, which provide information of the type of cell migration. We find evidence that leukocytes exhibit types of migratory behaviour, which differ from previously described random walk processes. Dimethyl sulfoxide treatment decreased the level of persistence at early time points after wounding and ablated temporal dependencies observed in untreated embryos. We then use pharmacological inhibition of p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase mitogen-activated protein kinases to determine their effects on in vivo leukocyte migration patterns and discuss how they modify the characteristics of the cell migration process. In particular, we find that their respective inhibition leads to decreased and increased levels of persistent motion in leukocytes following wounding. This example shows the high level of information content, which can be gained from live-imaging data if appropriate statistical tools are used.
immune signalling; multi-scale analysis; systems biology