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author:("Li, wenbit")
1.  Linkage analysis of plasma dopamine β-hydroxylase activity in families of patients with schizophrenia 
Human genetics  2011;130(5):635-643.
Dopamine β-hydroxylase (DβH) catalyzes the conversion of dopamine to norepinephrine. DβH enters the plasma after vesicular release from sympathetic neurons and the adrenal medulla. Plasma DβH activity (pDβH) varies widely among individuals, and genetic inheritance regulates that variation. Linkage studies suggested strong linkage of pDβH to ABO on 9q34, and positive evidence for linkage to the complement fixation locus on 19p13.2-13.3. Subsequent association studies strongly supported DBH, which maps adjacent to ABO, as the locus regulating a large proportion of the heritable variation in pDβH. Prior studies have suggested that variation in pDβH, or genetic variants at DβH, associate with differences in expression of psychotic symptoms in patients with schizophrenia and other idiopathic or drug-induced brain disorders, suggesting that DBH might be a genetic modifier of psychotic symptoms. As a first step toward investigating that hypothesis, we performed linkage analysis on pDβH in patients with schizophrenia and their relatives. The results strongly confirm linkage of markers at DBH to pDβH under several models (maximum multipoint LOD score, 6.33), but find no evidence to support linkage anywhere on chromosome 19. Accounting for the contributions to the linkage signal of three SNPs at DBH, rs1611115, rs1611122, and rs6271 reduced but did not eliminate the linkage peak, whereas accounting for all SNPs near DBH eliminated the signal entirely. Analysis of markers genome-wide uncovered positive evidence for linkage between markers at chromosome 20p12 (multi-point LOD = 3.1 at 27.2 cM). The present results provide the first direct evidence for linkage between DBH and pDβH, suggest that rs1611115, rs1611122, rs6271 and additional unidentified variants at or near DBH contribute to the genetic regulation of pDβH, and suggest that a locus near 20p12 also influences pDβH.
doi:10.1007/s00439-011-0989-6
PMCID: PMC3193571  PMID: 21509519
2.  Genotype-controlled analysis of serum dopamine β-hydroxylase activity in civilian Post-traumatic Stress Disorder 
Background
Norepinephrine (NE) plays a central role in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Dopamine β-hydroxylase (DβH) converts dopamine (DA) to NE and its activity varies widely across individuals. Mustapic et al. (2007) reported a PTSD-associated deficit in serum DβH activity (sDβH) in a genotype-controlled analysis of combat veterans. We tested whether such a deficit would occur in a sample of civilians.
Methods
The severity of current adult PTSD symptoms and current DSM-IV diagnosis of PTSD were determined by the PTSD Symptom Scale (PSS). Adulthood trauma exposure was assessed using the Traumatic Experience Inventory (TEI). sDβH was assayed by HPLC with electrochemical detection and genotypes were determined using the Taqman® platform.
Results
Two hundred and twenty seven African American (AA) subjects were enrolled in this study, with a mean age (± SD) of 42.9 (±12.9) years. We found a strong association between rs1611115 genotype and sDβH (p<0.0001). After controlling for adulthood trauma exposure, there were no significant differences of sDβH between subjects who met a PTSD diagnosis and those who did not (p>0.05) in any genotype group. No significant correlations were found between sDβH and PTSD severity, but sDβH significantly associated with the status of comorbid depression based on the cutoff of HAMD (p=0.014) in subjects with PTSD.
Conclusions
We have replicated in this sample the prior finding that DBH rs1611115 genotype strongly associates with sDβH. No associations between sDβH and PTSD diagnosis or symptom severity in this civilian sample.
doi:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2010.07.002
PMCID: PMC2974949  PMID: 20621148
post-traumatic stress disorder; serum dopamine β-hydroxylase; genotype; depression; civilian trauma; association

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