To explore the role of polymorphisms of p53-related genes in etiology of oral cancer, we investigated joint effects of seven putatively functional polymorphisms of p53 (codon 72 Arg/Pro), p73 (4/14 GC/AT), MDM2 (A2164G and T2580G), and MDM4 (rs11801299 G>A, rs10900598 G>T, and rs1380576 C>G) on risk of HPV16-associated oral cancer in a case-control study with 325 cases and 335 cancer-free controls. We found that HPV16 seropositivity alone was associated with an increased risk of oral cancer [adjusted odds ratio (OR), 3.1; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.1–4.6]. After combining genotypes of seven polymorphisms and using the low-risk group (0–3 combined risk genotypes) and HPV16 seronegativity as the reference group, the medium-risk (4 combined risk genotypes) and high-risk groups (5–7 combined risk genotypes) and HPV16 seronegativity were associated with only an OR of 1.6 (95% CI, 1.1–2.5) and 1.2 (95% CI, 0.7–1.9) for oral cancer risk, respectively, while the low-risk, medium-risk, and high-risk groups and HPV16 seropositivity were significantly associated with a higher OR of 2.1 (95% CI, 1.2–3.6), 4.0 (95% CI, 1.8–9.1), and 19.1 (95% CI, 5.7–64.2), respectively. Notably, such effect modification by these combined risk genotypes was particularly pronounced in young subjects (aged < 50 years), never smokers, and patients with oropharyngeal cancer. Taken together, these findings suggest that the combined risk genotypes of p53-related genes may modify risk of HPV16-associated oral cancer, especially in young patients, never-smokers, and patients with oropharyngeal cancer. Larger studies are needed to validate our findings.
p53; p73; MDM2; MDM4; HPV infection; oral cancer
Sonodynamic therapy (SDT) was developed as a localized ultrasound-activated cytotoxic therapy for cancer. The ability of SDT to destroy target tissues selectively is especially appealing for atherosclerotic plaque, in which selective accumulation of the sonosensitizer, protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), had been demonstrated. Here we investigate the effects of PpIX-mediated SDT on macrophages, which are the main culprit in progression of atherosclerosis.
Methods and results
Cultured THP-1 derived macrophages were incubated with PpIX. Fluorescence microscopy showed that the intracellular PpIX concentration increased with the concentration of PpIX in the incubation medium. MTT assay demonstrated that SDT with PpIX significantly decreased cell viability, and this effect increased with duration of ultrasound exposure and PpIX concentration. PpIX-mediated SDT induced both apoptosis and necrosis, and the maximum apoptosis to necrosis ratio was obtained after SDT with 20 μg/mL PpIX and five minutes of sonication. Production of intracellular singlet oxygen and secondary disruption of the cytoskeleton were also observed after SDT with PpIX.
PpIX-mediated SDT had apoptotic effects on THP-1 macrophages via generation of intracellular singlet oxygen and disruption of the cytoskeleton. PpIX-mediated SDT may be a potential treatment to attenuate progression of atherosclerotic plaque.
sonodynamic therapy; protoporphyrin IX; atherosclerotic plaque; macrophage; singlet oxygen; cytoskeleton
Although cardiovascular disease may be partially preventable through dietary and lifestyle-based interventions, few individuals at risk receive intensive dietary and lifestyle counselling. We performed a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of naturopathic care in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease.
We performed a multisite randomized controlled trial of enhanced usual care (usual care plus biometric measurement; control) compared with enhanced usual care plus naturopathic care (hereafter called naturopathic care). Postal workers aged 25–65 years in Toronto, Vancouver and Edmonton, Canada, with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease were invited to participate. Participants in both groups received care by their family physicians. Those in the naturopathic group also received individualized care (health promotion counselling, nutritional medicine or dietary supplementation) at 7 preset times in work-site clinics by licensed naturopathic doctors. The body weight, waist circumference, lipid profile, fasting glucose levels and blood pressure of participants in both groups were measured 3 times during a 1-year period. Our primary outcomes were the 10-year risk of having a cardiovascular event (based on the Framingham risk algorithm) and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (based on the Adult Treatment Panel III diagnostic criteria).
Of 246 participants randomly assigned to a study group, 207 completed the study. The characteristics of participants in both groups were similar at baseline. Compared with participants in the control group, at 52 weeks those in the naturopathic group had a reduced adjusted 10-year cardiovascular risk (control: 10.81%; naturopathic group: 7.74%; risk reduction −3.07% [95% confidence interval (CI) −4.35% to −1.78%], p < 0.001) and a lower adjusted frequency of metabolic syndrome (control group: 48.48%; naturopathic care: 31.58%; risk reduction −16.90% [95% CI −29.55% to −4.25%], p = 0.002).
Our findings support the hypothesis that the addition of naturopathic care to enhanced usual care may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease among those at high risk. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, no. NCT0071879.
Notch signaling, a critical pathway for tissue development, contributes to tumorigenesis in many tissues; however, the roles of Notch signaling in Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated the expression and effects of Notch1 on cell migration in ICC.
Multiple cellular and molecular approaches were performed including gene transfection, siRNA transfection, RT-PCR, Western blotting, Rac activation assays and immunofluorescence.
We found that Notch1 was up-regulated in ICC tissues and cell lines. The exogenous expression of Notch1 in glioma cells increased their migratory and invasive capacity. Similarly, the suppression of Notch1 expression inactivated Rac1 and inhibited ICC cell migration. Notch1 over expression induced an Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype that included enhanced expression of α-SMA and Vimentin, loss of E-cadherin expression, morphological changes and cytoskeletal reorganization in ICC cells.
Notch1 may induce a migratory effect in ICC by causing an epithelial-mesenchymal transition and activating Rac1 and could serve as a novel diagnostic and therapeutic target in patients with ICC.
Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma; Notch1; Migration
This prospective randomized study is to evaluate the locoregional failure and its impact on survival by comparing involved field radiotherapy (IFRT) with elective nodal irradiation (ENI) in combination with concurrent chemotherapy for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. It appears that higher dose could be delivered in IFRT arm than that in ENI arm, and IFRT did not increase the risk of initially uninvolved or isolated nodal failures. Both a tendency of improved locoregional progression-free survival and a significant increased overall survival rate are in favor of IFRT arm in this study.
In patients with coronary disease and aneurysm, ventricular reconstruction with revascularization is a surgical option. Details of patient selection and optimal surgical technique are still debated. We report our results with off-pump aneurysm plication after ventricular aneurysm with relative wall thinning.
We retrospectively reviewed the records of 248 patients who had an operation for postinfarction left ventricular aneurysm. Reconstruction was accomplished by off-pump anteroapical aneurysm plication. The following variables were recorded: preoperative clinical, angiographic and echocardiographic findings and operative procedures. Outcomes were early mortality, long-term survival and poor 5-year result, defined as the need for transplantation or repeated hospitalization for congestive heart failure. Risk factors were pinpointed using the t test and survival curves. Independent risk factors were identified using Cox regression methods.
Hospital mortality was low (2.0%). Mean follow-up was 5.8 (standard deviation [SD] 3.8) years. Actuarial survival at 1 and 5 years was 94% and 84%. Among the 232 survivors, 200 were in functional class I or II, and the average increase in ejection fraction was 14.0% (SD 3.1%). As determined by multivariable analysis, factors predicting poor outcome were advanced age, ejection fraction less than 0.35, conicity index less than 1, end-systolic volume index greater than 80 mL/m2, advanced New York Heart Association functional class and congestive heart failure.
Using wall thinning as a criterion for patient selection, the technique of off-pump anteroapical aneurysm plication can be performed with low operative mortality and provides good symptomatic relief and long-term survival.
This study investigated the changes in resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii complex and the association of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii complex (CRAB) infection and hospital antimicrobial usage from 2003 to 2011 in a tertiary care hospital in northeast China. In vitro susceptibilities were determined by disk diffusion test and susceptibility profiles were determined using zone diameter interpretive criteria, as recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Data on consumption of various antimicrobial agents, expressed as defined daily dose/1,000 patients/day, were collected retrospectively from hospital pharmacy computer database. Most of 2,485 strains of A. baumannii complex were collected from respiratory samples (1,618 isolates, 65.1%), secretions and pus (465, 18.7%) over the years. The rates of antimicrobial resistance in A. baumannii complex increased significantly over the years. The rates of CRAB were between 11.3% and 59.1% over the years. The quarterly use of anti-pseudomonal carbapenems, but not other classes of antibiotics, was strongly correlated with the increase of quarterly CRAB (β = 1.661; p < 0.001). Dedicated use of anti-pseudomonal carbapenems would be an important intervention to control the increase of CRAB.
Acinetobacter baumannii complex; drug resistance, microbial; antimicrobials susceptibility test; drug monitoring; antibiotic consumption
The effect of magnesium (Mg) deficiency on the prevalence of diabetes and diabetic complications has received a great attention. The present study investigated the association of Mg level in the serum or urine of the patients, lived in the Northeast areas of China, with either pre-diabetes or diabetes with and without complications. From January 2010 to October 2011, patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D, n = 25), type 2 diabetes (T2D, n = 137), impaired fasting glucose (IFG, n = 12) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, n = 15), and age/gender matched control (n = 50) were enrolled in the First Hospital of Jilin University. In T2D group, there were 24, 34, and 50 patients with nephropathy, retinopathy or peripheral neuropathy. Serum Mg levels in the patients with IGT, IFG, T2D, and T1D were significantly lower than that of control. The urinary Mg levels were significantly increased only in T2D and T1D patients compared to control. There was no difference for these two changes among T2D with and without complications; In addition, there was a significantly positive correlation of serum Mg levels with serum Ca levels only in T2D patients, and also a significantly positive correlation of urinary Mg levels with urinary Ca levels in control, IGT patients, and T2D patients. Simvastatin treatment in T2D patients selectively reduced serum Ca levels and urinary Mg levels. These results suggest that the potential impact of Mg deficiency on metabolic syndrome, diabetes and diabetic complications needs to be received special attention.
Inflammatory cells exhibit an elevated level of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) after the administration of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA). Here, we investigate the sonodynamic effects of ALA-derived PpIX (ALA-PpIX) on macrophages, which are the pivotal inflammatory cells in atherosclerosis.
Methods and results
Cultured THP-1 macrophages were incubated with ALA. Fluorescence microscope and fluorescence spectrometer detection showed that intracellular PpIX increased with the concentration of ALA in the incubation solution in a time dependent manner; the highest level of intracellular PpIX was observed after 3-hour incubation. 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays demonstrated that lower concentrations (less than 2 mM) of ALA have no influence on cell viability (more than 90% of cells survived), but sonodynamic therapy (SDT) with a low concentration of ALA significantly decreased the survival rate of cells, and the effect was increased with both ALA concentration and ultrasound exposure time. Cell apoptosis and necrosis induced by ALA-mediated SDT (ALA-SDT) were measured using Hoechst 33258 and propidium iodide assay. ALA-SDT induced both cell apoptosis and necrosis, and the maximum apoptosis/necrosis ratio was observed at 6 hours after SDT with 1 mM of ALA and 5 minutes of ultrasound exposure. Flow cytometry analysis showed that ALA-SDT significantly increased late stage apoptotic cells (about 10-fold control). Furthermore, ALA-SDT induced reactive oxygen species generation in THP-1 macrophages immediately after the treatment and a conspicuous loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) at 6 hours compared with that of the control, ALA alone, and ultrasound alone groups.
ALA-SDT exhibited synergistic apoptotic effects on THP-1 macrophages, involving excessive intracellular reactive oxygen species generation and MMP loss. Therefore, ALA-SDT is a potential treatment for atherosclerosis.
5-aminolevulinic acid; protoporphyrin IX; sonodynamic therapy; macrophage; atherosclerosis
Streptococcus thermophilus MN-ZLW-002 was originally isolated from traditionally fermented Chinese dairy products. One of the strain-dependent characteristics of this bacterium is its ability to produce exopolysaccharides (EPSs). This study determined and analyzed the genome sequence of MN-ZLW-002. Its complete genome comprised 2,046 genes and 1,848,520 nucleotides with an average GC content of 39%. The EPS cluster of MN-ZLW-002 includes 25 open reading frames (ORFs), and some results indicate a horizontal gene transfer between MN-ZLW-002 and other lactic acid bacteria (LAB).
Multipotent neural stem/progenitor cells hold great promise for cell therapy. The reprogramming of fibroblasts to induced pluripotent stem cells as well as mature neurons suggests a possibility to convert a terminally differentiated somatic cell into a multipotent state without first establishing pluripotency. Here, we demonstrate that Sertoli cells derived from mesoderm can be directly converted into a multipotent state that possesses neural stem/progenitor cell properties. The induced neural stem/progenitor cells (iNSCs) express multiple NSC-specific markers, exhibit a global gene-expression profile similar to normal NSCs, and are capable of self-renewal and differentiating into glia and electrophysiologically functional neurons. iNSC-derived neurons stain positive for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), γ-aminobutyric acid, and choline acetyltransferase. In addition, iNSCs can survive and generate synapses following transplantation into the dentate gyrus. Generation of iNSCs may have important implications for disease modeling and regenerative medicine.
direct conversion; neural stem cell; multipotent; transdifferentiation; transplantation
Many cells of the immune system are defined by distinct surface markers, which can be used to restrict gene delivery exclusively to a cell type of choice. This article explains recent findings about a CD8-specific vector that enhances the killing of tumor cells in TCR-based gene transfer strategies.
gene transfer; lentiviral vector; CD8+ T lymphocytes; tumor; targeting
Human corneal endothelial cells (HCECs) form a monolayer covering the inner side of the cornea. Since HCECs have lower mitotic activity after birth, damage or disease of HCECs will lead to failure of cellular pump functions and inevitably to corneal stroma oedema and loss of vision. Ex vivo cultured HCEC transplantation is the most promising therapy used to avoid donor tissue shortages. However, proliferation of functional adult HCECs is difficult to achieve using standard cell culture techniques. In this study, we isolated sphere colonies from HCECs, which were characterised as HCEC precursor cells. HCECs from these spheres were incubated with the Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitor Y-27632 (30 μM for 1 h at 37°C) to observe cell pump functions and the levels of several cell markers. Cells from the spheres were immunostained positive for nestin (a marker of immature cells) and for an immature neuronal marker (β3-tubulin). There were no significant differences in the expression of genes associated with cell adhesion or ion transport channels, between the cells with or without Y-27632. However, immunostaining revealed a higher density of Na+/K+-ATPase in cell nuclei from HCECs (sphere-forming) and HCECs (sphere-forming/Y-27632) than normal HCECs. There was a higher resting potential difference and resting short circuit in the HCEC (sphere-forming) and HCEC (sphere-forming/Y-27632) cell lines, compared with normal HCECs. In this study, we successfully cultured functional HCEC cell lines, which possessed several important characteristics required to maintain the transparency and refractive parameters of the human cornea. These included hexagonal cell morphology, higher cell adhesion and proliferation ability, HCEC pump function and positive expression of several cell adhesion markers.
corneal endothelial cell; Rho-associated protein kinase signal; Y-27632; sphere-forming; Na+/K+-ATPase
Sex-biased genes are thought to drive phenotypic differences between males and females. The recent availability of high-throughput gene expression data for many related species has led to a burst of investigations into the genomic and evolutionary properties of sex-biased genes. In Drosophila, a number of studies have found that X chromosomes are deficient in male-biased genes (demasculinized) and enriched for female-biased genes (feminized) and that male-biased genes evolve faster than female-biased genes. However, studies have yielded vastly different conclusions regarding the numbers of sex-biased genes and forces shaping their evolution. Here, we use RNA-seq data from multiple tissues of Drosophila melanogaster and D. pseudoobscura, a species with a recently evolved X chromosome, to explore the evolution of sex-biased genes in Drosophila. First, we compare several independent metrics for classifying sex-biased genes and find that the overlap of genes identified by different metrics is small, particularly for female-biased genes. Second, we investigate genome-wide expression patterns and uncover evidence of demasculinization and feminization of both ancestral and new X chromosomes, demonstrating that gene content on sex chromosomes evolves rapidly. Third, we examine the evolutionary rates of sex-biased genes and show that male-biased genes evolve much faster than female-biased genes, which evolve at similar rates to unbiased genes. Analysis of gene expression among tissues reveals that this trend may be partially due to pleiotropic effects of female-biased genes, which limits their evolutionary potential. Thus, our findings illustrate the importance of accurately identifying sex-biased genes and provide insight into their evolutionary dynamics in Drosophila.
Our objective was to develop a system to simultaneously and quantitatively measure the expression levels of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) family proteins in numerous samples and to apply this approach to profile the IGF family proteins levels in cancer and adjacent tissues from patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
Antibodies against ten IGF family proteins (IGF-1, IGF-1R, IGF-2, IGF-2R, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2, IGFBP-3, IGFBP-4, IGFBP-6, and Insulin) were immobilized on the surface of a glass slide in an array format to create an IGF signaling antibody array. Tissue lysates prepared from patient's liver cancer tissues and adjacent tissues were then applied to the arrays. The proteins captured by antibodies on the arrays were then incubated with a cocktail of biotinylated detection antibodies and visualized with a fluorescence detection system. By comparison with standard protein amount, the exact protein concentrations in the samples can be determined. The expression levels of the ten IGF family proteins in 25 pairs of HCC and adjacent tissues were quantitatively measured using this novel antibody array technology. The differential expression levels between cancer tissues and adjacent tissues were statistically analyzed.
A novel IGF signaling antibody array was developed which allows the researcher to simultaneously detect ten proteins involved in IGF signal pathway with high sensitivity and specificity. Using this approach, we found that the levels of IGF-2R and IGFBP-2 in HCC tissues were higher than those in adjacent tissues.
Our IGF signaling antibody array which can detect the expression of ten IGF family members with high sensitivity and specificity will undoubtedly prove a powerful tool for drug and biomarker discovery.
AIM: To compare fluoroscopic, endoscopic and guide wire assistance with ultraslim gastroscopy for placement of nasojejunal feeding tubes.
METHODS: The information regarding nasojejunal tube placement procedures was retrieved using the gastrointestinal tract database at Tongji Hospital affiliated to Tongji Medical College. Records from 81 patients who underwent nasojejunal tubes placement by different techniques between 2004 and 2011 were reviewed for procedure success and tube-related outcomes.
RESULTS: Nasojejunal feeding tubes were successfully placed in 78 (96.3%) of 81 patients. The success rate by fluoroscopy was 92% (23 of 25), by endoscopic technique 96.3% (26 of 27), and by guide wire assistance (whether via transnasal or transoral insertion) 100% (23/23, 6/6). The average time for successful placement was 14.9 ± 2.9 min for fluoroscopic placement, 14.8 ± 4.9 min for endoscopic placement, 11.1 ± 2.2 min for guide wire assistance with transnasal gastroscopic placement, and 14.7 ± 1.2 min for transoral gastroscopic placement. Statistically, the duration for the third method was significantly different (P < 0.05) compared with the other three methods. Transnasal placement over a guidewire was significantly faster (P < 0.05) than any of the other approaches.
CONCLUSION: Guide wire assistance with transnasal insertion of nasojejunal feeding tubes represents a safe, quick and effective method for providing enteral nutrition.
Enteral nutrition; Nasojejunal feeding tube; Guide wire assistance; Fluoroscopy; Endoscopy
Breast milk is the primary source of nutrition for newborns, and is rich in immunological components. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are present in various body fluids and are selectively packaged inside the exosomes, a type of membrane vesicles, secreted by most cell types. These exosomal miRNAs could be actively delivered into recipient cells, and could regulate target gene expression and recipient cell function. Here, we analyzed the lactation-related miRNA expression profiles in porcine milk exosomes across the entire lactation period (newborn to 28 days after birth) by a deep sequencing. We found that immune-related miRNAs are present and enriched in breast milk exosomes (p<10−16, χ2 test) and are generally resistant to relatively harsh conditions. Notably, these exosomal miRNAs are present in higher numbers in the colostrums than in mature milk. It was higher in the serum of colostrum-only fed piglets compared with the mature milk-only fed piglets. These immune-related miRNA-loaded exosomes in breast milk may be transferred into the infant body via the digestive tract. These observations are a prelude to in-depth investigations of the essential roles of breast milk in the development of the infant’s immune system.
To determine the long-term efficacy of adjuvant immunotherapy with autologous cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells for locally advanced gastric cancer patients.
One hundred and fifty-one patients with stage III/IV gastric cancer who had undergone gastrectomy were enrolled, assigned to two groups (immunotherapy group versus no immunotherapy group/or control group), and followed.
The 5-year overall survival (OS) and 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates for immunotherapy versus control group were 32.4 versus 23.4 % (P = 0.071) and 28.3 versus 10.4 % (P = 0.044), respectively. For patients with intestinal-type tumors, the 5-year OS and DFS rates were significantly higher for immunotherapy (OS, 46.8 vs. 31.4 % and P = 0.045; DFS, 42.4 vs. 15.7 % and P = 0.023). In the immunotherapy group, the mean CD3+ level, CD4+ level, and CD4+/CD8+ ratio increased from 50.8, 26.5, and 0.9 %, respectively, at baseline to 62.6, 35.0, and 1.4 %, respectively, 1 week after the first CIK-cell treatment, returned to baseline after 2 months, and maintained a higher level (60.7 ± 8.2 %, 34.2 ± 7.1 %, and 1.3 ± 0.3 %, respectively) 2 months after 3 cycles of immunotherapy.
Adjuvant immunotherapy with CIK cells prolongs DFS in patients with locally advanced gastric cancer and significantly improves OS in patients with intestinal-type tumors. Intestinal-type tumors could be selected as an important indication for CIK-cell therapy. This treatment may help improve T-lymphocyte subset distribution and improve the host’s immune functions, but multiple cycles are necessary for long-term therapeutic efficacy.
Gastric cancer; Cytokine-induced killer cells; Chemotherapy; Adjuvant; Immunotherapy
Mouse cloning from fertilized eggs can assist development of approaches for the production of “genetically tailored” human embryonic stem (ES) cell lines that are not constrained by the limitations of oocyte availability. However, to date only zygotes have been successfully used as recipients of nuclei from terminally differentiated somatic cell donors leading to ES cell lines. In fertility clinics, embryos of advanced embryonic stages are usually stored for future use, but their ability to support the derivation of ES cell lines via somatic nuclear transfer has not yet been proved. Here, we report that two-cell stage electrofused mouse embryos, arrested in mitosis, can support developmental reprogramming of nuclei from donor cells ranging from blastomeres to somatic cells. Live, full-term cloned pups from embryonic donors, as well as pluripotent ES cell lines from embryonic or somatic donors, were successfully generated from these reconstructed embryos. Advanced stage pre-implantation embryos were unable to develop normally to term after electrofusion and transfer of a somatic cell nucleus, indicating that discarded pre-implantation human embryos could be an important resource for research that minimizes the ethical concerns for human therapeutic cloning. Our approach provides an attractive and practical alternative to therapeutic cloning using donated oocytes for the generation of patient-specific human ES cell lines.
developmental reprogramming; cleaved embryos; nuclear transfer; mitotic arrest; electrofusion; MG-132