Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-activated gene, NAG-1, a transforming growth factor-β member, is involved in tumor progression and development. The association between NAG-1 expression and development and progression of glioma has not been well defined. Glioblastoma cell lines have lower basal expression of NAG-1 than other gliomas and normal astrocytes. Most primary human gliomas have very low levels of NAG-1 expression. NAG-1 basal expression appeared to inversely correlate with tumor grade in glioma. Aberrant promoter hypermethylation is a common mechanism for silencing of tumor suppressor genes in cancer cells. In glioblastoma cell lines, NAG-1 expression was increased by the demethylating agent, 5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine. To investigate whether the NAG-1 gene was silenced by hypermethylation in glioblastoma, we examined DNA methylation status using genomic bisulfite sequencing. The NAG-1 promoter was densely methylated in several glioblastoma cell lines as well as in primary oligodendroglioma tumor samples, which have low basal expression of NAG-1. DNA methylation at two specific sites (−53 and +55 CpG sites) in the NAG-1 promoter was strongly associated with low NAG-1 expression. The methylation of the NAG-1 promoter at the −53 site blocks Egr-1 binding and thereby suppresses Nag-1 induction. Treatment of cells with low basal NAG-1 expression with NAG-1 inducer also did not increase NAG-1. Incubation with a demethylation chemical increased Nag-1 basal expression and subsequent incubation with a NAG-1 inducer increased NAG-1 expression. We concluded from these data that methylation of specific promoter sequences causes transcriptional silencing of the NAG-1 locus in glioma and may ultimately contribute to tumor progression.
NAG-1; GDF15; glioblastoma; DNA methylation
Mastermind-like 1 (MAML1) is a transcriptional co-activator in the Notch signaling pathway. Recently, however, several reports revealed novel and unique roles for MAML1 that are independent of the Notch signaling pathway. We found that MAML1 enhances the transcriptional activity of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), a transcription factor essential for osteoblastic differentiation and chondrocyte proliferation and maturation. MAML1 significantly enhanced the Runx2-mediated transcription of the p6OSE2-Luc reporter, in which luciferase expression was controlled by six copies of the osteoblast specific element 2 (OSE2) from the Runx2-regulated osteocalcin gene promoter. Interestingly, a deletion mutant of MAML1 lacking the N-terminal Notch-binding domain also enhanced Runx2-mediated transcription. Moreover, inhibition of Notch signaling did not affect the action of MAML1 on Runx2, suggesting that the activation of Runx2 by MAML1 may be caused in a Notch-independent manner. Overexpression of MAML1 transiently enhanced the Runx2-mediated expression of alkaline phosphatase, an early marker of osteoblast differentiation, in the murine pluripotent mesenchymal cell line C3H10T1/2. MAML1−/− embryos at embryonic day 16.5 (E16.5) had shorter bone lengths than wild-type embryos. The area of primary spongiosa of the femoral diaphysis was narrowed. At E14.5, extended zone of collagen type II alpha 1 (Col2a1) and Sox9 expression, markers of chondrocyte differentiation, and decreased zone of collagen type X alpha 1 (Col10a1) expression, a marker of hypertrophic chondrocyte, were observed. These observations suggest that chondrocyte maturation was impaired in MAML1−/− mice. MAML1 enhances the transcriptional activity of Runx2 and plays a role in bone development.
To identify new molecules involved in bone and cartilage development and/or homeostasis, we utilized approximately 10,000 arrayed and addressable cDNA clones, which allowed systematic, efficient, and unbiased screening of cDNAs encoding factors that could activate critical bone differentiation activity via activation of Runx2, master regulator of bone development. We analyzed MAML1−/− mice to investigate the role of MAML1 in bone development. MAML1−/− embryos at embryonic day 14.5 and 16.5 had shorter bone lengths than wild-type embryos. The area of primary spongiosa of the femoral diaphysis was narrowed, indicated that chondrocyte maturation was impaired. This revealed that MAML1 plays an important role in proper bone development and may provide us with a new basis for identifying potential therapeutic targets for bone diseases.
In this article, the first isolation of Mycobacterium kyorinense specimens in Brazil is described. M. kyorinense is a recently identified species, with a few strains reported only in Japan. The Brazilian isolates were initially identified as Mycobacterium celatum by PCR restriction enzyme pattern analysis (PRA) with hsp65. However, biochemical tests indicated the same profile of M. kyorinense and distinguished them from M. celatum and Mycobacterium branderi. The sequencing of the hsp65, rpoB, and 16S rRNA genes allowed the accurate identification of isolates as M. kyorinense.
This report describes a case of rectal cancer with endoscopically observable white nodules caused by distal intramural lymphatic spread. A 57-year-old female presented to our hospital with frequent diarrhea and hemorrhoids. Computed tomography showed bilateral ovarian masses and three hepatic tumors diagnosed as rectal cancer metastases, and also showed multiple lymph node involvement. The patient was preoperatively diagnosed with stage IV rectal cancer. Colonoscopy demonstrated that primary rectal cancer existed 15 cm from the anal verge and that there were multiple white small nodules on the anal side of the primary tumor extending to the dentate line. Biopsies of the white spots were performed, and they were identified as adenocarcinoma. The patient underwent Hartmann’s procedure because of the locally advanced primary tumor. The white nodules were ultimately diagnosed as being caused by intramural lymphatic spreading because lymphatic permeation was strongly positive at the surrounding area. Small white nodules near a primary rectal cancer should be suspected of being intramural spreading. Endoscopic detection of white nodules may be useful for the diagnosis of distal intramural spread.
Rectal cancer; White nodule; Intramural spread; Lymphatic permeation
The TNFAIP3 gene, which encodes a ubiquitin-modifying enzyme (A20) involved in the negative regulation of NF-κB signaling, is frequently inactivated by gene deletions/mutations in a variety of B-cell malignancies. However, the detection of this in primary Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) specimens is hampered by the scarcity of Hodgkin Reed-Sternberg (HR-S) cells even after enrichment by micro-dissection.
We used anti-CD30 immunofluorescence with fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) to evaluate the relative number of TNFAIP3/CEP6 double-positive signals in CD30-positive cells.
From a total of 47 primary classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) specimens, 44 were evaluable. We found that the relative numbers of TNFAIP3/CD30 cells were distributed among three groups, corresponding to those having homozygous (11%), heterozygous (32%), and no (57%) deletions in TNFAIP3. This shows that TNFAIP3 deletions could be sensitively detected using our chosen methods.
Comparing the results with mutation analysis, TNFAIP3 inactivation was shown to have escaped detection in many samples with homozygous deletions. This suggests that TNFAIP3 inactivation in primary cHL specimens might be more frequent than previously reported.
FICTION analysis; Hodgkin lymphoma; TNFAIP3 gene; Homozygous deletion
In this study, we investigated the correlation between the microbiological characteristics of Clostridium difficile clinical isolates and the recurrence of C. difficile-associated disease (CDAD). Twenty C. difficile isolates recovered from 20 single infection cases and 53 isolates from 20 recurrent cases were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and PCR ribotyping, and the cytotoxicity, antimicrobial susceptibility, and sporulation/germination rates of the isolates were examined. Recurrent cases were divided into relapse or reinfection cases by the results of C. difficile DNA typing. Among the 20 recurrent cases, 16 cases (80%) were identified to be relapse cases caused by the initial strain and the remaining 4 cases (20%) were identified to be reinfection cases caused by different strains. All 73 isolates were susceptible to both vancomycin and metronidazole, but resistance against clindamycin, ceftriaxone, erythromycin, and ciprofloxacin was found in 87.7%, 93.2%, 87.7%, and 100% of the isolates, respectively. No correlations between DNA typing group, cytotoxicity, and sporulation rate of isolates and infection status, i.e., single, relapse, or reinfection, were observed. However, the isolates recovered from relapse cases showed a significantly higher germination rate when incubated in medium lacking the germination stimulant sodium taurocholate. These results indicate that the germination ability of C. difficile may be a potential risk factor for the recurrence of CDAD.
To improve the biodegradation of biodegradable plastic (BP) mulch films, 1227 fungal strains were isolated from plant surface (phylloplane) and evaluated for BP-degrading ability. Among them, B47-9 a strain isolated from the leaf surface of barley showed the strongest ability to degrade poly-(butylene succinate-co-butylene adipate) (PBSA) and poly-(butylene succinate) (PBS) films. The strain grew on the surface of soil-mounted BP films, produced breaks along the direction of hyphal growth indicated that it secreted a BP-degrading enzyme, and has directly contributing to accelerating the degradation of film. Treatment with the culture filtrate decomposed 91.2 wt%, 23.7 wt%, and 14.6 wt% of PBSA, PBS, and commercially available BP polymer blended mulch film, respectively, on unsterlized soil within 6 days. The PCR-DGGE analysis of the transition of soil microbial community during film degradation revealed that the process was accompanied with drastic changes in the population of soil fungi and Acantamoeba spp., as well as the growth of inoculated strain B47-9. It has a potential for application in the development of an effective method for accelerating degradation of used plastics under actual field conditions.
Biodegradable plastic; Leaf surface; Phylloplane fungi; Mulch film; PCR-DGGE
Three novel 1-alkyldaphnane-type diterpenes, stelleralides A–C (4–6), and five known compounds were isolated from the roots of Stellera chamaejasme L. The structures of 4–6 were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses. Several isolated compounds showed potent anti-HIV activity. Compound 4 showed extremely potent anti-HIV activity (EC90 0.40 nM) with the lowest cytotoxicity (IC50 4.3 μM), and appears to be a promising compound for development into anti-AIDS clinical trial candidates.
Cell migration is a critical cellular process that determines embryonic development and the progression of human diseases. Therefore, cell- or context-specific mechanisms by which multiple promigratory proteins differentially regulate cell migration must be analyzed in detail. Girdin (girders of actin filaments) (also termed GIV, Gα-interacting vesicle associated protein) is an actin-binding protein that regulates migration of various cells such as endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, neuroblasts, and cancer cells. Here we show that Girdin regulates the establishment of cell polarity, the deregulation of which may result in the disruption of directional cell migration. We found that Girdin interacts with Par-3, a scaffolding protein that is a component of the Par protein complex that has an established role in determining cell polarity. RNA interference-mediated depletion of Girdin leads to impaired polarization of fibroblasts and mammary epithelial cells in a way similar to that observed in Par-3-depleted cells. Accordingly, the expression of Par-3 mutants unable to interact with Girdin abrogates cell polarization in fibroblasts. Further biochemical analysis suggests that Girdin is present in the Par protein complex that includes Par-3, Par-6, and atypical protein kinase C. Considering previous reports showing the role of Girdin in the directional migration of neuroblasts, network formation of endothelial cells, and cancer invasion, these data may provide a specific mechanism by which Girdin regulates cell movement in biological contexts that require directional cell movement.
Laparoscopic surgery for colorectal disease has become widespread as a minimally invasive treatment. This is important because the increasing availability of new devices allows us to perform procedures with a reduced length of surgery and decreased blood loss. We herein report the results of a literature review of energy sources for laparoscopic colorectal surgery, focused especially on 6 studies comparing ultrasonic coagulating shears (UCS) and other instruments. We also describe our laparoscopic dissection techniques using UCS for colorectal cancer. The short-term outcomes of surgeries using UCS and Ligasure for laparoscopic colorectal surgery were superior to conventional electrosurgery. Some authors have reported that the length of surgery or blood loss when Ligasure was used for laparoscopic colorectal surgery is less than when UCS was used. On the other hand, a recent study demonstrated that there were no significant differences between the short-term outcomes of UCS and Ligasure for laparoscopic colorectal surgery. It is therefore suggested that the choice of technique used should be made according to the surgeon’s preference. We also describe our laparoscopic dissection techniques using UCS (Harmonic ACE) for colorectal cancer with regard to the retroperitoneum dissection, dissection technique, dissection technique around the feeding artery, and various other dissection techniques. We therefore review the outcomes of using various energy sources for laparoscopic colorectal surgery and describe our laparoscopic dissection techniques with UCS (Harmonic ACE) for colorectal cancer.
Laparoscopic surgery; Ultrasonic coagulating shears; Harmonic Scalpel; Ligasure; Colon and rectum; Dissection technique
The capacity of white-rot fungi to degrade wood lignin may be highly applicable to the development of novel bioreactor systems, but the mechanisms underlying this function are not yet fully understood. Lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP), which are thought to be very important for the ligninolytic property, demonstrated increased activity in Phanerochaete chrysosporium RP-78 (FGSC #9002, ATCC MYA-4764™) cultures following exposure to 5 mM cyclic adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate (cAMP) and 500 μM 3'-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), a phosphodiesterase inhibitor. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis revealed that transcription of most LiP and MnP isozyme genes was statistically significantly upregulated in the presence of the cAMP and IBMX compared to the untreated condition. However, 100 μM calmodulin (CaM) inhibitor N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfonamide (W-7), which had insignificant effects on fungal growth and intracellular cAMP concentration, not only offset the increased activity and transcription induced by the drugs, but also decreased them to below basal levels. Like the isozyme genes, transcription of the CaM gene (cam) was also upregulated by cAMP and IBMX. These results suggest that cAMP signaling functions to increase the transcription of LiP and MnP through the induction of cam transcription.
Phanerochaete chrysosporium; cAMP signaling; Calmodulin signaling; Lignin peroxidase; Manganese peroxidase
The microtubule plus end regulator EB1 brings Sentin and possibly a microtubule polymerase to microtubule plus ends to promote microtubule dynamics.
Highly conserved EB1 family proteins bind to the growing ends of microtubules, recruit multiple cargo proteins, and are critical for making dynamic microtubules in vivo. However, it is unclear how these master regulators of microtubule plus ends promote microtubule dynamics. In this paper, we identify a novel EB1 cargo protein, Sentin. Sentin depletion in Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells, similar to EB1 depletion, resulted in an increase in microtubule pausing and led to the formation of shorter spindles, without displacing EB1 from growing microtubules. We demonstrate that Sentin’s association with EB1 was critical for its plus end localization and function. Furthermore, the EB1 phenotype was rescued by expressing an EBN-Sentin fusion protein in which the C-terminal cargo-binding region of EB1 is replaced with Sentin. Knockdown of Sentin attenuated plus end accumulation of Msps (mini spindles), the orthologue of XMAP215 microtubule polymerase. These results indicate that EB1 promotes dynamic microtubule behavior by recruiting the cargo protein Sentin and possibly also a microtubule polymerase to the microtubule tip.
The use of biodegradable plastics can reduce the accumulation of environmentally persistent plastic wastes. The rate of degradation of biodegradable plastics depends on environmental conditions and is highly variable. Techniques for achieving more consistent degradation are needed. However, only a few microorganisms involved in the degradation process have been isolated so far from the environment. Here, we show that Pseudozyma spp. yeasts, which are common in the phyllosphere and are easily isolated from plant surfaces, displayed strong degradation activity on films made from poly-butylene succinate or poly-butylene succinate-co-adipate. Strains of P. antarctica isolated from leaves and husks of paddy rice displayed strong degradation activity on these films at 30°C. The type strain, P. antarctica JCM 10317, and Pseudozyma spp. strains from phyllosphere secreted a biodegradable plastic-degrading enzyme with a molecular mass of about 22 kDa. Reliable source of biodegradable plastic-degrading microorganisms are now in our hands.
Pseudozyma; Biodegradable plastic; Phyllosphere; Yeast
We found that Numb directly binds to p120. Numb depletion impaired E-cadherin internalization. aPKC phosphorylated Numb and inhibited its association with p120. In the Numb-depleted cells, the phosphomimetic Numb mutant failed to restore E-cadherin internalization. We propose the mode of action of Numb for intercellular adhesion downstream of aPKC.
Cadherin trafficking controls tissue morphogenesis and cell polarity. The endocytic adaptor Numb participates in apicobasal polarity by acting on intercellular adhesions in epithelial cells. However, it remains largely unknown how Numb controls cadherin-based adhesion. Here, we found that Numb directly interacted with p120 catenin (p120), which is known to interact with E-cadherin and prevent its internalization. Numb accumulated at intercellular adhesion sites and the apical membrane in epithelial cells. Depletion of Numb impaired E-cadherin internalization, whereas depletion of p120 accelerated internalization. Expression of the Numb-binding fragment of p120 inhibited E-cadherin internalization in a dominant-negative fashion, indicating that Numb interacts with the E-cadherin/p120 complex and promotes E-cadherin endocytosis. Impairment of Numb induced mislocalization of E-cadherin from the lateral membrane to the apical membrane. Atypical protein kinase C (aPKC), a member of the PAR complex, phosphorylated Numb and inhibited its association with p120 and α-adaptin. Depletion or inhibition of aPKC accelerated E-cadherin internalization. Wild-type Numb restored E-cadherin internalization in the Numb-depleted cells, whereas a phosphomimetic mutant or a mutant with defective α-adaptin-binding ability did not restore the internalization. Thus, we propose that aPKC phosphorylates Numb to prevent its binding to p120 and α-adaptin, thereby attenuating E-cadherin endocytosis to maintain apicobasal polarity.
The purpose of this study is to develop wearable sensor system for gait evaluation using gyroscopes and accelerometers for application to rehabilitation, healthcare and so on. In this paper, simultaneous measurement of joint angles of lower limbs and stride length was tested with a prototype of wearable sensor system. The system measured the joint angles using the Kalman filter. Signals from the sensor attached on the foot were used in the stride length estimation detecting foot movement automatically. Joint angles of the lower limbs were measured with stable and reasonable accuracy compared to those values measured with optical motion measurement system with healthy subjects. It was expected that the stride length measurement with the wearable sensor system would be practical by realizing more stable measurement accuracy. Sensor attachment position was suggested not to affect significantly measurement of slow and normal speed movements in a test with the rigid body model. Joint angle patterns measured in 10 m walking with a healthy subject were similar to common patterns. High correlation between joint angles at some characteristic points and stride velocity were also found adequately. These results suggested that the wireless wearable inertial sensor system could detect characteristics of gait.
Tumour budding formed by histologically undifferentiated cancer cells beyond the border of the tumour margin is associated with lymph node metastasis. However, hollow tumour nests, a possible histologically advanced phenotype of tumour budding, have not been discussed. We examined whether hollow spheroids exist beyond the border of the invasive margin and are associated with metastasis and prognosis. Moreover, we suggest that carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) isoform balance is associated with hollow spheroid formation.
Immunohistochemical analyses with CEACAM1 and M30 as an apoptosis marker were performed to examine the importance of hollow spheroid CEACAM1 expression and central cell apoptosis in hollow spheroid formation. The correlations between the presence of hollow spheroids beyond the invasive margin and the clinicopathological characteristics of 314 patients with colorectal cancer were retrospectively evaluated. A 3D culture with colorectal cancer cells transfected with CEACAM1 cDNA or shRNA was used to determine whether CEACAM1 isoform balance controls colorectal hollow spheroid formation.
Hollow spheroid formation accompanying central cell apoptosis was confirmed by M30 staining and serial section with CEACAM1 staining. Of the 314 patients, 96 (30.4%) were classified as having hollow spheroids. The presence of hollow spheroids is an independent risk factor for metastases and shorter survival. In 3D culture, CEACAM1 isoform balance modulated hollow spheroid formation of colorectal cancer cells.
Hollow spheroid formation beyond the border of the tumour margin in colorectal cancer is more important than tumour budding for the prediction of malignant potential.
We examine whether hollow spheroids formed by polarised luminal cells with an inner empty space exist beyond the tumour margin in colorectal cancer tissue, and whether the presence of hollow spheroids correlates with metastasis and poor prognosis.
We investigate the role of CEACAM1 in hollow spheroid formation.
The presence of hollow spheroids beyond the invasive margin of colorectal cancer is an independent risk factor for metastases and shorter survival.
CEACAM1 isoform balance can modulate hollow spheroid formation.
Strength and limitations of this study
This is the first report on the existence and clinical implications of hollow spheroids beyond the invasive margin of colorectal cancer.
A validation study is needed for address the implications of hollow spheroids for colorectal cancer malignancy.
EP4 expression in human glioblastoma cells correlates with growth on soft agar. The cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor, sulindac sulfide, first altered specificity protein-1 (Sp-1) and, early growth response gene-1 (Egr1) expression, then increased the expression of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-activated gene-1 (NAG-1) and activating transcription factor-3 (ATF3), and then decreased EP4 expression. EP4 suppression was dependent on blocking the Sp-1 binding sites in the human EP4 promoter. Mutation in the Sp-1 sites in EP4 altered the promoter activity and abolished sulindac sulfide effects. The inhibitory effect of sulindac sulfide on EP4 expression was reversed by PD98059, an MEK-1/Erk inhibitor. Sp-1 phosphorylation was dependent on sulindac sulfide-induced Erk activation. ChIP assay confirmed that Sp-1 phosphorylation decreases Sp-1 binding to DNA and leads to the suppression of EP4. Inhibition of cell growth on soft agar assay was found to be a highly complex process and appears to require not only the inhibition of COX activity but also increased expression of NAG-1 and ATF3 and suppression of EP4 expression. Our data suggest that the suppression of EP4 expression by sulindac sulfide represents a new mechanism for understanding the tumor suppressor activity.
Sp-1 phosphorylation; Cox-1/2; NAG-1/Gdf15; Egr-1
Secondary immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) associated with extranodal B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) is extremely rare. The optimal management is not established. We report a first case of ITP in association with extranodal B-cell NHL originating in the lower petroclival region, successfully managed by local tumor control using conventional radiotherapy.
A 75-year-old man presented with a two-month history of hearing loss, hoarseness, and dysphagia. Neuroimaging revealed a large enhanced lesion in the left lower petroclival bone near the jugular foramen. Isolated unilateral parotid lymphadenopathy was also noted. Preoperative laboratory findings were normal, except for elevation of serum soluble interleukin-2 receptor level. A suboccipital craniotomy was performed and a biopsy sample was taken. Histological and immunohistochemical examination confirmed small B-cell lymphoma with plasmacytic differentiation. After initiation of radiotherapy, thrombocytopenia (24,000/µl) rapidly developed. Serological and bone marrow examination confirmed ITP. Prednisone was given at 1 mg/kg/day and radiation therapy was continued. After more than 32Gy, platelet count rapidly normalized. Radiotherapy to the tumor site achieved local tumor control and ITP was resolved. No evidence of recurrence and normal platelet count were confirmed at the two-year follow-up examination.
Local control of the tumor was considered important in the resolution of secondary ITP in association with extranodal NHL of the skull base region.
B-cell lymphoma; immune thrombocytopenic purpura; radiotherapy; skull base
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is up-regulated in most high-grade gliomas, and high COX-2 expression is associated with aggressive character and poor prognosis. However, the effect of COX-2 in human glioma cell lines is not well known. This study examined the effect of several stimuli, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and carcinogens, on COX-2 induction in normal astrocyte cells and human glioma cell lines U87MG, A172, and T98G. IL-1β-induced COX-2 expression strongly at both protein and messenger ribonucleic acid levels in only the U87MG cells of the glioma cell lines. Furthermore, carcinogen induced COX-2 expression. Similar findings were also observed in normal human astrocyte cells. The U87MG glioma cell line is a good model for COX-2 induction in glioma cell lines.
cyclooxygenase-2; interleukin-1 beta; glioma
The selenomethionyl-substituted transpeptidase domain of penicillin-binding protein (PBP) 2B from S. pneumoniae was isolated from a limited proteolysis digest of the soluble form of recombinant PBP 2B and then crystallized. MAD data were collected to 2.4 Å resolution.
Penicillin-binding protein (PBP) 2B from Streptococcus pneumoniae catalyzes the cross-linking of peptidoglycan precursors that occurs during bacterial cell-wall biosynthesis. A selenomethionyl (SeMet) substituted PBP 2B transpeptidase domain was isolated from a limited proteolysis digest of a soluble form of recombinant PBP 2B and then crystallized. The crystals belonged to space group P43212, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 86.39, c = 143.27 Å. Diffraction data were collected to 2.4 Å resolution using the BL32B2 beamline at SPring-8. The asymmetric unit contains one protein molecule and 63.7% solvent.
antibiotics; β-lactams; peptidoglycan synthesis; cell wall
Lung cancers are the most common type of human malignancy and are intractable. Lung cancers are generally classified into four histopathological subtypes: adenocarcinoma (AD), squamous cell carcinoma (SQ), large cell carcinoma (LC), and small cell carcinoma (SC). Molecular biological characterization of these subtypes has been performed mainly using DNA microarrays. In this study, we compared the gene expression profiles of these four subtypes using twelve human lung cancer cell lines and the more reliable quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR).
We selected 100 genes from public DNA microarray data and examined them by DNA microarray analysis in eight test cell lines (A549, ABC-1, EBC-1, LK-2, LU65, LU99, STC 1, RERF-LC-MA) and a normal control lung cell line (MRC-9). From this, we extracted 19 candidate genes. We quantified the expression of the 19 genes and a housekeeping gene, GAPDH, with qPCR, using the same eight cell lines plus four additional validation lung cancer cell lines (RERF-LC-MS, LC-1/sq, 86-2, and MS-1-L). Finally, we characterized the four subtypes of lung cancer cell lines using principal component analysis (PCA) of gene expression profiling for 12 of the 19 genes (AMY2A, CDH1, FOXG1, IGSF3, ISL1, MALL, PLAU, RAB25, S100P, SLCO4A1, STMN1, and TGM2). The combined PCA and gene pathway analyses suggested that these genes were related to cell adhesion, growth, and invasion. S100P in AD cells and CDH1 in AD and SQ cells were identified as candidate markers of these lung cancer subtypes based on their upregulation and the results of PCA analysis. Immunohistochemistry for S100P and RAB25 was closely correlated to gene expression.
These results show that the four subtypes, represented by 12 lung cancer cell lines, were well characterized using qPCR and PCA for the 12 genes examined. Certain genes, in particular S100P and CDH1, may be especially important for distinguishing the different subtypes. Our results confirm that qPCR and PCA analysis provide a useful tool for characterizing cancer cell subtypes, and we discuss the possible clinical applications of this approach.
A hemangiopericytoma is a rare, soft-tissue tumor of vascular origin derived from a pericyte of Zimmerman, which is a modified smooth muscle cell that surrounds the small blood vessels. Hemangiopericytomas can occur wherever there are vascular capillaries. However, there are no previous reports of a hemangiopericytoma in the sacrococcygeal space.
We describe the first reported case of a hemangiopericytoma found in the sacrococcygeal space. A 47-year-old Japanese woman presented with a palpable tumor on the left side of her anus. Preoperative imaging indicated that the tumor was in the sacrococcygeal space without invasion of other organs. A complete resection was performed via a parasacral incision. The histological and immunohistochemical staining patterns supported the diagnosis of a hemangiopericytoma.
A complete resection without piecemeal excision is the best way to treat a hemangiopericytoma. Recognizing the presence of a hemangiopericytoma in the sacrococcygeal space requires appropriate surgery.
Tiam1 and Tiam2 (Tiam1/2) are guanine nucleotide-exchange factors that possess the PH–CC–Ex (pleckstrin homology, coiled coil and extra) region that mediates binding to plasma membranes and signalling proteins in the activation of Rac GTPases. Crystal structures of the PH–CC–Ex regions revealed a single globular domain, PHCCEx domain, comprising a conventional PH subdomain associated with an antiparallel coiled coil of CC subdomain and a novel three-helical globular Ex subdomain. The PH subdomain resembles the β-spectrin PH domain, suggesting non-canonical phosphatidylinositol binding. Mutational and binding studies indicated that CC and Ex subdomains form a positively charged surface for protein binding. We identified two unique acidic sequence motifs in Tiam1/2-interacting proteins for binding to PHCCEx domain, Motif-I in CD44 and ephrinB's and the NMDA receptor, and Motif-II in Par3 and JIP2. Our results suggest the molecular basis by which the Tiam1/2 PHCCEx domain facilitates dual binding to membranes and signalling proteins.
CD44; GEF; GTPase; Par3; Rac
The present study assessed problems in Japanese prisoners (inmates) who abused methamphetamine. Fifty-two male inmates were assessed in 2005–2007 using the Addiction Severity Index-Japanese version and compared with 55 male methamphetamine abusers in hospitals and recovery centers. The χ2 and Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon tests showed that the inmates had a significantly lower education level, more frequently had full-time jobs, had more experience living with a sexual partner, and more frequently had a history of juvenile delinquency and criminal records than patients. Although psychiatric symptoms, such as depression, anxiety, and hallucinations, were not common among inmates, suicidal behavior and trouble controlling violence were common in both groups.
methamphetamine; Addiction Severity Index; Japanese; prison; correctional facilities
Epithelia form physical barriers that separate the internal milieu of the body from its external environment. The biogenesis of functional epithelia requires the precise coordination of many cellular processes. One of the key events in epithelial biogenesis is the establishment of cadherin-dependent cell–cell contacts, which initiate morphological changes and the formation of other adhesive structures. Cadherin-mediated adhesions generate intracellular signals that control cytoskeletal reorganization, polarity, and vesicle trafficking. Among such signaling pathways, those involving small GTPases play critical roles in epithelial biogenesis. Assembly of E-cadherin activates several small GTPases and, in turn, the activated small GTPases control the effects of E-cadherin-mediated adhesions on epithelial biogenesis. Here, we focus on small GTPase signaling at E-cadherin-mediated epithelial junctions.
Small GTPases play essential roles in formation of epithelia, activating feedback mechanisms that regulate the strength of cadherin-based cell contacts.