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1.  Evaluating Erythropoietin-Associated Tumor Progression Using Archival Tissues from a Phase III Clinical Trial 
Stem cells (Dayton, Ohio)  2009;27(9):2353-2361.
Despite the prevalence of anemia in cancer, recombinant erythropoietin (Epo) has declined in use because of recent Phase III trials showing more rapid cancer progression and reduced survival in subjects randomized to Epo. Since Epo receptor (EpoR), Jak2, and Hsp70 are well-characterized mediators of Epo signaling in erythroid cells, we hypothesized that Epo might be especially harmful in patients whose tumors express high levels of these effectors. Because of the insensitivity of immunohistochemistry for detecting low level EpoR protein, we developed assays to measure levels of EpoR, Jak2 and Hsp70 mRNA in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumors. We tested 23 archival breast tumors as well as 136 archival head and neck cancers from ENHANCE, a Phase III trial of 351 patients randomized to Epo versus placebo concomitant with radio-therapy following complete resection, partial resection, or no resection of tumor. EpoR, Jak2, and Hsp70 mRNA levels varied >30-fold, >12-fold, and >13-fold across the breast cancers, and >30-fold, >40-fold, and >30-fold across the head and neck cancers, respectively. Locoregional progression-free survival (LPFS) did not differ among patients whose head and neck cancers expressed above- versus below-median levels of EpoR, Jak2 or Hsp70, except in the subgroup of patients with unresected tumors (n = 28), where above-median EpoR, above-median Jak2, and below-median Hsp70 mRNA levels were all associated with significantly poorer LPFS. Our results provide a framework for exploring the relationship between Epo, cancer progression, and survival using archival tumors from other Phase III clinical trials.
PMCID: PMC2911228  PMID: 19544471
Erythropoietin; Erythropoietin receptor; Erythropoiesis stimulating agents; Growth factors; Tumor progression
2.  Lactate-Dehydrogenase 5 is overexpressed in non-small cell lung cancer and correlates with the expression of the transketolase-like protein 1 
Diagnostic Pathology  2010;5:22.
As one of the five Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isoenzymes, LDH5 has the highest efficiency to catalyze pyruvate transformation to lactate. LDH5 overexpression in cancer cells induces an upregulated glycolytic metabolism and reduced dependence on the presence of oxygen. Here we analyzed LDH5 protein expression in a well characterized large cohort of primary lung cancers in correlation to clinico-pathological data and its possible impact on patient survival.
Primary lung cancers (n = 269) and non neoplastic lung tissue (n = 35) were tested for LDH5 expression by immunohistochemistry using a polyclonal LDH5 antibody (ab53010). The results of LDH5 expression were correlated to clinico-pathological data as well as to patient's survival. In addition, the results of the previously tested Transketolase like 1 protein (TKTL1) expression were correlated to LDH5 expression.
89.5% (n = 238) of NSCLC revealed LDH5 expression whereas LDH5 expression was not detected in non neoplastic lung tissues (n = 34) (p < 0.0001). LDH5 overexpression was associated with histological type (adenocarcinoma = 57%, squamous cell carcinoma = 45%, large cell carcinoma = 46%, p = 0.006). No significant correlation could be detected with regard to TNM-stage, grading or survival. A two sided correlation between the expression of TKTL1 and LDH5 could be shown (p = 0.002) within the overall cohort as well as for each grading and pN group. A significant correlation between LDH5 and TKTL1 within each histologic tumortype could not be revealed.
LDH5 is overexpressed in NSCLC and could hence serve as an additional marker for malignancy. Furthermore, LDH5 correlates positively with the prognostic marker TKTL1. Our results confirm a close link between the two metabolic enzymes and indicate an alteration in the glucose metabolism in the process of malignant transformation.
PMCID: PMC2861018  PMID: 20385008

Results 1-2 (2)