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1.  Safety and immunogenicity of two doses of quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine or one dose of meningococcal group C conjugate vaccine, both administered concomitantly with routine immunization to 12- to 18-month-old children 
To describe the immunogenicity and safety of a two-dose series of a quadrivalent meningococcal (serogroups A, C, Y and W) polysaccharide diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine (MenACYW-D) administered to toddlers.
Children were randomly assigned (1:1) at study entry to receive MenACYW-D at 12 and 18 months of age (group 1; n=61) or meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine (MCC) at 12 months of age (group 2; n=62). All received routine childhood immunizations. A, C, Y and W antibody titres were measured in group 1 before and one month after the 18-month MenACYW-D vaccination and were measured in group 2 at one and seven months post-MCC vaccination. Antibodies elicited by diphtheria and tetanus toxoids, and acellular pertussis vaccine adsorbed combined with inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine and Haemophilus influenzae b conjugate (DTaP-IPV-Hib) vaccine coadministered at the 18-month vaccination were measured one month later. Safety data were collected.
At 19 months of age, ≥96% in group 1 achieved protective titres for the four meningococcal serogroups after dose 2; 67% in group 2 exhibited protective titres against serogroup C 28 days after MCC vaccination at 12 months of age, declining to 27% seven months later. DTaP-IPV-Hib elicited high antibody concentrations/titres in groups 1 and 2, consistent with historical values. The safety profiles after each dose generated no unexpected safety signals; no serious adverse events were related to vaccination.
A two-dose series of MenACYW-D given concomitantly with a DTaP-IPV-Hib booster dose at 18 months of age demonstrated a good immunogenicity and safety profile. A two-dose series of MenACYW-D can be used as an alternative to one dose of MCC and provides protection against additional serogroups (NCT ID: NCT01359449).
PMCID: PMC4173942  PMID: 25285126
Canada; Conjugate; Meningococcal; Quadrivalent; Vaccine
2.  Randomized, Controlled, Multicenter Study of the Immunogenicity and Safety of a Fully Liquid Combination Diphtheria–Tetanus Toxoid–Five-Component Acellular Pertussis (DTaP5), Inactivated Poliovirus (IPV), and Haemophilus influenzae Type b (Hib) Vaccine Compared with a DTaP3-IPV/Hib Vaccine Administered at 3, 5, and 12 Months of Age 
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology : CVI  2013;20(10):1647-1653.
This study compared the levels of immunogenicity and safety of diphtheria–tetanus toxoid–five-component acellular pertussis (DTaP5), inactivated poliovirus (IPV), and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) (DTaP5-IPV-Hib) and DTaP3-IPV/Hib vaccines for study participants 3, 5, and 12 months of age. Post-dose 3 noninferiority criteria comparing DTaP5-IPV-Hib to DTaP3-IPV/Hib using rates of seroprotection were demonstrated against diphtheria, tetanus, and polio types 1 to 3, but not for polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP). While PRP did not meet noninferiority criteria, the seroprotection rate and geometric mean concentration (GMC) were high, indicating a clinically robust immune response. GMCs or titers for other antigens (including pertussis) and the safety profiles were generally similar between groups. Fully liquid DTaP5-IPV-Hib can be administered using the 3-, 5-, and 12-month vaccination schedule. (This study has been registered at under registration no. NCT00287092.)
PMCID: PMC3807208  PMID: 23966556
3.  Risk Factors for SARS Transmission from Patients Requiring Intubation: A Multicentre Investigation in Toronto, Canada 
PLoS ONE  2010;5(5):e10717.
In the 2003 Toronto SARS outbreak, SARS-CoV was transmitted in hospitals despite adherence to infection control procedures. Considerable controversy resulted regarding which procedures and behaviours were associated with the greatest risk of SARS-CoV transmission.
A retrospective cohort study was conducted to identify risk factors for transmission of SARS-CoV during intubation from laboratory confirmed SARS patients to HCWs involved in their care. All SARS patients requiring intubation during the Toronto outbreak were identified. All HCWs who provided care to intubated SARS patients during treatment or transportation and who entered a patient room or had direct patient contact from 24 hours before to 4 hours after intubation were eligible for this study. Data was collected on patients by chart review and on HCWs by interviewer-administered questionnaire. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) logistic regression models and classification and regression trees (CART) were used to identify risk factors for SARS transmission.
45 laboratory-confirmed intubated SARS patients were identified. Of the 697 HCWs involved in their care, 624 (90%) participated in the study. SARS-CoV was transmitted to 26 HCWs from 7 patients; 21 HCWs were infected by 3 patients. In multivariate GEE logistic regression models, presence in the room during fiberoptic intubation (OR = 2.79, p = .004) or ECG (OR = 3.52, p = .002), unprotected eye contact with secretions (OR = 7.34, p = .001), patient APACHE II score ≥20 (OR = 17.05, p = .009) and patient Pa02/Fi02 ratio ≤59 (OR = 8.65, p = .001) were associated with increased risk of transmission of SARS-CoV. In CART analyses, the four covariates which explained the greatest amount of variation in SARS-CoV transmission were covariates representing individual patients.
Close contact with the airway of severely ill patients and failure of infection control practices to prevent exposure to respiratory secretions were associated with transmission of SARS-CoV. Rates of transmission of SARS-CoV varied widely among patients.
PMCID: PMC2873403  PMID: 20502660
4.  Incidence of neural tube defects in Ontario, 1986–1999 
Prenatal screening and the promotion of folic acid intake could affect the incidence of neural tube defects (NTDs). We examined trends in the total NTD incidence, as detected in live births, stillbirths and therapeutic abortions, from 1986 to 1999 in Ontario.
To capture cases of NTDs we used data from the Canadian Congenital Anomalies Surveillance System and hospital data on therapeutic abortions. We calculated the total incidence of NTDs by combining the numbers of NTDs occurring in live births, stillbirths and therapeutic abortions.
The total NTD incidence rate increased from 11.7 per 10 000 pregnancies in 1986 to 16.2 per 10 000 in 1995, and it subsequently decreased to 8.6 per 10 000 by 1999. The NTD birth rate (live births and stillbirths) decreased from 10.6 per 10 000 births in 1986 to 5.3 per 10 000 in 1999. The rate of therapeutic abortions with an NTD or hydrocephalus rose from 17.5 per 10 000 abortions in 1986 to 50.7 per 10 000 in 1995 and fell to 28.7 per 10 000 abortions in 1999.
The total NTD incidence rate increased from 1986 to 1995, probably because of increased prenatal screening and better detection of NTDs. The decline from 1995 to 1999 may have been due to increased folic acid intake among women at the time of conception.
PMCID: PMC117467  PMID: 12186167
5.  A PDZ-interacting domain in CFTR is an apical membrane polarization signal 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1999;104(10):1353-1361.
Polarization of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a cAMP-activated chloride channel, to the apical plasma membrane of epithelial cells is critical for vectorial transport of chloride in a variety of epithelia, including the airway, pancreas, intestine, and kidney. However, the motifs that localize CFTR to the apical membrane are unknown. We report that the last 3 amino acids in the COOH-terminus of CFTR (T-R-L) comprise a PDZ-interacting domain that is required for the polarization of CFTR to the apical plasma membrane in human airway and kidney epithelial cells. In addition, the CFTR mutant, S1455X, which lacks the 26 COOH-terminal amino acids, including the PDZ-interacting domain, is mispolarized to the lateral membrane. We also demonstrate that CFTR binds to ezrin-radixin-moesin–binding phosphoprotein 50 (EBP50), an apical membrane PDZ domain–containing protein. We propose that COOH-terminal deletions of CFTR, which represent about 10% of CFTR mutations, result in defective vectorial chloride transport, partly by altering the polarized distribution of CFTR in epithelial cells. Moreover, our data demonstrate that PDZ-interacting domains and PDZ domain–containing proteins play a key role in the apical polarization of ion channels in epithelial cells.
J. Clin. Invest. 104:1353–1361 (1999).
PMCID: PMC409842  PMID: 10562297

Results 1-5 (5)