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1.  Establishing a surgical partnership between Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, and Toronto, Canada 
Canadian Journal of Surgery  2013;56(3):E19-E23.
Academic partnerships between high-and low/middle-income countries can improve the quality of surgical education and health care delivery in each setting. We report the perceived needs related to collaborative surgical education in a resource-limited setting.
We used qualitative methods to elicit the opinions of surgical faculty members and surgical residents and quantitative methods to outline surgical procedure type and volume.
Ethiopian faculty members identified the management of trauma and emergency surgical care as a priority. They identified supervision in the operating room (OR), topic-specific lectures and supervising resident assessments in the clinic as appropriate roles for partners. Residents were in agreement with faculty members, highlighting a desire for supervision in the OR and topic-specific lectures.
We present specific experiences and needs of a surgical teaching unit in a low-income country, paving the way to form a meaningful and responsive relationship between 2 surgical departments in 2 universities.
PMCID: PMC3672439  PMID: 23706853
3.  Challenges in the management of juvenile idiopathic arthritis with etanercept 
Biologic agents have been designed with the help of immunological studies to target particular areas of the immune system which are thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of disease. Etanercept is a soluble anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) agent licensed for the treatment of active poly-articular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) in children aged 4 to 17 years who have failed to respond to methotrexate alone, or who have been intolerant of methotrexate. The safety and efficacy of etanercept in this patient group has been established by one randomized controlled trial and several longitudinal studies. This, together with the fact that until recently etanercept was the only anti-TNF licensed in JIA, has made it the most common first choice biologic for many clinicians. However, there are still many unanswered questions about etanercept, including its efficacy and safety in different subtypes of JIA, in children under 4 years of age and in those with uveitis. There are still concerns about the long term safety of TNF antagonists in the pediatric age group and unanswered questions about increased risks of malignancy and infection. Although adult studies are useful to improve understanding of these risks, they are not a substitute for good quality pediatric research and follow-up studies. Adult trials often include greater numbers of patients. However, they evaluate a different population and drug behavior may vary in children due to differences in metabolism, growth and impact on a developing immune system. In addition, rheumatoid arthritis is a different disease than JIA. Clinicians need to carefully weigh up the risk benefit ratio of anti-TNF use in children with JIA and push for robust clinical trials to address the questions that remain unanswered. This article summarizes the evidence available for use of etanercept in children with JIA and highlights aspects of treatment in need of further research.
PMCID: PMC2726066  PMID: 19707402
juvenile idiopathic arthritis; biologic therapy; etanercept
4.  Long-term Psychological and Occupational Effects of Providing Hospital Healthcare during SARS Outbreak 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2006;12(12):1924-1932.
TOC Summary Line: Healthcare workers in hospitals affected by SARS experience increased psychological stress 1–2 years after the outbreak.
Healthcare workers (HCWs) found the 2003 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) to be stressful, but the long-term impact is not known. From 13 to 26 months after the SARS outbreak, 769 HCWs at 9 Toronto hospitals that treated SARS patients and 4 Hamilton hospitals that did not treat SARS patients completed a survey of several adverse outcomes. Toronto HCWs reported significantly higher levels of burnout (p = 0.019), psychological distress (p<0.001), and posttraumatic stress (p<0.001). Toronto workers were more likely to have reduced patient contact and work hours and to report behavioral consequences of stress. Variance in adverse outcomes was explained by a protective effect of the perceived adequacy of training and support and by a provocative effect of maladaptive coping style and other individual factors. The results reinforce the value of effective staff support and training in preparation for future outbreaks.
PMCID: PMC3291360  PMID: 17326946
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome; Stress, Psychological; Health Personnel; Stress, Traumatic; Burnout, Professional, research

Results 1-5 (5)