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author:("houtman, Dick")
1.  Risk Factors for SARS Transmission from Patients Requiring Intubation: A Multicentre Investigation in Toronto, Canada 
PLoS ONE  2010;5(5):e10717.
Background
In the 2003 Toronto SARS outbreak, SARS-CoV was transmitted in hospitals despite adherence to infection control procedures. Considerable controversy resulted regarding which procedures and behaviours were associated with the greatest risk of SARS-CoV transmission.
Methods
A retrospective cohort study was conducted to identify risk factors for transmission of SARS-CoV during intubation from laboratory confirmed SARS patients to HCWs involved in their care. All SARS patients requiring intubation during the Toronto outbreak were identified. All HCWs who provided care to intubated SARS patients during treatment or transportation and who entered a patient room or had direct patient contact from 24 hours before to 4 hours after intubation were eligible for this study. Data was collected on patients by chart review and on HCWs by interviewer-administered questionnaire. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) logistic regression models and classification and regression trees (CART) were used to identify risk factors for SARS transmission.
Results
45 laboratory-confirmed intubated SARS patients were identified. Of the 697 HCWs involved in their care, 624 (90%) participated in the study. SARS-CoV was transmitted to 26 HCWs from 7 patients; 21 HCWs were infected by 3 patients. In multivariate GEE logistic regression models, presence in the room during fiberoptic intubation (OR = 2.79, p = .004) or ECG (OR = 3.52, p = .002), unprotected eye contact with secretions (OR = 7.34, p = .001), patient APACHE II score ≥20 (OR = 17.05, p = .009) and patient Pa02/Fi02 ratio ≤59 (OR = 8.65, p = .001) were associated with increased risk of transmission of SARS-CoV. In CART analyses, the four covariates which explained the greatest amount of variation in SARS-CoV transmission were covariates representing individual patients.
Conclusion
Close contact with the airway of severely ill patients and failure of infection control practices to prevent exposure to respiratory secretions were associated with transmission of SARS-CoV. Rates of transmission of SARS-CoV varied widely among patients.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0010717
PMCID: PMC2873403  PMID: 20502660
2.  Effect of a multifaceted intervention on number of antimicrobial prescriptions for suspected urinary tract infections in residents of nursing homes: cluster randomised controlled trial 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  2005;331(7518):669.
Objective To assess whether a multifaceted intervention can reduce the number of prescriptions for antimicrobials for suspected urinary tract infections in residents of nursing homes.
Design Cluster randomised controlled trial.
Setting 24 nursing homes in Ontario, Canada, and Idaho, United States.
Participants 12 nursing homes allocated to a multifaceted intervention and 12 allocated to usual care. Outcomes were measured in 4217 residents.
Interventions Diagnostic and treatment algorithm for urinary tract infections implemented at the nursing home level using a multifaceted approach—small group interactive sessions for nurses, videotapes, written material, outreach visits, and one on one interviews with physicians.
Main outcome measures Number of antimicrobials prescribed for suspected urinary tract infections, total use of antimicrobials, admissions to hospital, and deaths.
Results Fewer courses of antimicrobials for suspected urinary tract infections per 1000 resident days were prescribed in the intervention nursing homes than in the usual care homes (1.17 v 1.59 courses; weighted mean difference -0.49, 95% confidence intervals -0.93 to -0.06). Antimicrobials for suspected urinary tract infection represented 28.4% of all courses of drugs prescribed in the intervention nursing homes compared with 38.6% prescribed in the usual care homes (weighted mean difference -9.6%, -16.9% to -2.4%). The difference in total antimicrobial use per 1000 resident days between intervention and usual care groups was not significantly different (3.52 v 3.93; weighted mean difference -0.37, -1.17 to 0.44). No significant difference was found in admissions to hospital or mortality between the study arms.
Conclusion A multifaceted intervention using algorithms can reduce the number of antimicrobial prescriptions for suspected urinary tract infections in residents of nursing homes.
doi:10.1136/bmj.38602.586343.55
PMCID: PMC1226247  PMID: 16150741
5.  Optimizing antibiotics in residents of nursing homes: protocol of a randomized trial 
Background
Antibiotics are frequently prescribed for older adults who reside in long-term care facilities. A substantial proportion of antibiotic use in this setting is inappropriate. Antibiotics are often prescribed for asymptomatic bacteriuria, a condition for which randomized trials of antibiotic therapy indicate no benefit and in fact harm. This proposal describes a randomized trial of diagnostic and therapeutic algorithms to reduce the use of antibiotics in residents of long-term care facilities.
Methods
In this on-going study, 22 nursing homes have been randomized to either use of algorithms (11 nursing homes) or to usual practise (11 nursing homes). The algorithms describe signs and symptoms for which it would be appropriate to send urine cultures or to prescribe antibiotics. The algorithms are introduced by inservicing nursing staff and by conducting one-on-one sessions for physicians using case-scenarios. The primary outcome of the study is courses of antibiotics per 1000 resident days. Secondary outcomes include urine cultures sent and antibiotic courses for urinary indications. Focus groups and semi-structured interviews with key informants will be used to assess the process of implementation and to identify key factors for sustainability.
doi:10.1186/1472-6963-2-17
PMCID: PMC128823  PMID: 12207826

Results 1-7 (7)