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1.  Risk Factors for SARS Transmission from Patients Requiring Intubation: A Multicentre Investigation in Toronto, Canada 
PLoS ONE  2010;5(5):e10717.
Background
In the 2003 Toronto SARS outbreak, SARS-CoV was transmitted in hospitals despite adherence to infection control procedures. Considerable controversy resulted regarding which procedures and behaviours were associated with the greatest risk of SARS-CoV transmission.
Methods
A retrospective cohort study was conducted to identify risk factors for transmission of SARS-CoV during intubation from laboratory confirmed SARS patients to HCWs involved in their care. All SARS patients requiring intubation during the Toronto outbreak were identified. All HCWs who provided care to intubated SARS patients during treatment or transportation and who entered a patient room or had direct patient contact from 24 hours before to 4 hours after intubation were eligible for this study. Data was collected on patients by chart review and on HCWs by interviewer-administered questionnaire. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) logistic regression models and classification and regression trees (CART) were used to identify risk factors for SARS transmission.
Results
45 laboratory-confirmed intubated SARS patients were identified. Of the 697 HCWs involved in their care, 624 (90%) participated in the study. SARS-CoV was transmitted to 26 HCWs from 7 patients; 21 HCWs were infected by 3 patients. In multivariate GEE logistic regression models, presence in the room during fiberoptic intubation (OR = 2.79, p = .004) or ECG (OR = 3.52, p = .002), unprotected eye contact with secretions (OR = 7.34, p = .001), patient APACHE II score ≥20 (OR = 17.05, p = .009) and patient Pa02/Fi02 ratio ≤59 (OR = 8.65, p = .001) were associated with increased risk of transmission of SARS-CoV. In CART analyses, the four covariates which explained the greatest amount of variation in SARS-CoV transmission were covariates representing individual patients.
Conclusion
Close contact with the airway of severely ill patients and failure of infection control practices to prevent exposure to respiratory secretions were associated with transmission of SARS-CoV. Rates of transmission of SARS-CoV varied widely among patients.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0010717
PMCID: PMC2873403  PMID: 20502660
2.  Parotitis in a Child Infected with Triple-Reassortant Influenza A Virus in Canada in 2007 ▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2009;47(6):1896-1898.
Swine H3N2 influenza virus designated A/Ontario/1252/2007 was isolated from a child with parotitis. Diagnosis was confirmed by viral isolation and serological assays. A/Ontario/1252/2007 was related to H3N2 triple reassortants that emerged in swine in the United States in 1998. Three of five tested household members were also seropositive for A/Ontario/1252/2007.
doi:10.1128/JCM.01684-08
PMCID: PMC2691105  PMID: 19339469
3.  A nosocomial outbreak of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among healthy newborns and postpartum mothers 
BACKGROUND
Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has increasingly been isolated from individuals with no predisposing risk factors; however, such strains have rarely been linked to outbreaks in the hospital setting. The present study describes the investigation of an outbreak of CA-MRSA that occurred in the maternal-newborn unit of a large community teaching hospital in Toronto, Ontario.
METHODS
Screening and clinical specimens collected from mothers and newborns delivered during the outbreak period, as well as from staff on the affected unit, were submitted for microbiological testing. Computerized delivery logs and nursing notes were reviewed, and a case control study was conducted.
RESULTS
Analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed 38 babies and seven mothers with MRSA colonization and/or infection by the same unique strain (Canadian MRSA-10-related) from September to December 2004. Isolates were characterized as having the staphylococcal chromosome cassette mec type IVa and were positive for the Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene. No one health care worker was associated with all cases; however, mothers and newborns exposed to one particular nurse (Nurse A) were almost 23 times (odds ratio 22.7, 95% CI 3.3 to 195.9) more likely to acquire MRSA than those with no such contact. MRSA was successfully isolated from Nurse A and from an environmental swab of a telephone recently used by Nurse A; both isolates matched the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern of the outbreak strain.
CONCLUSION
The first nosocomial outbreak of CA-MRSA among healthy newborns and postpartum mothers in Canada is described. Effective control of sustained MRSA transmission within an institution may require prompt identification, treatment and monitoring of colonized and/or infected staff.
PMCID: PMC2533535  PMID: 18923766
Community-acquired MRSA; Panton-Valentine leukocidin; SCCmec type IV

Results 1-3 (3)