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1.  The ladies trial: laparoscopic peritoneal lavage or resection for purulent peritonitisA and Hartmann's procedure or resection with primary anastomosis for purulent or faecal peritonitisB in perforated diverticulitis (NTR2037) 
BMC Surgery  2010;10:29.
Background
Recently, excellent results are reported on laparoscopic lavage in patients with purulent perforated diverticulitis as an alternative for sigmoidectomy and ostomy.
The objective of this study is to determine whether LaparOscopic LAvage and drainage is a safe and effective treatment for patients with purulent peritonitis (LOLA-arm) and to determine the optimal resectional strategy in patients with a purulent or faecal peritonitis (DIVA-arm: perforated DIVerticulitis: sigmoidresection with or without Anastomosis).
Methods/Design
In this multicentre randomised trial all patients with perforated diverticulitis are included. Upon laparoscopy, patients with purulent peritonitis are treated with laparoscopic lavage and drainage, Hartmann's procedure or sigmoidectomy with primary anastomosis in a ratio of 2:1:1 (LOLA-arm). Patients with faecal peritonitis will be randomised 1:1 between Hartmann's procedure and resection with primary anastomosis (DIVA-arm). The primary combined endpoint of the LOLA-arm is major morbidity and mortality. A sample size of 132:66:66 patients will be able to detect a difference in the primary endpoint from 25% in resectional groups compared to 10% in the laparoscopic lavage group (two sided alpha = 5%, power = 90%). Endpoint of the DIVA-arm is stoma free survival one year after initial surgery. In this arm 212 patients are needed to significantly demonstrate a difference of 30% (log rank test two sided alpha = 5% and power = 90%) in favour of the patients with resection with primary anastomosis. Secondary endpoints for both arms are the number of days alive and outside the hospital, health related quality of life, health care utilisation and associated costs.
Discussion
The Ladies trial is a nationwide multicentre randomised trial on perforated diverticulitis that will provide evidence on the merits of laparoscopic lavage and drainage for purulent generalised peritonitis and on the optimal resectional strategy for both purulent and faecal generalised peritonitis.
Trial registration
Nederlands Trial Register NTR2037
doi:10.1186/1471-2482-10-29
PMCID: PMC2974662  PMID: 20955571
2.  The Influence of Reactive Oxygen Species on the Adhesion of Pancreatic Carcinoma Cells to the Peritoneum 
Cell Adhesion & Migration  2007;1(2):77-83.
Postoperative peritoneal carcinomatosis is a significant clinical problem after “curative” resection of pancreatic carcinoma. Preoperative surgical trauma activates a cascade of peritoneal defense mechanisms responsible for postoperative intra-abdominal tumor recurrence. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a pivotal role in this postoperative inflammatory reaction. This study explores the influence of ROS on adhesion of human pancreatic carcinoma cells to human mesothelial cells. Furthermore this study explores the influence of ROS on the presentation of adhesion molecules on Panc-1 and mesothelial cells. ROS were produced using the enzymatic reaction of xanthine with xanthine oxidase (X/XO). A reproducible in vitro assay to study adhesion of human Panc-1 carcinoma tumor cells to a mesothelial cell monolayer of primary human mesothelial cells was used. Mesothelial monolayers were incubated with ROS produced prior to adhesion of the tumor cells. Incubation of the mesothelial cells with X/XO resulted in a significant increase (69.5%) in adhesion of Panc-1 in all patients. SOD/catalase, anti-oxidants, could reduce this increase by 56.7%. ROS significantly influenced the expression of the adhesion molecules ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and CD44h on mesothelial cells, but did not influence adhesion molecule expression on Panc-1. The ROS released during the post-operative inflammatory reaction may play an important role in the adhesion of pancreatic tumor cells to the mesothelium-possibly by influencing adhesion molecule expression on mesothelial cells. Therefore ROS can partly be responsible for the enhanced post-operative intra-abdominal tumor recurrence.
PMCID: PMC2633975  PMID: 19329881
reactive oxygen species; mesothelium; Panc-1

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