Tumor-to-tumor metastasis is a fairly rare phenomenon. The lung cancers are the most common donors, but are exceedingly rare as recipients. Here we report a case of a lung adenocarcinoma acting as the recipient of papillary thyroid carcinoma, with multiple spreading foci of the two cancers in the lung simultaneously. The morphology and immunohistochemisty (Napsin-A, Thyroglobulin) are very important in differential diagnosis of lung primary adenocarcinoma and metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma.
The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2069496615891134
Tumor-to-tumor metastasis; Papillary thyroid carcinoma; Lung adenocarcinoma; Napsin-A; Thyroglobulin
Berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid, is an active component of Ranunculaceae and Papaveraceae plant families. Berberine has been found to suppress growth of several tumor cell lines in vitro through the cell-type-dependent mechanism. Expression and activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is increased in colonic precancerous lesions and tumours, thus EGFR is considered a tumour promoter. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and mechanisms of berberine on regulation of EGFR activity and proliferation in colonic tumor cell lines and in vivo. We reported that berberine significantly inhibited basal level and EGF-stimulated EGFR activation and proliferation in the immorto Min mouse colonic epithelial (IMCE) cells carrying the APCmin mutation and human colonic carcinoma cell line, HT-29 cells. Berberine acted to inhibit proliferation through inducing G1/S and G2/M cell cycle arrest, which correlated with regulation of the checkpoint protein expression. In this study, we also showed that berberine stimulated ubiquitin ligase Cbl activation and Cbl's interaction with EGFR, and EGFR ubiquitinylation and down-regulation in these two cell lines in the presence or absence of EGF treatment. Knock-down Cbl expression blocked the effects of berberine on down-regulation of EGFR and inhibition of proliferation. Furthermore, berberine suppressed tumor growth in the HT-29 cell xenograft model. Cell proliferation and EGFR expression level was decreased by berberine treatment in this xenograft model and in colon epithelial cells of APCmin/+ mice. Taken together, these data indicate that berberine enhances Cbl activity, resulting in down-regulation of EGFR expression and inhibition of proliferation in colon tumor cells.
Endoscopic resection is a less invasive treatment than esophagectomy for superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, but patients with lymph node metastasis need additional treatment after endoscopic resection. The purpose of this study was to establish a set of indicators to identify superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients at a high risk of metastasis. 271 superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma esophagectomy cases were reviewed retrospectively. The relationships between clinicopathological parameters and immunohistochemical findings (p53, Cyclin D1, EGFR and VEGF) on tissue microarrays, on the one hand, and lymph node metastasis were assessed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Patients with intraluminal masses and ulcerated masses had a high risk of lymph node metastasis. Patients with superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma 1) thinner than 1200µm; 2) confined to the mucosa; 3) with submucosal invasion <250µm; 4) with submucosal invasion ≥250µm but with negative VEGF expression and well/moderately differentiated or basaloid histology; or 5) with submucosal invasion ≥250µm but with weak VEGF expression and well differentiated histology had almost no risk of lymph node metastasis. We recommend endoscopic resection for all erosive, papillary and plaque-like superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinomas where endoscopic resection is clinically feasible, and esophagectomy for all other erosive, papillary and plaque-like cases and all intraluminal masses and ulcerated tumors. No additional treatment is needed for endoscopic resection cases with superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma 1) thinner than 1200µm; 2) confined to the mucosa; 3) with submucosal invasion <250µm; 4) with submucosal invasion ≥250µm but with negative VEGF expression and well/moderately differentiated or basaloid histology; or 5) with submucosal invasion ≥250µm but with weak VEGF expression and well differentiated histology. These clinical and pathological criteria should enable more accurate selection of patients for these procedures.
superficial cancer; esophageal cancer; squamous cell carcinoma; endoscopic resection; lymph node metastasis
Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is safe and effective for eradicating neoplasia in Barrett’s esophagus.
Evaluate RFA for eradicating early esophageal squamous cell neoplasia (ESCN) defined as moderate- and high-grade squamous intraepithelial neoplasia (MGIN, HGIN) and early flat-type esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).
Prospective cohort study.
Tertiary referral center.
Esophageal unstained lesions (USLs) were identified using Lugol’s chromoendoscopy. Inclusion: at least 1 flat (type 0-IIb) USL ≥3cm, USL-bearing esophagus ≤12 cm, and a consensus diagnosis of MGIN, HGIN, or ESCC by two expert GI pathologists. Exclusion: prior endoscopic resection or ablation, stricture, or any non-flat mucosa.
Circumferential RFA creating a continuous treatment area (TA) including all USLs. At 3-month intervals thereafter, chromoendoscopy with biopsies, followed by focal RFA of USLs, if present.
Main outcome measures
Complete response (CR) at 12 months, defined as absence of MGIN, HGIN or ESCC in TA; CR after one RFA session; neoplastic progression from baseline; and adverse events.
29 patients (14 male, mean age 60.3 years) with MGIN (18), HGIN (10), or ESCC (1) participated. Mean USL length was 6.2 cm (TA 8.2 cm). At 3-months, after one RFA session, 86% of patients (25/29) were CR. At 12-months, 97% (28/29) of patients were CR. There was no neoplastic progression. There were 4 strictures, all dilated to resolution.
Single center study with limited number of patients.
In patients with early ESCN (MGIN, HGIN, flat-type ESCC), RFA was associated with a high rate of histological complete response (97% of patients), no neoplastic progression, and an acceptable adverse event profile.
Stromal fibroblasts are important determinants of tumor cell behavior. They act to condition the tumor microenvironment, influence tumor growth, support tumor angiogenesis and affect tumor metastasis. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans, present both on tumor and stromal cells, interact with a large number of ligands including growth factors, their receptors, and structural components of the extracellular matrix. Being ubiquitously expressed in the tumor microenvironment heparan sulfate proteoglycans are candidates for playing central roles in tumor-stroma interactions. The objective of this work was to investigate the role of heparan sulfate expressed by stromal fibroblasts in modulating the growth of tumor cells and in controlling the interstitial fluid pressure in a 3-D model.
We generated spheroids composed of fibroblasts alone, or composite spheroids, composed of fibroblasts and tumor cells. Here we show that stromal fibroblasts with a mutation in the heparan sulfate elongating enzyme Ext1 and thus a low heparan sulfate content, formed composite fibroblast/tumor cell spheroids with a significant lower interstitial fluid pressure than corresponding wild-type fibroblast/tumor cell composite spheroids. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry of composite spheroids revealed that the cells segregated, so that after 6 days in culture, the wild-type fibroblasts formed an inner core and the tumor cells an outer layer of cells. For composite spheroids containing Ext1-mutated fibroblasts this segregation was less obvious, indicating impaired cell migration. Analysis of tumor cells expressing the firefly luciferase gene revealed that the changes in tumor cell migration in mutant fibroblast/tumor cell composite spheroids coincided with a lower proliferation rate.
This is the first demonstration that stromal Ext1-levels modulate tumor cell proliferation and affect the interstitial fluid pressure in a 3-D spheroid model. Learning how structural changes in stromal heparan sulfate influence tumor cells is essential for our understanding how non-malignant cells of the tumor microenvironment influence tumor cell progression.
Priority of neurological decompression was regarded as necessary for scoliosis patients associated with Chiari I malformation in order to decrease the risk of spinal cord injury from scoliosis surgery. We report a retrospective series of scoliosis associated with Chiari I malformation in 13 adolescent patients and explore the effectiveness and safety of posterior scoliosis correction without suboccipital decompression. One-stage posterior approach total vertebral column resection was performed in seven patients with scoliosis or kyphosis curve >90° (average 100.1° scoliotic and 97.1° kyphotic curves) or presented with apparent neurological deficits, whereas the other six patients underwent posterior pedicle screw instrumentation for correction of spinal deformity alone (average 77.3° scoliotic and 44.0° kyphotic curves). The apex of the scoliosis curve was located at T7–T12. Mean operating time and intraoperative hemorrhage was 463 min and 5,190 ml in patients undergoing total vertebral column resection, with average correction rate of scoliosis and kyphosis being 63.3 and 71.1%, respectively. Mean operating time and intraoperative hemorrhage in patients undergoing instrumentation alone was 246 min and 1,450 ml, with the average correction rate of scoliosis and kyphosis being 60.8 and 53.4%, respectively. The mean follow-up duration was 32.2 months. No iatrogenic neurological deterioration had been encountered during the operation procedure and follow-up. After vertebral column resection, neurological dysfunctions such as relaxation of anal sphincter or hypermyotonia that occurred in three patients preoperatively improved gradually. In summary, suboccipital decompression prior to correction of spine deformity may not always be necessary for adolescent patients with scoliosis associated with Chiari I malformation. Particularly in patients with a severe and rigid curve or with significant neurological deficits, posterior approach total vertebral column resection is likely a good option, which could not only result in satisfactory correction of deformity, but also decrease the risk of neurological injury secondary to surgical intervention by shortening spine and reducing the tension of spinal cord.
Scoliosis; Kyphosis; Chiari malformation; Adolescent; Corrective surgery
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is highly prevalent in China and other Asian countries, as a major cause of cancer-related mortality. ESCC displays complex chromosomal abnormalities, including multiple structural and numerical aberrations. Chromosomal abnormalities, such as recurrent amplifications and homozygous deletions, directly contribute to tumorigenesis through altering the expression of key oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes.
To understand the role of genetic alterations in ESCC pathogenesis and identify critical amplification/deletion targets, we performed genome-wide 1-Mb array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis for 10 commonly used ESCC cell lines. Recurrent chromosomal gains were frequently detected on 3q26-27, 5p15-14, 8p12, 8p22-24, 11q13, 13q21-31, 18p11 and 20q11-13, with frequent losses also found on 8p23-22, 11q22, 14q32 and 18q11-23. Gain of 11q13.3-13.4 was the most frequent alteration in ESCC. Within this region, CCND1 oncogene was identified with high level of amplification and overexpression in ESCC, while FGF19 and SHANK2 was also remarkably over-expressed. Moreover, a high concordance (91.5%) of gene amplification and protein overexpression of CCND1 was observed in primary ESCC tumors. CCND1 amplification/overexpression was also significantly correlated with the lymph node metastasis of ESCC.
These findings suggest that genomic gain of 11q13 is the major mechanism contributing to the amplification. Novel oncogenes identified within the 11q13 amplicon including FGF19 and SHANK2 may play important roles in ESCC tumorigenesis.
Modern science of networks has brought significant advances to our understanding of complex systems biology. As a representative model of systems biology, Protein Interaction Networks (PINs) are characterized by a remarkable modular structures, reflecting functional associations between their components. Many methods were proposed to capture cohesive modules so that there is a higher density of edges within modules than those across them. Recent studies reveal that cohesively interacting modules of proteins is not a universal organizing principle in PINs, which has opened up new avenues for revisiting functional modules in PINs. In this paper, functional clusters in PINs are found to be able to form unorthodox structures defined as bi-sparse module. In contrast to the traditional cohesive module, the nodes in the bi-sparse module are sparsely connected internally and densely connected with other bi-sparse or cohesive modules. We present a novel protocol called the BinTree Seeking (BTS) for mining both bi-sparse and cohesive modules in PINs based on Edge Density of Module (EDM) and matrix theory. BTS detects modules by depicting links and nodes rather than nodes alone and its derivation procedure is totally performed on adjacency matrix of networks. The number of modules in a PIN can be automatically determined in the proposed BTS approach. BTS is tested on three real PINs and the results demonstrate that functional modules in PINs are not dominantly cohesive but can be sparse. BTS software and the supporting information are available at: www.csbio.sjtu.edu.cn/bioinf/BTS/.
Several MHC class II alleles linked with autoimmune diseases form unusually low-stability complexes with class II-associated invariant chain peptides (CLIP), leading us to hypothesize that this is an important feature contributing to autoimmune pathogenesis. We recently demonstrated a novel post-endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperoning role of the CLIP peptides for the murine class II allele I-Ed. In the current study, we tested the generality of this CLIP chaperone function using a series of invariant chain (Ii) mutants designed to have varying CLIP affinity for I-Ag7. In cells expressing these Ii CLIP mutants, I-Ag7 abundance, turnover and antigen presentation are all subject to regulation by CLIP affinity, similar to I-Ed. However, I-Ag7 undergoes much greater quantitative changes than observed for I-Ed. In addition, we find that Ii with a CLIP region optimized for I-Ag7 binding may be preferentially assembled with I-Ag7 even in the presence of higher levels of wild-type Ii. This finding indicates that, although other regions of Ii interact with class II, CLIP binding to the groove is likely to be a dominant event in assembly of nascent class II molecules with Ii in the ER.
antigen presentation/processing; autoimmunity; CLIP; MHC
Surgical treatment of complex severe spinal deformity, involving a scoliosis Cobb angle of more than 90° and kyphosis or vertebral and rib deformity, is challenging. Preoperative two-dimensional images resulting from plain film radiography, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging provide limited morphometric information. Although the three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction CT with special software can view the stereo and rotate the spinal image on the screen, it cannot show the full-scale spine and cannot directly be used on the operation table. This study was conducted to investigate the application of computer-designed polystyrene models in the treatment of complex severe spinal deformity. The study involved 16 cases of complex severe spinal deformity treated in our hospital between 1 May 2004 and 31 December 2007; the mean ± SD preoperative scoliosis Cobb angle was 118° ± 27°. The CT scanning digital imaging and communication in medicine (DICOM) data sets of the affected spinal segments were collected for 3D digital reconstruction and rapid prototyping to prepare computer-designed polystyrene models, which were applied in the treatment of these cases. The computer-designed polystyrene models allowed 3D observation and measurement of the deformities directly, which helped the surgeon to perform morphological assessment and communicate with the patient and colleagues. Furthermore, the models also guided the choice and placement of pedicle screws. Moreover, the models were used to aid in virtual surgery and guide the actual surgical procedure. The mean ± SD postoperative scoliosis Cobb angle was 42° ± 32°, and no serious complications such as spinal cord or major vascular injury occurred. The use of computer-designed polystyrene models could provide more accurate morphometric information and facilitate surgical correction of complex severe spinal deformity.
Spinal deformity; Severe; Polystyrene models; Rapid prototyping
Although paclitaxel is a frontline antineoplastic agent for treatment of solid tumors, the paclitaxel-evoked pain syndrome is a serious problem for patients. There is currently no valid drug to prevent or treat the paclitaxel-induced allodynia, partly due to lack of understanding regarding the cellular mechanism. Studies have shown that minocycline, an inhibitor of microglia/macrophage, prevented neuropathic pain and promoted neuronal survival in animal models of neurodegenerative disease. Recently, Cata et al also reported that minocycline inhibited allodynia induced by low-dose paclitaxel (2 mg/kg) in rats, but the mechanism is still unclear.
Here, we investigate by immunohistochemistry the change of intraepidermal nerve fiber (IENF) in the hind paw glabrous skin, expression of macrophage and activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) in DRG at different time points after moderate-dose paclitaxel treatment (cumulative dose 24 mg/kg; 3 × 8 mg/kg) in rats. Moreover, we observe the effect of minocycline on the IENF, macrophages and ATF3. The results showed that moderate-dose paclitaxel induced a persisted, gradual mechanical allodynia, which was accompanied by the loss of IENF in the hind paw glabrous skin and up-regulation of macrophages and ATF3 in DRG in rats. The expressions of ATF3 mainly focus on the NF200-positive cells. More importantly, we observed that pretreatment of minocycline at dose of 30 mg/kg or 50 mg/kg, but not 5 mg/kg, prevented paclitaxel-evoked allodynia. The evidence from immunohistochemistry showed that 30 mg/kg minocycline rescued the degeneration of IENF, attenuated infiltration of macrophages and up-regulation of ATF3 induced by paclitaxel treatment in rats.
Minocycline prevents paclitaxel-evoked allodynia, likely due to its inhibition on loss of IENF, infiltration of macrophages and up-regulation of ATF3 in rats. The finding might provide potential target for preventing paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure is a risk factor for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), and PAHs are ligands of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). This study measured the expression of AhR and related genes in frozen esophageal cell samples from patients exposed to different levels of indoor air pollution, who did or did not have high-grade squamous dysplasia (HGD), and who did or did not have a family history (FH) of upper gastrointestinal cancer (UGI Ca).
147 samples were evaluated, including 23 (16%) from patients with HGD and 48 (33%) from patients without DYS who heated their homes with coal, without a chimney (a “high” indoor air pollution group), and 27 (18%) from patients with HGD and 49 (33%) from patients without DYS who did not heat their homes at all (a “low” indoor air pollution group). Nearly half (64 (44%)) had a FH of UGI Ca. RNA was extracted and Quantitative-PCR analysis was performed.
AhR gene expression was detectable in 85 (58%) of the samples, and was more than 9-fold higher in those with a FH of UGI Ca (median expression (IQR) -1964 (-18000, -610) versus -18000 (-18000, -1036) Wilcoxon P = 0.02). Heating status, dysplasia category, age, gender, and smoking were not associated with AhR expression (linear regression, all P-values ≥0.1).
AhR expression was higher in patients with a FH of UGI Ca. Such individuals may be more susceptible to the deleterious effects of PAH exposure, including PAH-induced cancer.
Gastrointestinal tract cancer; Esophagus; Aryl hydrocarbon receptor; family history of cancer; gene expression; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
Whether thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) directly induces potent human CD4+ T cell proliferation and Th2 differentiation is unknown. We report that resting and activated CD4+ T cells expressed high levels of IL-7 receptor a chain but very low levels of TSLP receptor (TSLPR) when compared with levels expressed in myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs). This was confirmed by immunohistology and flow cytometry analyses showing that only a subset of mDCs, with more activated phenotypes, expressed TSLPR in human tonsils in vivo. IL-7 induced strong STAT1, -3, and -5 activation and promoted the proliferation of naive CD4+ T cells in the presence of anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 monoclonal antibodies, whereas TSLP induced weak STAT5 activation, associated with marginally improved cell survival and proliferation, but failed to induce cell expansion and Th2 differentiation. The effect of TSLP on enhancing strong human T cell proliferation was observed only when sorted naive CD4+ T cells were cultured with mDCs at levels as low as 0.5%. TSLP could only induce naive CD4+ T cells to differentiate into Th2 cells in the presence of allogeneic mDCs. These results demonstrate that IL-7 and TSLP use different mechanisms to regulate human CD4+ T cell homeostasis.
Dysfunction of the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many neurological diseases, including Alzheimer's, spinocerebellar ataxia, and several motor neuron diseases. Recent research indicates that changes in synaptic transmission may play a critical role in the progression of neurological disease; however, the mechanisms by which the UPS regulates synaptic structure and function have not been well characterized. In this report, we show that Usp14 is indispensable for synaptic development and function at neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). Usp14-deficient axJ mice display a resting tremor, a reduction in muscle mass, and notable hind-limb rigidity without any detectable loss of motor neurons. Instead, loss of Usp14 causes developmental defects at motor neuron endplates. Presynaptic defects include phosphorylated neurofilament accumulations, nerve terminal sprouting and poor arborization of the motor nerve terminals, while postsynaptic acetylcholine receptors display immature plaque-like morphology. These structural changes in the NMJ correlated with ubiquitin loss in the spinal cord and sciatic nerve. Further studies demonstrated that the greatest loss of ubiquitin was found in synaptosomal fractions, suggesting that the endplate swellings may be caused by decreased protein turnover at the synapse. Transgenic restoration of Usp14 in the nervous system corrected the levels of monomeric ubiquitin in the motor neuron circuit and the defects that were observed in the motor endplates and muscles of the axJ mice. These data define a critical role for Usp14 at mammalian synapses and suggest a requirement for local ubiquitin recycling by the proteasome to control the development and function of NMJs.
proteasome; ubiquitin; neuromuscular junction; Usp14; synapse; Motoneuron
Squamous dysplasia is the precursor lesion for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), and nutritional factors play an important role in the etiology of this cancer. Previous studies using a variety of measures of vitamin D exposure have reached different conclusions about the association between vitamin D and risk of developing esophageal cancer.
We measured serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations in a cross-sectional analysis of 720 subjects from Linxian, China, a population at high risk for developing ESCC. All subjects underwent endoscopy and biopsy and were categorized by presence or absence of histologic squamous dysplasia. We used crude and multivariate adjusted generalized linear models to estimate the relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between squamous dysplasia and sex-specific quartiles of serum 25(OH)D concentration.
Two hundred and thirty (32%) of 720 subjects had squamous dysplasia. Subjects with dysplasia had significantly higher median serum 25(OH)D concentrations then subjects without dysplasia, 36.5 and 31.5 nmol/L respectively (Wilcoxon two-sample test p = 0.0004). In multivariate adjusted models, subjects in the highest compared to the lowest quartile were at significantly increased risk of squamous dysplasia, RR (95% CI) = 1.86 (1.35–2.62). Increased risks were similar when examined in men and women separately: Men RR (95% CI) = 1.74 (1.08–2.93); Women RR (95% CI) = 1.96 (1.28–3.18).
Higher serum 25(OH)D concentration was associated with significantly increased risk of squamous dysplasia. No obvious source of measured or unmeasured confounding explains this finding.
Esophageal cancer; Squamous dysplasia; Vitamin D; Serum 25(OH)D; China
Disruption of mitotic events contributes greatly to genomic instability and results in mutator phenotypes. Indeed, abnormalities of mitotic components are closely associated with malignant transformation and tumorigenesis. Here we show that ninein-like protein (Nlp), a recently identified BRCA1-associated centrosomal protein involved in microtubule nucleation and spindle formation, is an oncogenic protein. Nlp was found to be overexpressed in approximately 80% of human breast and lung carcinomas analyzed. In human lung cancers, this deregulated expression was associated with NLP gene amplification. Further analysis revealed that Nlp exhibited strong oncogenic properties; for example, it conferred to NIH3T3 rodent fibroblasts the capacity for anchorage-independent growth in vitro and tumor formation in nude mice. Consistent with these data, transgenic mice overexpressing Nlp displayed spontaneous tumorigenesis in the breast, ovary, and testicle within 60 weeks. In addition, Nlp overexpression induced more rapid onset of radiation-induced lymphoma. Furthermore, mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from Nlp transgenic mice showed centrosome amplification, suggesting that Nlp overexpression mimics BRCA1 loss. These findings demonstrate that Nlp abnormalities may contribute to genomic instability and tumorigenesis and suggest that Nlp might serve as a potential biomarker for clinical diagnosis and therapeutic target.
Pepsinogens are a class of endopeptidases that are secreted by the gastric epithelium and released into the circulation. Low serum pepsinogen I (PGI) and low serum pepsinogen I / pepsinogen II ratio (PGI/II ratio) are markers of gastric fundic atrophy, and have recently been shown to be associated with increased risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). We conducted the current study to test whether these markers are also associated with esophageal squamous dysplasia (ESD), the precursor lesion of ESCC.
We measured serum PGI and PGII, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) assays, in 125 case subjects (patients with moderate or severe ESD) and 250 sex-matched control subjects (no ESD) selected from an endoscopic screening study in Linxian, China. We used conditional logistic regression models adjusted for age, smoking, and place of residence to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs).
Serum PGI showed no statistically significant association with ESD, whether analyzed as a dichotomous, ordinal (quartiles), or continuous variable. Lower serum PGI/II ratio, however, showed a dose-response association with increased risk of ESD, with an adjusted OR (95% CI) of 2.12 (1.08 − 4.18), comparing the lowest versus the highest quartile. The association between lower serum PGI/II ratio and log OR of ESD was nearly linear, and the p-value for the continuous association was 0.03.
Lower serum PGI/II ratio was linearly associated with higher risk of ESD. This result is consistent with recent findings that gastric atrophy may increase the risk of ESCC.
Esophageal cancer; Squamous dysplasia; Pepsinogen; China
In 2005, a nationwide clubfoot treatment program focused on the Ponseti method -an effective, affordable and minimally-invasive method- was initiated in China. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and identify barriers to the program. A qualitative study (rapid ethnographic study) was conducted using semi-structured interviews of 44 physicians who attended four of the 10 Ponseti training workshops, focus groups with parents of children with clubfoot, and observation. Several barriers to the Ponseti method are quite unique due to China's size, socio-economics, culture, politics, and healthcare systems. The barriers were classified into seven themes: (i) physician education, (ii) caregiver compliance, (iii) culture, (iv) public awareness, (v) poverty, (vi) financial constraints for physicians/hospitals, and (vii) challenges of the treatment process. A number of suggestions that could be helpful in reducing or eliminating the effects of these barriers were also identified: (i) pamphlets explaining clubfoot and treatment for caregivers, (ii) directories of Ponseti providers, (iii) funding/financial support, and (iv) improving public awareness. The information from this study provides healthcare planners with knowledge to assist in meeting the needs of the population and continued implementation of effective and culturally appropriate awareness and treatment programs for clubfoot throughout China.
Phycobilisomes (PBsomes) are the extrinsic antenna complexes upon the photosynthetic membranes in red algae and most cyanobacteria. The PBsomes in the cyanobacteria has been proposed to present high lateral mobility on the thylakoid membrane surface. In contrast, direct measurement of PBsome motility in red algae has been lacking so far.
In this work, we investigated the dynamics of PBsomes in the unicellular red alga Porphyridium cruentum in vivo and in vitro, using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). We found that part of the fluorescence recovery could be detected in both partially- and wholly-bleached wild-type and mutant F11 (UTEX 637) cells. Such partial fluorescence recovery was also observed in glutaraldehyde-treated and betaine-treated cells in which PBsome diffusion should be restricted by cross-linking effect, as well as in isolated PBsomes immobilized on the glass slide.
On the basis of our previous structural results showing the PBsome crowding on the native photosynthetic membrane as well as the present FRAP data, we concluded that the fluorescence recovery observed during FRAP experiment in red algae is mainly ascribed to the intrinsic photoprocesses of the bleached PBsomes in situ, rather than the rapid diffusion of PBsomes on thylakoid membranes in vivo. Furthermore, direct observations of the fluorescence dynamics of phycoerythrins using FRAP demonstrated the energetic decoupling of phycoerythrins in PBsomes against strong excitation light in vivo, which is proposed as a photoprotective mechanism in red algae attributed by the PBsomes in response to excess light energy.
We report a multilevel modified vertebral column resection (MVCR) through a single posterior approach and clinical outcomes for treatment of severe congenital rigid kyphoscoliosis in adults. Transpedicular eggshell osteotomies and vertebral column resection are two techniques for the surgical treatment of rigid severe spine deformities. The authors developed a new technique combining the two surgical methods as a MVCR, through a single posterior approach, for surgical treatment of severe congenital rigid kyphoscoliosis in adults. Thirteen adult patients with severe rigid congenital kyphoscoliosis deformity were treated by a single posterior approach using a MVCR technique. The surgery processes included a one-stage posterior transpedicular eggshell technique first, and then expanded the eggshell technique to adjacent intervertebra space through abrasive reduction of the vertebral cortices from inside out. All posterior vertebral elements were removed including the cortical vertebral bone around the neural canal. Range of resection of the vertebral column at the apex of the deformity included apical vertebra and both cephalic and/or caudal adjacent wedged vertebrae. Totally, 32 vertebrae had been removed in 13 patients, with 2.42 vertebrae being removed on average in each case. The average fusion extent was 7.69 vertebrae. Mean operation time was 266 min with average blood loss of 2,411.54 ml during operation. Patients were followed up for an average duration of 2.54 years. Deformity correction was 59% in the coronal plane (from 79.7° to 32.4°) postoperatively and 33.7° (57% correction) at 2 years follow-up. In the sagittal plane, correction was from preoperative 85.9° to 27.5° immediately after operation, and 32.0° at 2 years follow-up. Postoperative pain was reduced from preoperative 1.77 to 0.54 at 2 years follow-up in visual analog scale. SRS-24 scale was from 38.2 preoperatively to 76.9 at 2 years follow-up postoperative. Complications were encountered in four patients (30.7%) with transient neurology that spontaneously improved without further treatment within 3 months. MVCR technique through a single posterior approach is an effective procedure for the surgical treatment of severe congenital rigid kyphoscoliosis in adults.
Kyphoscoliosis; Eggshell technique; Vertebral column resection; Modified vertebral column resection
The incidence of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is very high in northern China. This cancer has a very poor prognosis, mostly because it is usually diagnosed at a late stage. Detection an earlier stage can dramatically improve prognosis. Microscopic evaluation of esophageal balloon cytology (EBC) specimens has been the most common method for early detection of ESCC, but this technique is limited by low sensitivity and specificity. The use of molecular markers may improve these screening characteristics. This study evaluates whether measurement of gene methylation in EBC specimens may have utility for the detection of esophageal squamous dysplasia and early ESCC. We evaluated the presence of methylation in eight genes shown to be methylated in ESCC in previous studies in EBC specimens from 147 patients with endoscopic biopsy diagnoses ranging from normal mucosa through severe squamous dysplasia. Methylation status was determined using quantitative methylation-specific PCR techniques. The sensitivity and specificity of methylation of each individual gene and combinations of these genes to detect biopsy-proven high-grade (moderate or severe) squamous dysplasia was determined. For individual genes, the sensitivities ranged from 9–34% and the specificities ranged from 77–99%. Using a panel of four genes (AHRR, p16INK4a, MT1G, and CLDN3) resulted in sensitivity and specificity of 50% and 68%, respectively. This study suggests that evaluation of gene methylation in EBC samples may have utility for early detection of esophageal squamous dysplasia and early ESCC, however, identification of more sensitive methylation markers will be required for development of a clinically useful screening test.
gene methylation; early detection; cytology; esophageal squamous cell cancer
Photosynthetic organisms have developed multiple protective mechanisms to prevent photodamage in vivo under high-light conditions. Cyanobacteria and red algae use phycobilisomes (PBsomes) as their major light-harvesting antennae complexes. The orange carotenoid protein in some cyanobacteria has been demonstrated to play roles in the photoprotective mechanism. The PBsome-itself-related energy dissipation mechanism is still unclear.
Here, single-molecule spectroscopy is applied for the first time on the PBsomes of red alga Porphyridium cruentum, to detect the fluorescence emissions of phycoerythrins (PE) and PBsome core complex simultaneously, and the real-time detection could greatly characterize the fluorescence dynamics of individual PBsomes in response to intense light.
Our data revealed that strong green-light can induce the fluorescence decrease of PBsome, as well as the fluorescence increase of PE at the first stage of photobleaching. It strongly indicated an energetic decoupling occurring between PE and its neighbor. The fluorescence of PE was subsequently observed to be decreased, showing that PE was photobleached when energy transfer in the PBsomes was disrupted. In contrast, the energetic decoupling was not observed in either the PBsomes fixed with glutaraldehyde, or the mutant PBsomes lacking B-PE and remaining b-PE. It was concluded that the energetic decoupling of the PBsomes occurs at the specific association between B-PE and b-PE within the PBsome rod. Assuming that the same process occurs also at the much lower physiological light intensities, such a decoupling process is proposed to be a strategy corresponding to PBsomes to prevent photodamage of the photosynthetic reaction centers. Finally, a novel photoprotective role of γ-subunit-containing PE in red algae was discussed.
The molecule of the title compound, C12H10N6, which is V-shaped due to the boat conformation of the dihydrotetrazine ring, has crystallographic C
2 symmetry. The dihedral angle between the planes of the two pyridine rings is 31.57 (3)°. Molecules are linked by weak N—H⋯N and C—H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming a two-dimensional polymeric structure.
Interleukin (IL) 25 (IL-17E), a distinct member of the IL-17 cytokine family, plays important roles in evoking T helper type 2 (Th2) cell–mediated inflammation that features the infiltrations of eosinophils and Th2 memory cells. However, the cellular sources, target cells, and underlying mechanisms remain elusive in humans. We demonstrate that human Th2 memory cells expressing distinctive levels of IL-25 receptor (R) are one of the responding cell types. IL-25 promotes cell expansion and Th2 cytokine production when Th2 central memory cells are stimulated with thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP)–activated dendritic cells (DCs), homeostatic cytokines, or T cell receptor for antigen triggering. The enhanced functions of Th2 memory cells induced by IL-25 are associated with sustained expression of GATA-3, c-MAF, and JunB in an IL-4–independent manner. Although keratinocytes, mast cells, eosinophils, and basophils express IL-25 transcripts, activated eosinophils and basophils from normal and atopic subjects were found to secrete bioactive IL-25 protein, which augments the functions of Th2 memory cells. Elevated expression of IL-25 and IL-25R transcripts was observed in asthmatic lung tissues and atopic dermatitis skin lesions, linking their possible roles with exacerbated allergic disorders. Our results provide a plausible explanation that IL-25 produced by innate effector eosinophils and basophils may augment the allergic inflammation by enhancing the maintenance and functions of adaptive Th2 memory cells.