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1.  Respiratory syncytial virus infection-associated hospitalization in adults: a retrospective cohort study 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2014;14(1):665.
Background
Once considered primarily a pediatric concern, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is gaining recognition as a cause of significant morbidity and mortality in adults. A better understanding of RSV epidemiology and disease in adults is needed to guide patient management and to assess the need for prophylaxis, vaccines, and treatments.
Methods
We conducted a retrospective cohort study of adults admitted to four hospitals in Toronto, Canada, between September 2012 and June 2013 with RSV identified by a qualitative real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay in nasopharyngeal swab or bronchoscopy specimens. Main outcomes were hospital length of stay, need for intensive care unit (ICU) or mechanical ventilation, and all-cause mortality.
Results
Eighty-six patients were identified as requiring hospitalization for RSV infection (56% female). Median age was 74 (range 19–102) years; 29 (34%) were < 65 years. Eighty-three (97%) had underlying chronic medical conditions; 27 (31%) were immunosuppressed, and 10 (12%) known smokers. The most common symptoms and signs were cough in 73 (85%), shortness of breath in 68 (79%), sputum production in 54 (63%), weakness in 43 (50%), fever in 41 (48%), and wheezing in 33 (38%). Lower respiratory tract complications occurred in 45 (52%), cardiovascular complications occurred in 19 (22%), and possible co-pathogens were identified in 11 (13%). Sixty-seven (78%) were treated with antibiotics and 31 (36%) with anti-influenza therapy. Thirteen (15%) required ICU care and 8 (9%) required mechanical ventilation. Five (6%) died during hospitalization. Need for ICU and mechanical ventilation were associated with mortality (P ≤ 0.02). Median hospital length of stay was 6 days (mean 10.8 days).
Conclusions
RSV infection is associated with the need for extended hospital stay, ICU care and mortality in adults of all ages with chronic underlying conditions. Presenting signs and symptoms are nonspecific, co-infections occur, and patients often receive antibiotics and anti-influenza therapy. There is need for ongoing research and development of RSV prophylaxis, vaccines and treatments for adults.
doi:10.1186/s12879-014-0665-2
PMCID: PMC4269936  PMID: 25494918
Respiratory syncytial virus; Hospitalization; Adults
2.  In Vitro Activity of New Cephalosporins vs Streptococcus pneumoniae from the Canadian Bacterial Surveillance Network: 2008–2011 
Current Microbiology  2014;69(5):763-767.
Between 2008 and 2011, 6,895 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates were submitted to the Canadian Bacterial Surveillance Network and underwent in vitro susceptibility testing. Fifteen percent of S. pneumoniae isolates were collected from pediatric patients (0–15 years old), 48.6 % of isolates were collected from adults between 16 and 64 years of age, and 36.1 % from adults aged ≥65 years; age data were not available for 11 patients. Forty-five percent of S. pneumoniae isolates were recovered from sterile specimens, and 55 % of isolates were from nonsterile specimens. Overall, 0.4 % of isolates were resistant to penicillin, 0.4 % to ceftriaxone, 3 % to amoxicillin, 25 % to erythromycin, and 13 % to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole; 6.6 % of isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR). Among MDR isolates, resistance rates exceeded 95 % for erythromycin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The MIC90 of cethromycin, ceftaroline, and ceftobiprole against MDR isolates were 0.12, 0.25, and 1 mg/L, respectively. Ceftaroline, the active form of the prodrug ceftaroline fosamil, exhibited potent in vitro activity against the tested S. pneumoniae including all 456 multidrug-resistant strains. No ceftaroline-resistant isolates were identified.
doi:10.1007/s00284-014-0622-8
PMCID: PMC4201750  PMID: 25023636
3.  Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia and dengue virus co-infection and review of implications of coinfection 
BMJ Case Reports  2012;2012:bcr0220125804.
Dengue fever is an important public health problem in Jamaica and has various serious manifestations, which if not identified and treated at the appropriate time can lead to dire consequences. Bacterial co-infections have been seen in clinical practice but may be thought of as simply coincidental. This review highlights the importance of bacteria in exacerbating dengue infections and the importance of looking for co-infection in patients with certain clinical manifestations. It also provides the reader with a scientific understanding of the immune pathogenesis of dengue and bacterial co-infections.
doi:10.1136/bcr.02.2012.5804
PMCID: PMC3391412  PMID: 22761204
4.  A unique strain of community-acquired Clostridium difficile in severe complicated infection and death of a young adult 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2013;13:299.
Background
Clostridium difficile is the major cause of nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhoea with the potential risk of progressing to severe clinical outcomes including death. It is not unusual for Clostridium difficile infection to progress to complications of toxic megacolon, bowel perforation and even Gram-negative sepsis following pathological changes in the intestinal mucosa. These complications are however less commonly seen in community-acquired Clostridium difficile infection than in hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile infection. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first case of community-acquired Clostridium difficile infection of its type seen in Jamaica.
Case presentation
We report a case of a 22-year-old female university student who was admitted to the University Hospital of the West Indies, Jamaica with a presumptive diagnosis of pseudomembranous colitis PMC. She presented with a 5-day history of diarrhoea following clindamycin treatment for coverage of a tooth extraction due to a dental abscess. Her clinical condition deteriorated and progressed from diarrhoea to toxic megacolon, bowel perforation and Gram-negative sepsis. Clostridium difficile NAP12/ribotype 087 was isolated from her stool while blood cultures grew Klebsiella pneumoniae. Despite initial treatment intervention with empiric therapy of metronidazole and antibiotic clearance of Klebsiella pneumoniae from the blood, the patient died within 10 days of hospital admission.
Conclusions
We believe that clindamycin used for coverage of a dental abscess was an independent risk factor that initiated the disruption of the bowel micro-flora, resulting in overgrowth of Clostridium difficile NAP12/ribotype 087. This uncommon strain, which is the same ribotype (087) as ATCC 43255, was apparently responsible for the increased severity of the infection and death following toxic megacolon, bowel perforation and pseudomembranous colitis involving the entire large bowel. K. pneumoniae sepsis, resolved by antibiotic therapy was secondary to Clostridium difficile infection. The case registers community-acquired Clostridium difficile infection as producing serious complications similar to hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile infection and should be treated with the requisite importance.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-13-299
PMCID: PMC3701549  PMID: 23815405
Clostridium difficile; Klebsiella pneumoniae; Community-Acquired Infection; Diarrhoea; Clindamycin; Pseudomembranous Colitis; Toxic Megacolon
5.  Effect of Insulin and an Erythropoietin-Derived Peptide (ARA290) on Established Neuritic Dystrophy and Neuronopathy in Akita (Ins2Akita) Diabetic Mouse Sympathetic Ganglia 
Experimental neurology  2011;232(2):126-135.
The Akita mouse is a robust model of diabetic autonomic neuropathy which develops severe diabetes following beta cell death, which occurs reproducibly at 3-4 weeks of age, and maintains the diabetic state without therapy for as long as 11 additional months. Neuritic dystrophy and neuronopathy involving prevertebral sympathetic superior mesenteric and celiac ganglia begin to develop within the first two months of onset of diabetes and are progressive with time. We have examined the effect of insulin implants resulting in normoglycemia and injections of ARA290, a small erythropoietin peptide which has no effect on glycemic parameters, on the reversal of established neuritic dystrophy and neuronopathy. We have found that 4 weeks of insulin therapy beginning at 2 months of diabetes resulted in normalization of blood glucose, body weight and HbA1c. Insulin therapy successfully reversed established neuritic dystrophy and neuronopathy to control levels. Numbers of sympathetic neurons were not significantly changed in either 3 month diabetic or insulin treated Akita mice. Treatment with ARA290 for 7 weeks beginning at 4 months of diabetes did not result in altered metabolic severity of diabetes as measured by blood glucose, body weight or HbA1c levels. ARA290 treatment was able to decrease neuritic dystrophy by 55-74% compared to untreated diabetics or in comparison to a separate group of diabetic animals representing the 4 month treatment onset point. Surprisingly, there was no effect of ARA290 on ganglionic neuron number or ongoing neuronopathy (pale/degenerating neurons) in diabetic Akita mice during this time period. The development of neuroprotective EPO-like peptides may provide a possible future therapy for this debilitating complication of diabetes; however, it appears that discrete elements may be differentially targeted by the diabetic state and may require selective therapy.
doi:10.1016/j.expneurol.2011.05.025
PMCID: PMC3202026  PMID: 21872588
diabetes; Akita mouse; neuritic dystrophy; neuronopathy; erythropoietin; insulin; sympathetic ganglia
6.  Usp14 Deficiency Increases Tau Phosphorylation without Altering Tau Degradation or Causing Tau-Dependent Deficits 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(10):e47884.
Regulated protein degradation by the proteasome plays an essential role in the enhancement and suppression of signaling pathways in the nervous system. Proteasome-associated factors are pivotal in ensuring appropriate protein degradation, and we have previously demonstrated that alterations in one of these factors, the proteasomal deubiquitinating enzyme ubiquitin-specific protease 14 (Usp14), can lead to proteasome dysfunction and neurological disease. Recent studies in cell culture have shown that Usp14 can also stabilize the expression of over-expressed, disease-associated proteins such as tau and ataxin-3. Using Usp14-deficient axJ mice, we investigated if loss of Usp14 results in decreased levels of endogenous tau and ataxin-3 in the nervous system of mice. Although loss of Usp14 did not alter the overall neuronal levels of tau and ataxin-3, we found increased levels of phosphorylated tau that correlated with the onset of axonal varicosities in the Usp14-deficient mice. These changes in tau phosphorylation were accompanied by increased levels of activated phospho-Akt, phosphorylated MAPKs, and inactivated phospho-GSK3β. However, genetic ablation of tau did not alter any of the neurological deficits in the Usp14-deficient mice, demonstrating that increased levels of phosphorylated tau do not necessarily lead to neurological disease. Due to the widespread activation of intracellular signaling pathways induced by the loss of Usp14, a better understanding of the cellular pathways regulated by the proteasome is required before effective proteasomal-based therapies can be used to treat chronic neurological diseases.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047884
PMCID: PMC3483306  PMID: 23144711
7.  Susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae to Fluoroquinolones in Canada▿ 
Ciprofloxacin, the first fluoroquinolone to be used to treat lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI), demonstrates poor potency against Streptococcus pneumoniae, and its use has been associated with the emergence of resistance. During the last decade, fluoroquinolones with enhanced in vitro activity against S. pneumoniae have replaced ciprofloxacin for the treatment of LRTI. Here, we analyzed the impact of more active fluoroquinolone usage on pneumococci by examining the fluoroquinolone usage, prevalence of fluoroquinolone resistance, and mutations in the genes that encode the major target sites for the fluoroquinolones (gyrA and parC) in pneumococcal isolates collected in Canada-wide surveillance. A total of 26,081 isolates were collected between 1998 and 2009. During this time period, total per capita outpatient use of fluoroquinolones increased from 64 to 96 prescriptions per 1,000 persons per year. The proportion of prescriptions for respiratory tract infection that were for fluoroquinolones increased from 5.9% to 10.7%, but the distribution changed: the proportion of prescriptions for ciprofloxacin decreased from 5.3% to 0.5%, and those for levofloxacin or moxifloxacin increased from 1.5% in 1999 to 5.9% in 2009. The prevalence of ciprofloxacin resistance (MIC ≥ 4 μg/ml), levofloxacin resistance, and moxifloxacin resistance remained unchanged at <2%. Multivariable analyses showed that prevalence of mutations known to be associated with reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones did not change during the surveillance period. If fluoroquinolone therapy is required, the preferential use of fluoroquinolones with enhanced pneumococcal activity to treat pneumococcal infections may slow the emergence of resistance in S. pneumoniae.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00237-11
PMCID: PMC3147653  PMID: 21628545
8.  When should a diagnosis of influenza be considered in adults requiring intensive care unit admission? Results of population-based active surveillance in Toronto 
Critical Care  2011;15(4):R182.
Introduction
There is a paucity of data about the clinical characteristics that help identify patients at high risk of influenza infection upon ICU admission. We aimed to identify predictors of influenza infection in patients admitted to ICUs during the 2007/2008 and 2008/2009 influenza seasons and the second wave of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic as well as to identify populations with increased likelihood of seasonal and pandemic 2009 influenza (pH1N1) infection.
Methods
Six Toronto acute care hospitals participated in active surveillance for laboratory-confirmed influenza requiring ICU admission during periods of influenza activity from 2007 to 2009. Nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained from patients who presented to our hospitals with acute respiratory or cardiac illness or febrile illness without a clear nonrespiratory aetiology. Predictors of influenza were assessed by multivariable logistic regression analysis and the likelihood of influenza in different populations was calculated.
Results
In 5,482 patients, 126 (2.3%) were found to have influenza. Admission temperature ≥38°C (odds ratio (OR) 4.7 for pH1N1, 2.3 for seasonal influenza) and admission diagnosis of pneumonia or respiratory infection (OR 7.3 for pH1N1, 4.2 for seasonal influenza) were independent predictors for influenza. During the peak weeks of influenza seasons, 17% of afebrile patients and 27% of febrile patients with pneumonia or respiratory infection had influenza. During the second wave of the 2009 pandemic, 26% of afebrile patients and 70% of febrile patients with pneumonia or respiratory infection had influenza.
Conclusions
The findings of our study may assist clinicians in decision making regarding optimal management of adult patients admitted to ICUs during future influenza seasons. Influenza testing, empiric antiviral therapy and empiric infection control precautions should be considered in those patients who are admitted during influenza season with a diagnosis of pneumonia or respiratory infection and are either febrile or admitted during weeks of peak influenza activity.
doi:10.1186/cc10331
PMCID: PMC3387625  PMID: 21798012
9.  Self-Collected Mid-Turbinate Swabs for the Detection of Respiratory Viruses in Adults with Acute Respiratory Illnesses 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(6):e21335.
Background
The gold standard for respiratory virus testing is a nasopharyngeal (NP) swab, which is collected by a healthcare worker. Midturbinate (MT) swabs are an alternative due to their ease of collection and possible self-collection by patients. The objective of this study was to compare the respiratory virus isolation of flocked MT swabs compared to flocked NP swabs.
Methods
Beginning in October 2008, healthy adults aged 18 to 69 years were recruited into a cohort and followed up for symptoms of influenza. They were asked to have NP and MT swabs taken as soon as possible after the onset of a fever or two or more respiratory symptoms with an acute onset. The swabs were tested for viral respiratory infections using Seeplex® RV12 multiplex PCR detection kit. Seventy six pairs of simultaneous NP and MT swabs were collected from 38 symptomatic subjects. Twenty nine (38%) of these pairs were positive by either NP or MT swabs or both. Sixty nine (91%) of the pair results were concordant. Two samples (3%) for hCV OC43/HKU1 and 1 sample (1%) for rhinovirus A/B were positive by NP but negative by MT. One sample each for hCV 229E/NL63, hCV OC43/HKU1, respiratory syncytial virus A, and influenza B were positive by MT but negative by NP.
Conclusions
Flocked MT swabs are sensitive for the diagnosis of multiple respiratory viruses. Given the ease of MT collection and similar results between the two swabs, it is likely that MT swabs should be the preferred method of respiratory cell collection for outpatient studies. In light of this data, larger studies should be performed to ensure that this still holds true and data should also be collected on the patient preference of collection methods.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0021335
PMCID: PMC3121745  PMID: 21731708
10.  Risk Factors for SARS Transmission from Patients Requiring Intubation: A Multicentre Investigation in Toronto, Canada 
PLoS ONE  2010;5(5):e10717.
Background
In the 2003 Toronto SARS outbreak, SARS-CoV was transmitted in hospitals despite adherence to infection control procedures. Considerable controversy resulted regarding which procedures and behaviours were associated with the greatest risk of SARS-CoV transmission.
Methods
A retrospective cohort study was conducted to identify risk factors for transmission of SARS-CoV during intubation from laboratory confirmed SARS patients to HCWs involved in their care. All SARS patients requiring intubation during the Toronto outbreak were identified. All HCWs who provided care to intubated SARS patients during treatment or transportation and who entered a patient room or had direct patient contact from 24 hours before to 4 hours after intubation were eligible for this study. Data was collected on patients by chart review and on HCWs by interviewer-administered questionnaire. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) logistic regression models and classification and regression trees (CART) were used to identify risk factors for SARS transmission.
Results
45 laboratory-confirmed intubated SARS patients were identified. Of the 697 HCWs involved in their care, 624 (90%) participated in the study. SARS-CoV was transmitted to 26 HCWs from 7 patients; 21 HCWs were infected by 3 patients. In multivariate GEE logistic regression models, presence in the room during fiberoptic intubation (OR = 2.79, p = .004) or ECG (OR = 3.52, p = .002), unprotected eye contact with secretions (OR = 7.34, p = .001), patient APACHE II score ≥20 (OR = 17.05, p = .009) and patient Pa02/Fi02 ratio ≤59 (OR = 8.65, p = .001) were associated with increased risk of transmission of SARS-CoV. In CART analyses, the four covariates which explained the greatest amount of variation in SARS-CoV transmission were covariates representing individual patients.
Conclusion
Close contact with the airway of severely ill patients and failure of infection control practices to prevent exposure to respiratory secretions were associated with transmission of SARS-CoV. Rates of transmission of SARS-CoV varied widely among patients.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0010717
PMCID: PMC2873403  PMID: 20502660
11.  Neuritic Dystrophy and Neuronopathy in Akita (Ins2Akita) Diabetic Mouse Sympathetic Ganglia 
Experimental neurology  2008;216(1):207-218.
Diabetic autonomic neuropathy is a debilitating, poorly studied complication of diabetes. Our previous studies of non-obese diabetic (NOD) and related mouse models identified rapidly developing, dramatic pathology in prevertebral sympathetic ganglia; however, once diabetic, the mice did not survive for extended periods needed to examine the ability of therapeutic agents to correct established neuropathy. In the current manuscript we show that the Akita (Ins2Akita) mouse is a robust model of diabetic sympathetic autonomic neuropathy with unambiguous, spontaneous, rapidly-developing neuropathology which corresponds closely to the characteristic pathology of other rodent models and man. Akita mice diabetic for 2, 4 or 8 months of diabetes progressively developed markedly swollen axons and dendrites (“neuritic dystrophy”) in the prevertebral superior mesenteric (SMG) and celiac ganglia (CG). Comparable changes failed to develop in the superior cervical ganglia (SCG) of the Akita mouse or in any ganglia of non-diabetic mice. Morphometric studies demonstrate an overall increase in presynaptic axon terminal cross sectional area, including those without any ultrastructural features of dystrophy. Neurons in Akita mouse prevertebral sympathetic ganglia show an unusual perikaryal alteration characterized by the accumulation of membranous aggregates and minute mitochondria and loss of rough endoplasmic reticulum. These changes result in the loss of a third of neurons in the CG over the course of 8 months of diabetes. The extended survival of diabetic mice and robust pathologic findings provide a clinically relevant paradigm that will facilitate the analysis of novel therapeutic agents on the reversal of autonomic neuropathy.
doi:10.1016/j.expneurol.2008.11.019
PMCID: PMC2672346  PMID: 19111542
diabetes; Akita mouse; neuritic dystrophy; neuronopathy; degeneration; sympathetic ganglia
12.  Molecular epidemiology of multidrug resistant extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing Klebsiella pneumoniae at a Jamaican hospital, 2000 - 2004 
BMC Microbiology  2010;10:27.
Background
The accurate identification of a pathogen beyond the species level is critical in epidemiological studies and investigations of nosocomial outbreaks of infection. The clonal relatedness of 66 multidrug resistant (MDR) strains of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing K. pneumoniae isolated from clinical specimens from hospitalized patients at a Jamaican hospital during a 5 year period were determined by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE).
Results
A total 10 different ESBL producing K. pneumoniae genotypes designated Clones I-X were found. The most frequently occurring strains belonged to Clones I (21/66, 32%), II (15/66, 26%), III (13/66, 20%) and IV (8/66, 12%) which accounted for 86% (57/66) of ESBL producing K. pneumoniae strains over the 5 year period. The remaining 9 (14%) cases of ESBL producing K. pneumoniae were due to strains of Clones V-X. The 4 predominant clones persisted for several years in the hospital.
Conclusions
The clonal and temporal distribution of the MDR ESBL producing K. pneumoniae strains among clinical service areas did not suggest outbreaks of the organism during the period of study. Instead the molecular epidemiology of ESBL producing K. pneumoniae at this hospital was more representative of an endemic persistence of clones of the organism with limited dissemination from patient to patient. Further studies to investigate the factors which determine the emergence and persistence of MDR ESBL producing K. pneumoniae in Jamaican hospitals and their impact on clinical and economic outcomes at such institutions would be useful.
doi:10.1186/1471-2180-10-27
PMCID: PMC2824695  PMID: 20109209
13.  Characterization of the quinolone resistant determining regions in clinical isolates of pneumococci collected in Canada 
Background
The objective of this study was to examine Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates collected from a longitudinal surveillance program in order to determine their susceptibility to currently used fluoroquinolones and of the frequency and type of mutations in the quinolone-resistant determining regions (QRDRs) of their parC and gyrA genes.
Methods
The Canadian Bacterial Surveillance Network has been collecting clinical isolates of S. pneumoniae from across Canada since 1988. Broth microdilution susceptibility testing was carried out according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. The QRDRs of the parC and gyrA genes were sequenced for all isolates with ciprofloxacin MIC ≥ 4 mg/L, and a large representative sample of isolates (N = 4,243) with MIC ≤ 2 mg/L.
Results
A total of 4,798 out of 30,111 isolates collected from 1988, and 1993 to 2007 were studied. Of those isolates that were successfully sequenced, 184 out of 1,032 with mutations in parC only, 11 out of 30 with mutations in gyrA only, and 292 out of 298 with mutations in parC and gyrA were considered resistant to ciprofloxacin (MIC ≥ 4 mg/L). The most common substitutions in the parC were at positions 137 (n = 722), 79 (n = 209), and 83 (n = 56), of which substitutions at positions 79 and 83 were associated with 4-fold increase in MIC to ciprofloxacin, whereas substitutions at position 137 had minimal effect on the ciprofloxacin MIC. A total of 400 out of 622 isolates with Lys-137 parC mutation belonged to serotypes 1, 12, 31, 7A, 9V, 9N and 9L, whereas only 49 out of 3064 isolates with no mutations belonged to these serotypes. Twenty-one out of 30 isolates with substitutions at position 81 of the gyrA gene had an increased MIC to ciprofloxacin. Finally, we found that isolates with mutations in both parC and gyrA were significantly associated with increased MIC to fluoroquinolones.
Conclusions
Not all mutations, most frequently Lys-137, found in the QRDRs of the parC gene of S. pneumoniae is associated with an increased MIC to fluoroquinolones. The high prevalence of Lys-137 appears to be due to its frequent occurrence in common serotypes.
doi:10.1186/1476-0711-9-3
PMCID: PMC2823643  PMID: 20082699
14.  Genome-wide dissection of globally emergent multi-drug resistant serotype 19A Streptococcus pneumoniae 
BMC Genomics  2009;10:642.
Background
Emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) serotype 19A Streptococcus pneumoniae (SPN) is well-documented but causal factors remain unclear. Canadian SPN isolates (1993-2008, n = 11,083) were serotyped and in vitro susceptibility tested. A subset of MDR 19A were multi-locus sequence typed (MLST) and representative isolates' whole genomes sequenced.
Results
MDR 19A increased in the post-PCV7 era while 19F, 6B, and 23F concurrently declined. MLST of MDR 19A (n = 97) revealed that sequence type (ST) 320 predominated. ST320 was unique amongst MDR 19A in that its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for penicillin, amoxicillin, ceftriaxone, and erythromycin were higher than for other ST present amongst post-PCV7 MDR 19A. DNA sequencing revealed that alleles at key drug resistance loci pbp2a, pbp2x, pbp2b, ermB, mefA/E, and tetM were conserved between pre-PCV7 ST 320 19F and post-PCV7 ST 320 19A most likely due to a capsule switch recombination event. A genome wide comparison of MDR 19A ST320 with MDR 19F ST320 identified 822 unique SNPs in 19A, 61 of which were present in antimicrobial resistance genes and 100 in virulence factors.
Conclusions
Our results suggest a complex genetic picture where high-level drug resistance, vaccine selection pressure, and SPN mutational events have created a "perfect storm" for the emergence of MDR 19A.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-10-642
PMCID: PMC2807444  PMID: 20042094
15.  Synaptic Ultrastructural Alterations Anticipate the Development of Neuroaxonal Dystrophy in Sympathetic Ganglia of Aged and Diabetic Mice 
Neuroaxonal dystrophy (NAD), a distinctive axonopathy characterized by marked enlargement of distal axons, is the hallmark pathologic alteration in aged and diabetic human prevertebral sympathetic ganglia and in corresponding rodent models. NAD is thought to represent the abnormal outcome of cycles of synaptic degeneration and regeneration; a systematic study of identified axon terminals in aged and diabetic prevertebral ganglia, however, has not previously been performed. We examined the initial changes that develop in pre- and postsynaptic elements in sympathetic ganglia of aged and diabetic mice and found numerous synaptic changes involving both presynaptic and postsynaptic elements. Early alterations in presynaptic axon terminal size, vesicle content and morphology culminate in the development of anastomosing membranous tubulovesicular aggregates, accumulation of autophagosomes and amorphous debris that form a continuum with progressively larger classically dystrophic swellings. Dendritic changes consist of the development of swellings composed of delicate tubulovesicular elements and mitochondriopathy characterized by increased numbers of small mitochondria and, exclusively in aged ganglia, megamitochondria. These results support the hypothesis that NAD results from progressive changes in presynaptic axon terminals that likely involve membrane dynamics and which are accompanied by distinctive changes in postsynaptic dendritic elements.
doi:10.1097/NEN.0b013e318190d6db
PMCID: PMC2665250  PMID: 19018240
Autonomic neuropathy; Aging; Dendritic dystrophy; Diabetic neuropathy; Mitochondriopathy; Neuroaxonal dystrophy
16.  Atg5 is Essential for Cellular Immunity in vivo and recruitment of a p47 GTPase to the Toxoplasma gondii Parasitophorous Vacuole in Macrophages 
Cell host & microbe  2008;4(5):458-469.
SUMMARY
The physiologic importance of autophagy proteins for control of mammalian bacterial and parasitic infection in vivo is unknown. We show that expression of the essential autophagy protein Atg5 in granulocytes and macrophages is required for in vivo resistance to infection with L. monocytogenes and T. gondii. In primary macrophages, Atg5 was not required for IFNγ/LPS-mediated transcription, induction of nitric oxide, or inhibition of T. gondii replication. However, Atg5 was required for IFNγ/LPS-induced damage to the T. gondii parasitophorous vacuole membrane and parasite clearance. While we did not detect autophagosomes enveloping T. gondii, Atg5 was required for recruitment of the IFNγ-inducible p47 GTPase IIGP1 (Irga6) to the vacuole membrane. This work shows that Atg5 expression in phagocytic cells is essential for cellular immunity to intracellular pathogens in vivo and that an autophagy protein can participate in immunity and intracellular killing of pathogens via autophagosome-independent processes such as GTPase trafficking.
doi:10.1016/j.chom.2008.10.003
PMCID: PMC2682425  PMID: 18996346
17.  Population-Based Surveillance for Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in Homeless Adults in Toronto 
PLoS ONE  2009;4(9):e7255.
Background
Identification of high-risk populations for serious infection due to S. pneumoniae will permit appropriately targeted prevention programs.
Methods
We conducted prospective, population-based surveillance for invasive pneumococcal disease and laboratory confirmed pneumococcal pneumonia in homeless adults in Toronto, a Canadian city with a total population of 2.5 M, from January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2006.
Results
We identified 69 cases of invasive pneumococcal disease and 27 cases of laboratory confirmed pneumococcal pneumonia in an estimated population of 5050 homeless adults. The incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease in homeless adults was 273 infections per 100,000 persons per year, compared to 9 per 100,000 persons per year in the general adult population. Homeless persons with invasive pneumococcal disease were younger than other adults (median age 46 years vs 67 years, P<.001), and more likely than other adults to be smokers (95% vs. 31%, P<.001), to abuse alcohol (62% vs 15%, P<.001), and to use intravenous drugs (42% vs 4%, P<.001). Relative to age matched controls, they were more likely to have underlying lung disease (12/69, 17% vs 17/272, 6%, P = .006), but not more likely to be HIV infected (17/69, 25% vs 58/282, 21%, P = .73). The proportion of patients with recurrent disease was five fold higher for homeless than other adults (7/58, 12% vs. 24/943, 2.5%, P<.001). In homeless adults, 28 (32%) of pneumococcal isolates were of serotypes included in the 7-valent conjugate vaccine, 42 (48%) of serotypes included in the 13-valent conjugate vaccine, and 72 (83%) of serotypes included in the 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine. Although no outbreaks of disease were identified in shelters, there was evidence of clustering of serotypes suggestive of transmission of pathogenic strains within the homeless population.
Conclusions
Homeless persons are at high risk of serious pneumococcal infection. Vaccination, physical structure changes or other program to reduce transmission in shelters, harm reduction programs to reduce rates of smoking, alcohol abuse and infection with bloodborne pathogens, and improved treatment programs for HIV infection may all be effective in reducing the risk.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0007255
PMCID: PMC2749333  PMID: 19787070
18.  Erythropoietin and its Carbamylated Derivative Prevent the Development of Experimental Diabetic Autonomic Neuropathy in STZ-Induced Diabetic NOD-SCID Mice 
Experimental neurology  2007;209(1):161-170.
Autonomic neuropathy is a significant diabetic complication resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. Studies of autopsied diabetic patients and several rodent models demonstrate that the neuropathologic hallmark of diabetic sympathetic autonomic neuropathy in prevertebral ganglia is the occurrence of synaptic pathology resulting in distinctive dystrophic neurites (“neuritic dystrophy”). Our prior studies show that neuritic dystrophy is reversed by exogenous IGF-I administration without altering the metabolic severity of diabetes, i.e. functioning as a neurotrophic substance. The description of erythropoietin (EPO) synergy with IGF-I function and the recent discovery of EPO’s multifaceted neuroprotective role suggested it might substitute for IGF-I in treatment of diabetic autonomic neuropathy. Our current studies demonstrate EPO receptor (EPO-R) mRNA in a cDNA set prepared from NGF-maintained rat sympathetic neuron cultures which decreased with NGF deprivation, a result which demonstrates clearly that sympathetic neurons express EPO-R, a result confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Treatment of STZ-diabetic NOD-SCID mice have demonstrated a dramatic preventative effect of EPO and carbamylated EPO (CEPO, which is neuroprotective but not hematopoietic) on the development of neuritic dystrophy. Neither EPO nor CEPO had a demonstrable effect on the metabolic severity of diabetes. Our results coupled with reported salutary effects of EPO on postural hypotension in a few clinical studies of EPO-treated anemic diabetic and non-diabetic patients may reflect a primary neurotrophic effect of EPO on the sympathetic autonomic nervous system, rather than a primary hematopoietic effect. These findings may represent a major clinical advance since EPO has been widely and safely used in anemic patients due to a variety of clinical conditions.
doi:10.1016/j.expneurol.2007.09.018
PMCID: PMC2233795  PMID: 17967455
Diabetes; autonomic neuropathy; sympathetic; neuropathology; ganglia; neuroaxonal dystrophy; synapse
19.  Asymptomatic bacteriuria in sickle cell disease: a cross-sectional study 
Background
It is known that there is significant morbidity associated with urinary tract infection and with renal dysfunction in sickle cell disease (SCD). However, it is not known if there are potential adverse outcomes associated with asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) infections in sickle cell disease if left untreated. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of ASB, in a cohort of patients with SCD.
Methods
This is a cross-sectional study of patients in the Jamaican Sickle Cell Cohort. Aseptically collected mid-stream urine (MSU) samples were obtained from 266 patients for urinalysis, culture and sensitivity analysis. Proteinuria was measured by urine dipsticks. Individuals with abnormal urine culture results had repeat urine culture. Serum creatinine was measured and steady state haematology and uric acid concentrations were obtained from clinical records. This was completed at a primary care health clinic dedicated to sickle cell diseases in Kingston, Jamaica. There were 133 males and 133 females in the sample studied. The mean age (mean ± sd) of participants was 26.6 ± 2.5 years. The main outcome measures were the culture of ≥ 105 colony forming units of a urinary tract pathogen per milliliter of urine from a MSU specimen on a single occasion (probable ASB) or on consecutive occasions (confirmed ASB).
Results
Of the 266 urines collected, 234 were sterile and 29 had significant bacteriuria yielding a prevalence of probable ASB of 10.9% (29/266). Fourteen patients had confirmed ASB (prevalence 5.3%) of which 13 had pyuria. Controlling for genotype, females were 14.7 times more likely to have confirmed ASB compared to males (95%CI 1.8 to 121.0). The number of recorded visits for symptomatic UTI was increased by a factor of 2.5 (95% CI 1.4 to 4.5, p < 0.005) but serum creatinine, uric acid and haematology values were not different in patients with confirmed ASB compared with those with sterile urine. There was no association with history of gram negative sepsis.
Conclusion
ASB is a significant problem in individuals with SCD and may be the source of pathogens in UTI. However, further research is needed to determine the clinical significance of ASB in SCD.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-6-46
PMCID: PMC1434754  PMID: 16539735
20.  Prevalence and Characterization of Invasive Isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes with Reduced Susceptibility to Fluoroquinolones 
Fluoroquinolone susceptibility testing was performed on invasive group A streptococcus isolates from 1992-1993 and 2003 from Ontario, Canada. None were nonsusceptible to levofloxacin. Two of 153 (1.3%) from 1992-1993 and 7 of 160 (4.4%) from 2003 had a levofloxacin MIC of 2 μg/ml; all nine had parC mutations, and eight were serotype M6.
doi:10.1128/AAC.49.5.2130-2132.2005
PMCID: PMC1087656  PMID: 15855546
21.  Patient Contact Recall after SARS Exposure 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2005;11(4):625-628.
We reinterviewed healthcare workers who had been exposed to a patient with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in an intensive care unit to evaluate the effect of time on recall reliability and willingness to report contact activities and infection control precautions. Healthcare workers reliably recalled events 6 months after exposure.
doi:10.3201/eid1104.040648
PMCID: PMC3320347  PMID: 15829207
dispatch; SARS; occupational exposure; intensive care unit; recall; reliability
22.  In Vitro Antimicrobial Susceptibilities of Streptococcus pneumoniae Clinical Isolates Obtained in Canada in 2002 
Empirical treatment is best guided by current surveillance of local resistance patterns. The goal of this study is to characterize the prevalence of antimicrobial nonsusceptibility within pneumococcal isolates from Canada. The Canadian Bacterial Surveillance Network is comprised of laboratories from across Canada. Laboratories collected a defined number of consecutive clinical and all sterile site isolates of S. pneumoniae in 2002. In vitro susceptibility testing was performed by broth microdilution with NCCLS guidelines. Rates of nonsusceptibility were compared to previously published reports from the same network. A total of 2,539 isolates were tested. Penicillin nonsusceptibility increased to 15% (8.5% intermediate, 6.5% resistant) compared to 12.4% in 2000 (P ≤ 0.025, χ2). Only 32 (1.3%) isolates had an amoxicillin MIC of ≥4 μg/ml and only 2 of 32 cerebrospinal fluid isolates had an intermediate susceptibility to ceftriaxone by meningeal interpretive criteria (MIC = 1 μg/ml). A total of 354 (13.9%) isolates were macrolide nonsusceptible (46.3% MLSB, 56.7% M phenotype), increasing from 11.4% in 2000 (P ≤ 0.0075, χ2). Only 13 (<1%) isolates had a telithromycin MIC of >1 μg/ml. Ciprofloxacin nonsusceptibility (defined as an MIC of ≥4 μg/ml) increased to 2.7% compared to 1.4% in 2000 (P ≤ 0.0025, χ2) and was primarily found in persons ≥18 years old (98.5%). Nonsusceptibility to penicillin, macrolides, and fluoroquinolones is increasing in Canada. Nonsusceptibility to amoxicillin and ceftriaxone remains uncommon. Newer antimicrobials such as telithromycin and respiratory fluoroquinolones have excellent in vitro activity.
doi:10.1128/AAC.48.9.3305-3311.2004
PMCID: PMC514745  PMID: 15328089
23.  SARS among Critical Care Nurses, Toronto 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2004;10(2):251-255.
To determine factors that predispose or protect healthcare workers from severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), we conducted a retrospective cohort study among 43 nurses who worked in two Toronto critical care units with SARS patients. Eight of 32 nurses who entered a SARS patient’s room were infected. The probability of SARS infection was 6% per shift worked. Assisting during intubation, suctioning before intubation, and manipulating the oxygen mask were high-risk activities. Consistently wearing a mask (either surgical or particulate respirator type N95) while caring for a SARS patient was protective for the nurses, and consistent use of the N95 mask was more protective than not wearing a mask. Risk was reduced by consistent use of a surgical mask, but not significantly. Risk was lower with consistent use of a N95 mask than with consistent use of a surgical mask. We conclude that activities related to intubation increase SARS risk and use of a mask (particularly a N95 mask) is protective.
doi:10.3201/eid1002.030838
PMCID: PMC3322898  PMID: 15030692
SARS; severe acute respiratory syndrome; critical care; risk factors; respiratory protective devices; masks; intubation; nursing; infection control
24.  Possible SARS Coronavirus Transmission during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2004;10(2):287-293.
Infection of healthcare workers with the severe acute respiratory syndrome–associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is thought to occur primarily by either contact or large respiratory droplet transmission. However, infrequent healthcare worker infections occurred despite the use of contact and droplet precautions, particularly during certain aerosol-generating medical procedures. We investigated a possible cluster of SARS-CoV infections in healthcare workers who used contact and droplet precautions during attempted cardiopulmonary resuscitation of a SARS patient. Unlike previously reported instances of transmission during aerosol-generating procedures, the index case-patient was unresponsive, and the intubation procedure was performed quickly and without difficulty. However, before intubation, the patient was ventilated with a bag-valve-mask that may have contributed to aerosolization of SARS-CoV. On the basis of the results of this investigation and previous reports of SARS transmission during aerosol-generating procedures, a systematic approach to the problem is outlined, including the use of the following: 1) administrative controls, 2) environmental engineering controls, 3) personal protective equipment, and 4) quality control.
doi:10.3201/eid1002.030700
PMCID: PMC3322904  PMID: 15030699
SARS virus; resuscitation; occupational health; infection control; transmission; healthcare worker

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