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1.  Lack of Renoprotective Effect of Chronic Intravenous Angiotensin-(1-7) or Angiotensin-(2-10) in a Rat Model of Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(10):e110083.
Unopposed angiotensin (Ang) II-mediated cellular effects may lead to progressive glomerulosclerosis. While Ang-II can be locally generated in the kidneys, we previously showed that glomerular podocytes primarily convert Ang-I, the precursor of Ang-II, to Ang-(1-7) and Ang-(2-10), peptides that have been independently implicated in biological actions opposing those of Ang-II. Therefore, we hypothesized that Ang-(1-7) and Ang-(2-10) could be renoprotective in the fawn-hooded hypertensive rat, a model of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. We evaluated the ability of 8–12 week-long intravenous administration of either Ang-(1-7) or Ang-(2-10) (100–400 ng/kg/min) to reduce glomerular injury in uni-nephrectomized fawn-hooded hypertensive rats, early or late in the disease. Vehicle-treated rats developed hypertension and lesions of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. No reduction in glomerular damage was observed, as measured by either 24-hour urinary protein excretion or histological examination of glomerulosclerosis, upon Ang-(1-7) or Ang-(2-10) administration, regardless of peptide dose or disease stage. On the contrary, when given at 400 ng/kg/min, both peptides induced a further increase in systolic blood pressure. Content of Ang peptides was measured by parallel reaction monitoring in kidneys harvested at sacrifice. Exogenous administration of Ang-(1-7) and Ang-(2-10) did not lead to a significant increase in their corresponding intrarenal levels. However, the relative abundance of Ang-(1-7) with respect to Ang-II was increased in kidney homogenates of Ang-(1-7)-treated rats. We conclude that chronic intravenous administration of Ang-(1-7) or Ang-(2-10) does not ameliorate glomerular damage in a rat model of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and may induce a further rise in blood pressure, potentially aggravating glomerular injury.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0110083
PMCID: PMC4206519  PMID: 25337950
2.  Renal thrombotic microangiopathy and podocytopathy associated with the use of carfilzomib in a patient with multiple myeloma 
BMC Nephrology  2014;15(1):156.
Background
Proteasome inhibitors are a relatively new class of chemotherapeutic agents. Bortezomib is the first agent of this class and is currently being used for the treatment of multiple myeloma. However, recent reports have linked exposure to bortezomib with the development of thrombotic microangiopathy. A new agent in this class, carfilzomib, has been recently introduced as alternative therapy for relapsing and refractory multiple myeloma. We report a case of renal thrombotic microangiopathy associated with the use of carfilzomib in a patient with refractory multiple myeloma.
Case presentation
A 62 year-old Caucasian man with hypertension and a 4-year history of multiple myeloma, had been previously treated with lenalidomide, bortezomib and two autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplants. After the second hematopoietic stem cell transplant, he developed acute kidney injury secondary to septic shock and required dialysis for 4 weeks. Subsequently, his serum creatinine stabilized at 2.1 mg/dL (185.64 μmol/L). Seventeen months after the second hematopoietic stem cell transplant, he was initiated on carfilzomib for relapse of multiple myeloma. Six weeks later, he developed abrupt worsening of lower extremity edema and hypertension, and new onset proteinuria. His kidney function remained stable. Kidney biopsy findings were consistent with thrombotic microangiopathy. Eight weeks after discontinuation of carfilzomib, proteinuria and hypertension improved. Due to progression of multiple myeloma, he died a few months later.
Conclusion
In view of the previously reported association of bortezomib with thrombotic microangiopathy, the temporal association of the clinical picture with the initiation of carfilzomib, and the partial resolution of symptoms after discontinuation of the drug, we conclude that carfilzomib may have precipitated a case of clinically evident renal thrombotic microangiopathy in our patient.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-15-156
PMCID: PMC4190298  PMID: 25267524
Thrombotic microangiopathy; Malignant hypertension; Proteasome inhibitor; Proteinuria
3.  Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitor SD-3651 Reduces Proteinuria in MRL/lpr Mice Deficient in the NOS2 Gene 
Several studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of arginine analog nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor therapy in preventing and treating murine lupus nephritis. However, MRL/MpJ-FASlpr (MRL/lpr) mice lacking a functional NOS2 (inducible NOS [iNOS]) gene (NOS2−/−) develop proliferative glomerulonephritis in a fashion similar to their wild-type (wt) littermates. This finding suggests that the effect of arginine analog NOS inhibitors is through a non-iNOS–mediated mechanism. This study was designed to address this hypothesis.
NOS2−/− mice were given either vehicle or a NOS inhibitor (SD-3651) to determine if pharmacological NOS inhibition prevented glomerulonephritis, using wt mice as positive controls. Urine was collected fortnightly to measure albumin. At the time of full disease expression in wt mice, all mice were killed, and renal tissue was examined for light, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopic evidence of disease. Serum was analyzed for anti–double-stranded DNA antibody production.
NOS2−/− mice had higher serum anti–double-stranded DNA antibody antibody levels than those of wt mice. SD-3651 therapy reduced proteinuria, glomerular immunoglobulin G deposition, and electron microscopic evidence of podocytopathy and endothelial cell swelling without affecting proliferative lesions by light microscopy.
These studies confirm that genetic iNOS deficiency alone is insufficient to prevent proliferative glomerulonephritis and suggest that iNOS activity may inhibit autoantibody production. These results also suggest that SD-3651 therapy acts via a non–iNOS-mediated mechanism to prevent endothelial cell and podocyte pathology. Studies that elucidate this mechanism could provide a useful drug target for the treatment of nephritis.
doi:10.231/JIM.0b013e3181889e13
PMCID: PMC2637653  PMID: 18797415
lupus nephritis; nitric oxide; animal models; nitric oxide synthase; enzyme inhibitors
4.  Association of Serum Nitrate and Nitrite Levels With Longitudinal Assessments of Disease Activity and Damage in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Lupus Nephritis 
Arthritis and rheumatism  2008;58(1):263-272.
Objective
Reactive intermediate production is an essential component of the innate immune response that is induced during disease activity in murine lupus. This study was undertaken to determine whether a marker of systemic nitric oxide (NO) production correlates with prospectively studied disease activity in human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and lupus nephritis patients.
Methods
Eighty-three SLE patients and 40 control subjects were studied longitudinally. The SLE group included 23 patients with lupus nephritis documented by renal biopsy and 26 with a history of lupus nephritis. During each visit, following a 24-hour low-nitrate diet, traditional markers of disease activity and damage were determined. Serum nitrate plus nitrite (NOx) levels were determined by chemiluminescence detection.
Results
NOx levels were higher in SLE patients than in controls during the first visit. In univariate longitudinal analyses, NOx levels were associated with SLE Disease Activity Index scores. In multivariate analyses, NOx levels were associated with serum levels of C3 and creatinine and the urinary protein:creatinine ratio. Among patients with lupus nephritis, those with proliferative lesions had higher NOx levels, and higher NOx levels were associated with accumulation of renal damage and lack of response to therapy.
Conclusion
This is the first study to prospectively demonstrate longitudinal associations between serum NOx levels and markers of SLE and lupus nephritis disease activity. The more pronounced association with proliferative lupus nephritis and with longitudinal response to lupus nephritis therapy provides a rationale for the study of reactive intermediates as biomarkers of disease activity and therapeutic targets in proliferative lupus nephritis.
doi:10.1002/art.23153
PMCID: PMC2733831  PMID: 18163495
5.  Prediction of urinary protein markers in lupus nephritis 
Kidney international  2005;68(6):2588-2592.
Background
Lupus nephritis is divided into six classes and scored according to activity and chronicity indices based on histologic findings. Treatment differs based on the pathologic findings. Renal biopsy is currently the only way to accurately predict class and activity and chronicity indices. We propose to use patterns of abundance of urine proteins to identify class and disease indices.
Methods
Urine was collected from 20 consecutive patients immediately prior to biopsy for evaluation of lupus nephritis. The International Society of Nephrology/Renal Pathology Society (ISN/RPS) class of lupus nephritis, activity, and chronicity indices were determined by a renal pathologist. Proteins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Artificial neural networks were trained on normalized spot abundance values.
Results
Biopsy specimens were classified in the database according to ISN/RPS class, activity, and chronicity. Nine samples had characteristics of more than one class present. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of the trained networks demonstrated areas under the curve ranging from 0.85 to 0.95. The sensitivity and specificity for the ISN/RPS classes were class II 100%, 100%; III 86%, 100%; IV 100%, 92%; and V 92%, 50%. Activity and chronicity indices had r values of 0.77 and 0.87, respectively. A list of spots was obtained that provided diagnostic sensitivity to the analysis.
Conclusion
We have identified a list of protein spots that can be used to develop a clinical assay to predict ISN/RPS class and chronicity for patients with lupus nephritis. An assay based on antibodies against these spots could eliminate the need for renal biopsy, allow frequent evaluation of disease status, and begin specific therapy for patients with lupus nephritis.
doi:10.1111/j.1523-1755.2005.00730.x
PMCID: PMC2667626  PMID: 16316334
lupus nephritis; biomarkers; urine; electrophoresis; two-dimensional gel

Results 1-5 (5)