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1.  L1CAM is expressed in triple-negative breast cancers and is inversely correlated with Androgen receptor 
BMC Cancer  2014;14(1):958.
Background
Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease displaying distinct molecular features and clinical outcome. The molecular profile of triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) overlaps with that of basal-like breast cancers that in turn show similarities with high-grade serous ovarian and endometrial carcinoma. L1CAM is an established biomarker for the latter cancers and we showed before that approximately 18% of primary breast cancers are positive for L1CAM and have a bad prognosis. Here we analysed the expression of L1CAM breast cancer subtypes.
Methods
We analyzed mRNA and protein expression data from different breast cancer cohorts for L1CAM, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, Her-2 and Androgen receptor (AR) and correlated the data. We performed Western blot analysis on tumor cell lysates and carried out chromatin-immuno-precipitation (CHIP) after AR overexpression.
Results
We find that L1CAM is expressed preferentially though not exclusively in TNBCs. Using the human cancer genome atlas database and two independent breast cancer cohorts we find that L1CAM is inversely correlated with androgen receptor (AR) expression. We found that L1CAMhighARlow primary breast tumors have the worst clinical outcome. Overexpression of AR in MDA-MB436 breast cancer cells decreased L1CAM expression at the protein and mRNA level and CHIP-analysis revealed binding of AR to the L1CAM promoter region.
Conclusions
These results suggest that L1CAM in breast cancer is under AR control. The data also strongly advocate the use of L1CAM assessment in breast cancer diagnosis. We suggest that L1CAM expression could be causally related to the bad prognosis of TNBCs.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1471-2407-14-958) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-14-958
PMCID: PMC4301892  PMID: 25510351
Triple-negative; Basal-like; ER/PR; EMT; AR
2.  Role of urokinase plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor mRNA expression as prognostic factors in molecular subtypes of breast cancer 
OncoTargets and therapy  2014;7:2205-2213.
Background
Protein levels of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and its inhibitor (PAI-1) determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay from fresh-frozen tumor tissue have been evaluated as prognostic factors in prospectively randomized trials in breast cancer. However, the role of uPA and PAI-1 in the context of breast cancer subtypes and for mRNA expression of these factors is less clear.
Methods
We evaluated uPA and PAI-1 mRNA expression using the Affymetrix HG-U 133A array within molecular subgroups of breast cancer in cohorts of patients with systemic treatment (cohort A, n=362) and without systemic treatment (cohort B, n=200). We validated mRNA expression in a cohort of HER2-positive breast cancer patients (cohort C, n=290). Luminal, triple-negative, and HER2-positive subcohorts were defined by ESR1 and ERBB2 mRNA expression using predefined cutoffs.
Results
In the entire cohort A, elevated PAI-1 but not uPA mRNA expression was associated with shorter disease-free survival (P=0.007 for PAI and 0.069 for uPA). Regarding different molecular subgroups, 67% (n=244) of tumors were luminal, 14% (n=49) were HER2-positive, and 19% (n=69) were triple-negative. Elevated PAI-1 mRNA expression was associated with shorter disease-free survival only in the HER2-positive subgroup (P=0.031). The same disease-free survival results were found for uPA in HER2-positive patients (P=0.011). In contrast, no association between either marker and survival was observed in the luminal or triple-negative subgroups. In the HER2-positive validation cohort C, elevated uPA and PAI-1 mRNA expression also showed strong associations with shorter disease-free survival (P=0.014 for PAI-1, P<0.001 for uPA).
Conclusion
In this study, the prognostic impact of uPA and PAI-1 expression was mainly observed in patients with HER2-positive tumors.
doi:10.2147/OTT.S65344
PMCID: PMC4259258  PMID: 25506225
urokinase plasminogen activator; urokinase plasminogen activator inhibitor-1; HER2; breast cancer; prognosis
3.  Long-term tumor remission under trastuzumab treatment for HER2 positive metastatic breast cancer – results from the HER-OS patient registry 
BMC Cancer  2014;14(1):806.
Background
In this study, we examined patients who had non-progressive disease for at least 2 years after diagnosis of inoperable locoregional recurrent or metastatic breast cancer under continuous trastuzumab treatment. Our primary goal was to assess the long-term outcome of patients with durable response to trastuzumab.
Methods
268 patients with HER2-positive inoperable locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer and non-progressive disease for at least 2 years under trastuzumab treatment were documented retrospectively or prospectively in the HER-OS registry, an online documentation tool, between December 2006 and September 2010 by 71 German oncology centers. The study end point was time to tumor progression.
Results
Overall, 47.1% of patients (95% confidence interval (CI): 39.9–54.1%) remained in remission for more than 5 years, while the median time to progression was 4.5 years (95% CI: 4.0–6.6 years). Lower age (<50 years) and good performance status (ECOG 0) at time of trastuzumab treatment initiation as well as complete remission after initial trastuzumab treatment were associated with longer time to progression. Interruption of trastuzumab therapy correlated with shorter time to progression.
Conclusions
HER2-positive patients, who initially respond to palliative treatment with trastuzumab, can achieve a long-term tumor remission of several years.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-14-806
PMCID: PMC4230522  PMID: 25371387
HER2; Metastatic breast cancer; Trastuzumab
4.  Loss of CADM1 expression is associated with poor prognosis and brain metastasis in breast cancer patients 
Oncotarget  2014;5(10):3076-3087.
Breast cancer brain metastases (BCBM) are detected with increasing incidence. In order to detect potential genes involved in BCBM, we first screened for genes down-regulated by methylation in cell lines with site-specific metastatic ability. The expression of five genes, CADM1, SPARC, RECK, TNFAIP3 and CXCL14, which were also found down-regulated in gene expression profiling analyses of BCBM tissue samples, was verified by qRT-PCR in a larger patient cohort. CADM1 was chosen for further down-stream analyses. A higher incidence of CADM1 methylation, correlating with lower expression levels, was found in BCBM as compared to primary BC. Loss of CADM1 protein expression was detected most commonly among BCBM samples as well as among primary tumors with subsequent brain relapse. The prognostic role of CADM1 expression was finally verified in four large independent breast cancer cohorts (n=2136). Loss of CADM1 protein expression was associated with disease stage, lymph node status, and tumor size in primary BC. Furthermore, all analyses revealed a significant association between loss of CADM1 and shorter survival. In multivariate analyses, survival was significantly shorter among patients with CADM1-negative tumors. Loss of CADM1 expression is an independent prognostic factor especially associated with the development of brain metastases in breast cancer patients.
PMCID: PMC4102793  PMID: 24833255
breast cancer; brain metastases; CADM1; methylation
5.  Clinical Relevance of Loss of 11p15 in Primary and Metastatic Breast Cancer: Association with Loss of PRKCDBP Expression in Brain Metastases 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(10):e47537.
The occurrence of brain metastases among breast cancer patients is currently rising with approximately 20–25% incidence rates, underlining the importance of the identification of new therapeutic and prognostic markers. We have previously screened for new markers for brain metastasis by array CGH. We found that loss of 11p15 is common among these patients. In this study, we investigated the clinical significance of loss of 11p15 in primary breast cancer (BC) and breast cancer brain metastases (BCBM). 11p15 aberration patterns were assessed by allelic imbalance (AI) analysis in primary BC (n = 78), BCBM (n = 21) and metastases from other distant sites (n = 6) using six different markers. AI at 11p15 was significantly associated with BCBM (p = 0.002). Interestingly, a subgroup of primary BC with a later relapse to the brain had almost equally high AI rates as the BCBM cases. In primary BC, AI was statistically significantly associated with high grade, negative hormone receptor status, and triple-negative (TNBC) tumors. Gene expression profiling identified PRKCDBP in the 11p15 region to be significantly downregulated in both BCBM and primary BC with brain relapse compared to primary tumors without relapse or bone metastasis (fdr<0.05). qRT-PCR confirmed these results and methylation was shown to be a common way to silence this gene. In conclusion, we found loss at 11p15 to be a marker for TNBC primary tumors and BCBM and PRKCDBP to be a potential target gene in this locus.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047537
PMCID: PMC3485301  PMID: 23118876
6.  Immunological Approaches in the Treatment of Metastasized Breast Cancer 
Breast Care  2009;4(6):359-366.
Summary
A better understanding of tumor biology has led to the development of a number of antibody-based targeted therapies in breast cancer. Several of these newer agents, such as trastuzumab and bevacizumab have demonstrated clinical activity and have improved the treatment of patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC). Trastuzumab is a monoclonal antibody that binds to the extracellular domain of the HER2 receptor. The addition of trastuzumab to chemotherapy and also to endocrine therapy has enhanced efficacy of treatment. New antibody-based strategies directed against HER2 are under development. These new approaches include pertuzumab, an antibody with a different binding epitope that inhibits dimerization of HER2 with other members of the HER receptor family and TDM1, a trastuzumab-based antibody chemotherapeutic conjugate. Another approach to the treatment of solid tumors is inhibition of angiogenesis. The anti-VEGF antibody bevacizumab has been approved for treatment of MBC. Although the mechanism of action is still under investigation, bevacizumab is tested in other clinical settings such as adjuvant therapy, maintenance therapy, and in combination with both chemotherapy and other targeted agents. In this review, we will summarize the most important studies on trastuzumab and bevacizumab, and describe new antibodies currently under clinical development.
doi:10.1159/000262454
PMCID: PMC2941998  PMID: 20877670
Breast cancer; Metastasis; Antibody; Therapy

Results 1-6 (6)