Several confirmed genetic susceptibility loci involved in the interferon signaling and Th17/B cell response for SLE in Chinese Han populations have been described. Available data also indicate that sex-specific genetic differences contribute to SLE susceptibility. The aim of this study was to test for gene–gene/gene-sex epistasis (interactions) in these known lupus susceptibility loci. Six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in MiR146a, IRF5, IKZF1, ETS1 and IL21 were genotyped by Sequenom MassArray system. A total of 1,825 subjects (858 SLE patients and 967 controls) were included in the final analysis. Epistasis was tested by additive model, multiplicative model and multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) method. Additive interaction analysis revealed interactions between IRF5 and IKZF1 (OR 2.26, 95% CI 1.48–3.44 [P = 1.21×104]). A similar tendency was also observed between IL21 and ETS1 by parametric methods. In addition, multiple high dimensional gene-gene or gene-sex interactions (three-and four-way) were identified by MDR analysis. Our study identified novel gene–gene/gene-sex interactions in lupus. Furthermore, these findings highlight sex, interferon pathway, and Th17/B cells as important contributors to the pathogenesis of SLE.
The identification of malignant cells in effusions by conventional cytology is hampered by its limited sensitivity and specificity. The aim of this study was to investigate the value of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) as adjuncts to conventional cytologic examination in patients with malignant pleural effusions.
We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 93 inpatients with pleural effusions (72 malignant pleural effusions metastatic from 11 different organs and 21 benign) over 23 months. All the patients came from Chinese northeast areas. Aspirated pleural fluid underwent cytologic examination and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for aneuploidy. We used FISH in single-colour or if appropriate in dual-colour evaluation to detect chromosomal aberrations (chromosomes 7, 11, and 17) in effusion cells as markers of malignancy, to raise the diagnostic yield and identified the efficiency by diagnostic biopsy. Predominant cytogenetic anomalies and patterns of intratumor cytogenetic heterogeneity were brought in relation to overall survival rate.
Cytology alone confirmed malignant pleural effusions in 45 of 72 patients (sensitivity 63%), whereas FISH alone positively identified 48 of 72 patients (sensitivity 67%). Both tests had high specificity in predicting benign effusions. If cytology and FISH were considered together, they exhibited 88% sensitivity and 94.5% specificity in discriminating benign and malignant effusions. Combined, the two assays were more sensitive than either test alone. Although the positive predictive value of each test was 94.5%, the negative predictive value of cytology and FISH combined was 78%, better than 47% and 44% for FISH and cytology alone, respectively. There was a significantly prolonged survival rate for patients with aneuploidy for chromosome 17.
FISH in combination with conventional cytology is a highly sensitive and specific diagnostic tool for detecting malignant cells in pleural effusions . The high sensitivity and specificity may be associated with geographic area and race. Simple numeric FISH anomalies may be prognostic.
Malignant pleural effusions; FISH; Prognosis; Sensitivity; Specificity
The objective of this study was to detect cerebral potentials elicited by proximal stimulation of the first sacral (S1) nerve root at the S1 dorsal foramen and to investigate latency and amplitude of the first cerebral potential. Tibial nerve SEP and S1 nerve root SEP were obtained from 20 healthy subjects and 5 patients with unilateral sciatic nerve or tibial nerve injury. Stimulation of the S1 nerve root was performed by a needle electrode via the S1 dorsal foramen. Cerebral potentials were recorded twice to document reproducibility. Latencies and amplitudes of the first cerebral potentials were recorded. Reproducible cerebral evoked potentials were recorded and P20s were identified in 36 of 40 limbs in the healthy subjects. The mean latency of P20 was 19.8 ± 1.6 ms. The mean amplitude of P20–N30 was 1.2 ± 0.9 μV. In the five patients, P40 of tibial nerve SEP was absent, while well-defined cerebral potentials of S1 nerve root SEP were recorded and P20 was identified from the involved side. This method may be useful in detecting S1 nerve root lesion and other disorders affecting the proximal portions of somatosensory pathway. Combined with tibial nerve SEP, it may provide useful information for diagnosis of lesions affecting the peripheral nerve versus the central portion of somatosensory pathway.
Somatosensory evoked potentials; Intra-operative monitoring; S1 nerve root; Nerve root stimulation
Plasma level of total homocysteine (tHcy) is negatively correlated with kidney function in general population. However, the causal mechanism of this correlation is poorly understood. The purpose of this study is to investigate the association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T gene polymorphism, which is a major genetic determinant of the plasma tHcy level, with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in Chinese.
A total of 18 814 hypertensive patients (6 914 males, 11 900 females) were included in the study.
Association between the eGFR and MTHFR C677T genotype was examined by sex-specific regression analyses. In males, TT genotype was associated with 1.37 ml/min/1.73 m2 decrease in eGFR (p = 0.004) and with an increased risk (OR = 1.32, p = 0.008) for the lowest quintile of eGFR after adjusting for age, BMI, and blood pressures. However, such association was not observed in females (p > 0.05). This association suggests MTHFR C677T polymorphism may play a role in the regulation of eGFR in males.
MTHFR 677 T is a risk allele for decreased kidney function in Chinese males, implicating this gene in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease (CKD).
MTHFR C677T polymorphism; eGFR; CKD
Nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (n-damo), which couples the anaerobic oxidation of methane to denitrification, is a recently discovered process mediated by “Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera.” M. oxyfera is affiliated with the “NC10” phylum, a phylum having no members in pure culture. Based on the isotopic labeling experiments, it is hypothesized that M. oxyfera has an unusual intra-aerobic pathway for the production of oxygen via the dismutation of nitric oxide into dinitrogen gas and oxygen. In addition, the bacterial species has a unique ultrastructure that is distinct from that of other previously described microorganisms. M. oxyfera-like sequences have been recovered from different natural habitats, suggesting that the n-damo process potentially contributes to global carbon and nitrogen cycles. The n-damo process is a process that can reduce the greenhouse effect, as methane is more effective in heat-trapping than carbon dioxide. The n-damo process, which uses methane instead of organic matter to drive denitrification, is also an economical nitrogen removal process because methane is a relatively inexpensive electron donor. This mini-review summarizes the peculiar microbiology of M. oxyfera and discusses the potential ecological importance and engineering application of the n-damo process.
“NC10” phylum; unique ultrastructure; intra-aerobic pathway; greenhouse gas control; nitrogen removal
Cigarette smoking had been confirmed as an increased risk for dyslipidemia, but none of the evidence was from long-lived population. In present study, we detected relationship between cigarette smoking habits and serum lipid/lipoprotein (serum Triglyceride (TG), Total cholesterol (TC), Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)) among Chinese Nonagenarians/Centenarian.
The present study analyzed data from the survey that was conducted on all residents aged 90 years or more in a district, there were 2,311,709 inhabitants in 2005. Unpaired Student’s t test, χ2 test, and multiple logistic regression were used to analyze datas.
The individuals included in the statistical analysis were 216 men and 445 women. Current smokers had lower level of TC (4.05 ± 0.81 vs. 4.21 ± 0.87, t = 2.403, P = 0.017) and lower prevalence of hypercholesteremia (9.62% vs. 15.13%, χ2 = 3.018,P = 0.049) than nonsmokers. Unadjusted and adjusted multiple logistic regressions showed that cigarette smoking was not associated with risk for abnormal serum lipid/lipoprotein.
In summary, we found that among Chinese nonagenarians/centenarians, cigarette smoking habits were not associated with increased risk for dyslipidemia, which was different from the association of smoking habits with dyslipidemia in general population.
Serum lipid/lipoprotein; Cigarette smoking; Nonagenarians/Centenarians
Intervertebral disc; Bupivacaine; Cell viability; Matrix synthesis; disc organ culture; Local anesthetic
The title compound, C15H22O4, an eremophilane sesquiternoid, was isolated from the roots of Ligularia virgaurea. Both six-membered rings (A and B) adopt chair conformations and the five-membered ring is almost planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.016 Å). The two methyl and two hydroxy groups adopt a syn conformation and the A/B ring junction is cis-fused. An intramolecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bond generates an S(6) ring. In the crystal, O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the molecules into  chains.
Bambusae caulis in Liquamen (BCL), traditional herbal medicine used in East Asia, is known to have antioxidative and immune-regulating properties. We hypothesized that the potential antioxidant effects of BCL might suppress the production of thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) and macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) in human keratinocytes (HaCaT cell). The immune-regulating effect of BCL was demonstrated by antioxidant capacity using DPPH analysis and DCFH-DA analysis. We found that BCL had strong ROS scavenge effect in HaCaT cell. BCL also showed suppression of IFN-γ-induced expression of TARC and MDC, activation of NF-κB, and, moreover, significant block of IFN-γ-induced degradation and phosphorylation of IκB. However, it had no effects on phosphorylation of p38 MAPK. Collectively, these results suggest that BCL may have a therapeutic potential on skin disease such as atopic dermatitis by inhibiting Th2 chemokines which is due, at least in part, to its antioxidant capacities.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disease with a strong genetic predisposition, characterized by an upregulated type I interferon pathway. MicroRNAs are important regulators of immune homeostasis, and aberrant microRNA expression has been demonstrated in patients with autoimmune diseases. We recently identified miR-146a as a negative regulator of the interferon pathway and linked the abnormal activation of this pathway to the underexpression of miR-146a in SLE patients. To explore why the expression of miR-146a is reduced in SLE patients, we conducted short parallel sequencing of potentially regulatory regions of miR-146a and identified a novel genetic variant (rs57095329) in the promoter region exhibiting evidence for association with SLE that was replicated independently in 7,182 Asians (Pmeta = 2.74×10−8, odds ratio = 1.29 [1.18–1.40]). The risk-associated G allele was linked to reduced expression of miR-146a in the peripheral blood leukocytes of the controls. Combined functional assays showed that the risk-associated G allele reduced the protein-binding affinity and activity of the promoter compared with those of the promoter containing the protective A allele. Transcription factor Ets-1, encoded by the lupus-susceptibility gene ETS1, identified in recent genome-wide association studies, binds near this variant. The manipulation of Ets-1 levels strongly affected miR-146a promoter activity in vitro; and the knockdown of Ets-1, mimicking its reduced expression in SLE, directly impaired the induction of miR-146a. We also observed additive effects of the risk alleles of miR-146a and ETS1. Our data identified and confirmed an association between a functional promoter variant of miR-146a and SLE. This risk allele had decreased binding to transcription factor Ets-1, contributing to reduced levels of miR-146a in SLE patients.
Genome-wide association studies have identified quite a number of susceptibility loci associated with complex diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, for most of them, the intrinsic link between genetic variation and disease mechanism is not fully understood. SLE is characterized by a significantly upregulated type I interferon (IFN) pathway, and we have previously reported that underexpression of a microRNA, miR-146a, contributes to alterations in the type I IFN pathway in lupus patients. Here we identified a novel genetic variant in the promoter region of miR-146a that is directly related to reduced expression of miR-146a and is associated with SLE susceptibility. The risk allele of this variant confers weaker binding affinity for Ets-1, which is a transcription factor encoded by a lupus susceptibility gene found in recent GWAS. These findings suggest that reduced expression of Ets-1 and its reduced binding affinity to the miR-146a promoter both may contribute to low levels of this microRNA in SLE patients, which may contribute to the upregulated type I IFN pathway in these patients. To our knowledge, this is also the first piece of evidence showing association between a genetic variant in a promoter region of a miRNA gene and a human disease.
In the title complex, [Na(C2HCl2O3S2)(C10H20O5)], there are two independent complex units in the asymmetric unit, one of which has a 55:45% disorder in the 15-crown-5 component. The coordination sphere about the Na atom in each complex unit comprises five bonds to O atoms of the crown ether [Na—O = 2.390 (7)–2.466 (6) Å] and one to a thiosulfate O atom [Na—O = 2.305 (4) and 2.447 (3) Å].
Phospholamban functions as a regulator of Ca2+ concentration of cardiac muscle cells by triggering the bioactivity of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase. In order to understand its dynamic mechanism in the environment of bilayer surroundings, we performed long time-scale molecular dynamic simulations based on the high-resolution NMR structure of phospholamban pentamer. It was observed from the molecular dynamics trajectory analyses that the conformational transitions between the “bellflower” and “pinwheel” modes were detected for phospholamban. Particularly, the two modes became quite similar to each other after phospholamban was phosphorylated at Ser16. Based on these findings, an allosteric mechanism was proposed to elucidate the dynamic process of phospholamban interacting with Ca2+-ATPase.
A scientific database can be a powerful tool for biologists in an era where large-scale genomic analysis, combined with smaller-scale scientific results, provides new insights into the roles of genes and their products in the cell. However, the collection and assimilation of data is, in itself, not enough to make a database useful. The data must be incorporated into the database and presented to the user in an intuitive and biologically significant manner. Most importantly, this presentation must be driven by the user’s point of view; that is, from a biological perspective. The success of a scientific database can therefore be measured by the response of its users – statistically, by usage numbers and, in a less quantifiable way, by its relationship with the community it serves and its ability to serve as a model for similar projects. Since its inception ten years ago, the Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD) has seen a dramatic increase in its usage, has developed and maintained a positive working relationship with the yeast research community, and has served as a template for at least one other database. The success of SGD, as measured by these criteria, is due in large part to philosophies that have guided its mission and organisation since it was established in 1993. This paper aims to detail these philosophies and how they shape the organisation and presentation of the database.
S. cerevisiae; database; genome-wide analysis; bioinformatics; yeast
The phenyl ring in the title compound, C15H14ClF4NO, makes a dihedral angle of 80.3 (3)° with the cyclopropane ring. In the crystal, molecules are linked by N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds into chains running along the a axis.
In the title compound, C15H14Cl2F3NO, synthesized by the reaction of 3-[(E)-2-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-enyl]-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid and 2-chloroaniline, the aromatic ring makes a dihedral angle of 76.7 (3)° with the plane of the cyclopropane ring. In the crystal, intermolecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the molecules into chains running along the b axis.
A straight, non-sporulating, Gram-variable bacillus (HKU24T) was recovered from the blood culture of a patient with metastatic breast carcinoma. After repeated subculturing in BACTEC Plus Anaerobic/F blood culture broth, HKU24T grew on brucella agar as non-hemolytic, pinpoint colonies after 96 h of incubation at 37 °C in an anaerobic environment and aerobic environment with 5% CO2. Growth was enhanced with a streak of Staphylococcus aureus. HKU24T was non-motile and catalase-negative, but positive for alkaline phosphatase, β-glucosidase, and α-glucosidase. It hydrolyzed phenylphosphonate and reduced resazurin. 16S rRNA, groEL, gyrB, recA, and rpoB sequencing showed that HKU24T occupies a distinct phylogenetic position among the Leptotrichia species, being most closely related to Leptotrichia trevisanii. Using HKU24T
groEL, gyrB, recA, and rpoB gene-specific primers, fragments of these genes were amplified from one of 20 oral specimens. Based on phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, we propose a new species, Leptotrichia hongkongensis sp. nov., to describe this bacterium.
Leptotrichia hongkongensis; Bacterium; Blood culture; Anaerobic bacteria; Novel species
Systemic lupus erythematosus is a complex and potentially fatal autoimmune disease, characterized by autoantibody production and multi-organ damage. By a genome-wide association study (320 patients and 1,500 controls) and subsequent replication altogether involving a total of 3,300 Asian SLE patients from Hong Kong, Mainland China, and Thailand, as well as 4,200 ethnically and geographically matched controls, genetic variants in ETS1 and WDFY4 were found to be associated with SLE (ETS1: rs1128334, P = 2.33×10−11, OR = 1.29; WDFY4: rs7097397, P = 8.15×10−12, OR = 1.30). ETS1 encodes for a transcription factor known to be involved in a wide range of immune functions, including Th17 cell development and terminal differentiation of B lymphocytes. SNP rs1128334 is located in the 3′-UTR of ETS1, and allelic expression analysis from peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed significantly lower expression level from the risk allele. WDFY4 is a conserved protein with unknown function, but is predominantly expressed in primary and secondary immune tissues, and rs7097397 in WDFY4 changes an arginine residue to glutamine (R1816Q) in this protein. Our study also confirmed association of the HLA locus, STAT4, TNFSF4, BLK, BANK1, IRF5, and TNFAIP3 with SLE in Asians. These new genetic findings may help us to gain a better understanding of the disease and the functions of the genes involved.
In this study, we first conducted a genome-wide association study in a Hong Kong Chinese population, followed by replication in three other cohorts from Mainland China and a cohort from Thailand, which totaled 3,300 Asian patients and 4,200 ethnically and geographically matched controls. We identified novel variants in ETS1 and WDFY4 associated with SLE with genome-wide significance and confirmed the association of HLA locus, STAT4, BLK, IRF5, BANK1, TNFSF, and IRF5 with the disease. ETS1 encodes a critical transcription factor involved in Th17 and B cell development. Allelic expression study showed a significantly lower expression of ETS1 from the risk allele, which provided functional support to the genetic findings. WDFY4 is a huge protein with unknown function but is predominantly expressed in primary and secondary immune tissues, and a nonsynonymous SNP in this gene was found to be highly associated with SLE susceptibility. Our findings shed new light on the function of these genes as well as the mechanism of this devastating disease.
Protein Analysis THrough Evolutionary Relationships (PANTHER) is a comprehensive software system for inferring the functions of genes based on their evolutionary relationships. Phylogenetic trees of gene families form the basis for PANTHER and these trees are annotated with ontology terms describing the evolution of gene function from ancestral to modern day genes. One of the main applications of PANTHER is in accurate prediction of the functions of uncharacterized genes, based on their evolutionary relationships to genes with functions known from experiment. The PANTHER website, freely available at http://www.pantherdb.org, also includes software tools for analyzing genomic data relative to known and inferred gene functions. Since 2007, there have been several new developments to PANTHER: (i) improved phylogenetic trees, explicitly representing speciation and gene duplication events, (ii) identification of gene orthologs, including least diverged orthologs (best one-to-one pairs), (iii) coverage of more genomes (48 genomes, up to 87% of genes in each genome; see http://www.pantherdb.org/panther/summaryStats.jsp), (iv) improved support for alternative database identifiers for genes, proteins and microarray probes and (v) adoption of the SBGN standard for display of biological pathways. In addition, PANTHER trees are being annotated with gene function as part of the Gene Ontology Reference Genome project, resulting in an increasing number of curated functional annotations.
The title compound, C17H19ClF3NO, crystallizes with three molecules in the asymmetric unit. The aromatic ring makes dihedral angles of 38.69 (13), 46.68 (12) and 50.52 (11)° with the plane of the cyclopropane ring in the three molecules. The crystal packing is stabilized by intermolecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds.
The title compound, C19H17ClF3NO, was synthesized from 3-[(E)-2-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-enyl]-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid and 2-aminonaphthalene. There are two molecules in the asymmetric unit. The dihedral angle between the naphthalene and cyclopropane units is 111.6 (5)°. Molecules are connected into chains by intermolecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. One of the Cl atoms is disordered over two positions with occupancies 0.653 (15) and 0.347 (15).
AIM: To investigate the potential role of Active Chinese mistletoe lectin-55 (ACML-55) in tumor immune surveillance.
METHODS: In this study, an experimental model was established by hypodermic inoculating the colon cancer cell line CT26 (5 × 105 cells) into BALB/c mice. The experimental treatment was orally administered with ACML-55 or PBS, followed by the inoculation of colon cancer cell line CT26. Intracellular cytokine staining was used to detect IFN-γ production by tumor antigen speciﬁc CD8+ T cells. FACS analysis was employed to profile composition and activation of CD4+, CD8+, γδ T and NK cells.
RESULTS: Our results showed, compared to PBS treated mice, ACML-55 treatment significantly delayed colon cancer development in colon cancer -bearing Balb/c mice in vivo. Treatment with ACML-55 enhanced both Ag specific activation and proliferation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and increased the number of tumor Ag specific CD8+ T cells. It was more important to increase the frequency of tumor Ag specific IFN-γ producing-CD8+ T cells. Interestingly, ACML-55 treatment also showed increased cell number of NK, and γδT cells, indicating the role of ACML-55 in activation of innate lymphocytes.
CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that ACML-55 therapy can enhance function in immune surveillance in colon cancer-bearing mice through regulating both innate and adaptive immune responses.
Active chinese mistletoe lectin-55; Colon cancer; Immune surveillance; Tumor therapy; Agspeciﬁc-CD8+ T cell
The title molecule, C14H13NO2, is almost flat with a dihedral angle of 8.0 (1)° between the pyrrole and benzene rings. The central C3O ketone unit has an s-cis conformation and is also coplanar with a torsion angle of −0.6 (3) °. An intramolecular C—H⋯O hydrogen bond generates an S(5) ring motif. In addition, the methoxy group is coplanar with the attached benzene ring. In the crystal structure, neighboring molecules are paired through N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds into centrosymmetric dimers with an R
The transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) and the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I), two important components of the MHC-I antigen presentation pathway, are often deficient in tumor cells. The restoration of their expression has been shown to restore the antigenicity and immunogenicity of tumor cells. However, it is unclear whether TAP and MHC-I expression in tumor cells can affect the induction phase of the T cell response. To address this issue, we expressed viral antigens in tumors that are either deficient or proficient in TAP and MHC-I expression. The relative efficiency of direct immunization or immunization through cross-presentation in promoting adaptive T cell responses was compared. The results demonstrated that stimulation of animals with TAP and MHC-I proficient tumor cells generated antigen specific T cells with greater killing activities than those of TAP and MHC-I deficient tumor cells. This discrepancy was traced to differences in the ability of dendritic cells (DCs) to access and sample different antigen reservoirs in TAP and MHC-I proficient versus deficient cells and thereby stimulate adaptive immune responses through the process of cross-presentation. In addition, our data suggest that the increased activity of T cells is caused by the enhanced DC uptake and utilization of MHC-I/peptide complexes from the proficient cells as an additional source of processed antigen. Furthermore, we demonstrate that immune-escape and metastasis are promoted in the absence of this DC ‘arming’ mechanism. Physiologically, this novel form of DC antigen sampling resembles trogocytosis, and acts to enhance T cell priming and increase the efficacy of adaptive immune responses against tumors and infectious pathogens.
Exonic splicing enhancers (ESEs) are sequences that facilitate recognition of splice sites and prevent exon-skipping. Because ESEs are often embedded within proteincoding sequences, alterations in them can also often be interpreted as nonsense, missense or silent mutations. To correctly interpret exonic mutations and their roles in disease, it is important to develop strategies that identify ESE mutations. Potential ESEs can be found computationally in many exons but it has proven difficult to predict if a given mutation will have effects on splicing based on sequence alone. Here we describe a flexible in vitro method that can be used to functionally compare the effects of multiple sequence variants on ESE activity in a single in vitro splicing reaction. We have applied this method in parallel with conventional splicing assays to test for a splicing enhancer in exon 17 of the human MLH1 gene. Point mutations associated with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) have previously been found to correlate with exon-skipping in both lymphocytes and tumors from patients. We show that sequences from this exon can replace an ESE from the mouse IgM gene to support RNA splicing in HeLa nuclear extracts. ESE activity was reduced by HNPCC point mutations in codon 659 indicating that their primary effect is on splicing. Surprisingly the strongest enhancer function mapped to a different region of the exon upstream of this codon. Together our results indicate that HNPCC point mutations in codon 659 affect an auxillary element that augments the enhancer function to ensure exon inclusion.
There are two molecules in the asymmetric unit of the title compound, C16H17ClF3NO. The benzene ring in each molecule makes a dihedral angle of 66.6 (3)° [116.3 (4)° in the second molecule] with the plane of the cyclopropane ring. The F atoms of the CF3 groups are disordered equally over two positions. The amide hydrogen is linked with the amide oxygen in another molecule by an intermolecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bond. The packing can be described as a dimeric arrangement of molecules linked through N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds.