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1.  An MSH4 Homolog, stpp1, from Pleurotus pulmonarius Is a “Silver Bullet” for Resolving Problems Caused by Spores in Cultivated Mushrooms 
Applied and Environmental Microbiology  2013;79(15):4520-4527.
The enormous number of spores produced by fruiting bodies during cultivation of mushrooms can lead to allergic reactions of workers, reduction of commercial value, spread of mushroom disease, pollution of facilities, and depletion of genetic diversity in natural populations. A cultivar harboring a sporulation-deficient (sporeless) mutation would be very useful for preventing these problems, but sporeless commercial cultivars are very limited in usefulness because sporeless traits are often linked with traits that are unfavorable for commercial cultivation. Thus, identifying a causal gene of a sporeless phenotype not linked to the adverse traits in breeding and cultivation is crucial for the establishment of sporeless breeding using a strategy employing targeting induced local lesions in genomes (TILLING) in cultivated mushrooms. We used a Pleurotus pulmonarius (Fr.) Quél. sporeless strain to identify and characterize the single recessive gene controlling the mutation. The 3,853-bp stpp1 gene encodes a protein of 854 amino acids and belongs to the MutS homolog (MSH) family associated with mismatch repair in DNA synthesis or recombination in meiosis. Gene expression analysis of the fruiting body showed that this gene is strongly expressed in the gills. Phenotypic analysis of disruptants formed by gene targeting suggested a reproducible sporeless phenotype. Mutants deficient in a functional copy of this gene have no unfavorable traits for sporeless cultivar breeding, so this gene will be an extremely useful target for efficient and versatile sporeless breeding in P. pulmonarius and various other cultivated mushrooms.
PMCID: PMC3719512  PMID: 23666334
2.  A calmodulin inhibitor, W-7 influences the effect of cyclic adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate signaling on ligninolytic enzyme gene expression in Phanerochaete chrysosporium 
AMB Express  2012;2:7.
The capacity of white-rot fungi to degrade wood lignin may be highly applicable to the development of novel bioreactor systems, but the mechanisms underlying this function are not yet fully understood. Lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP), which are thought to be very important for the ligninolytic property, demonstrated increased activity in Phanerochaete chrysosporium RP-78 (FGSC #9002, ATCC MYA-4764™) cultures following exposure to 5 mM cyclic adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate (cAMP) and 500 μM 3'-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), a phosphodiesterase inhibitor. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis revealed that transcription of most LiP and MnP isozyme genes was statistically significantly upregulated in the presence of the cAMP and IBMX compared to the untreated condition. However, 100 μM calmodulin (CaM) inhibitor N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfonamide (W-7), which had insignificant effects on fungal growth and intracellular cAMP concentration, not only offset the increased activity and transcription induced by the drugs, but also decreased them to below basal levels. Like the isozyme genes, transcription of the CaM gene (cam) was also upregulated by cAMP and IBMX. These results suggest that cAMP signaling functions to increase the transcription of LiP and MnP through the induction of cam transcription.
PMCID: PMC3275468  PMID: 22273182
Phanerochaete chrysosporium; cAMP signaling; Calmodulin signaling; Lignin peroxidase; Manganese peroxidase
3.  Mechanism for Oxidation of High-Molecular-Weight Substrates by a Fungal Versatile Peroxidase, MnP2▿  
Unlike general peroxidases, Pleurotus ostreatus MnP2 was reported to have a unique property of direct oxidization of high-molecular-weight compounds, such as Poly R-478 and RNase A. To elucidate the mechanism for oxidation of polymeric substrates by MnP2, a series of mutant enzymes were produced by using a homologous gene expression system, and their reactivities were characterized. A mutant enzyme with an Ala substituting for an exposing Trp (W170A) drastically lost oxidation activity for veratryl alcohol (VA), Poly R-478, and RNase A, whereas the kinetic properties for Mn2+ and H2O2 were substantially unchanged. These results demonstrated that, in addition to VA, the high-molecular-weight substrates are directly oxidized by MnP2 at W170. Moreover, in the mutants Q266F and V166/168L, amino acid substitution(s) around W170 resulted in a decreased activity only for the high-molecular-weight substrates. These results, along with the three-dimensional modeling of the mutants, suggested that the mutations caused a steric hindrance to access of the polymeric substrates to W170. Another mutant, R263N, contained a newly generated N glycosylation site and showed a higher molecular mass in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis. Interestingly, the R263N mutant exhibited an increased reactivity with VA and high-molecular-weight substrates. The existence of an additional carbohydrate modification and the catalytic properties in this mutant are discussed. This is the first study of a direct mechanism for oxidation of high-molecular-weight substrates by a fungal peroxidase using a homologous gene expression system.
PMCID: PMC2394877  PMID: 18326680

Results 1-3 (3)