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1.  The inhibitory effect of S-nitrosoglutathione on blood-brain barrier disruption and peroxynitrite formation in a rat model of experimental stroke 
Journal of neurochemistry  2012;123(Suppl 2):86-97.
The hallmark of stroke injury is endothelial dysfunction leading to blood brain barrier (BBB) leakage and edema. Among the causative factors of BBB disruption are accelerating peroxynitrite formation and the resultant decreased bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO). S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), an S-nitrosylating agent, was found not only to reduce the levels of peroxynitrite but also to protect the integrity of BBB in a rat model of cerebral ischemia and reperfusion (IR). A treatment with GSNO (3 μmol/kg) after IR reduced 3-nitrotyrosine levels in and around vessels and maintained NO levels in brain. This mechanism protected endothelial function by reducing BBB leakage, increasing the expression of Zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), decreasing edema, and reducing the expression of MMP-9 and E-selectin in the neurovascular unit. An administration of the peroxynitrite-forming agent 3-morpholino sydnonimine (3 μmol/kg) at reperfusion increased BBB leakage and decreased the expression of ZO-1, supporting the involvement of peroxynitrite in BBB disruption and edema. Mechanistically, the endothelium-protecting action of GSNO was invoked by reducing the activity of NF-κB and increasing the expression of S-nitrosylated proteins. Taken together, the results support the ability of GSNO to improve endothelial function by reducing nitroxidative stress in stroke.
doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2012.07947.x
PMCID: PMC3481195  PMID: 23050646
ischemia reperfusion; GSNO; S-nitrosylation; peroxynitrite; BBB; endothelial dysfunction
2.  S-Nitrosoglutathione reduces oxidative injury and promotes mechanisms of neurorepair following traumatic brain injury in rats 
Background
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces primary and secondary damage in both the endothelium and the brain parenchyma, collectively termed the neurovascular unit. While neurons die quickly by necrosis, a vicious cycle of secondary injury in endothelial cells exacerbates the initial injury in the neurovascular unit following TBI. In activated endothelial cells, excessive superoxide reacts with nitric oxide (NO) to form peroxynitrite. Peroxynitrite has been implicated in blood brain barrier (BBB) leakage, altered metabolic function, and neurobehavioral impairment. S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), a nitrosylation-based signaling molecule, was reported not only to reduce brain levels of peroxynitrite and oxidative metabolites but also to improve neurological function in TBI, stroke, and spinal cord injury. Therefore, we investigated whether GSNO promotes the neurorepair process by reducing the levels of peroxynitrite and the degree of oxidative injury.
Methods
TBI was induced by controlled cortical impact (CCI) in adult male rats. GSNO or 3-Morpholino-sydnonimine (SIN-1) (50 μg/kg body weight) was administered orally two hours following CCI. The same dose was repeated daily until endpoints. GSNO-treated (GSNO group) or SIN-1-treated (SIN-1 group) injured animals were compared with vehicle-treated injured animals (TBI group) and vehicle-treated sham-operated animals (Sham group) in terms of peroxynitrite, NO, glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation, blood brain barrier (BBB) leakage, edema, inflammation, tissue structure, axon/myelin integrity, and neurotrophic factors.
Results
SIN-1 treatment of TBI increased whereas GSNO treatment decreased peroxynitrite, lipid peroxides/aldehydes, BBB leakage, inflammation and edema in a short-term treatment (4-48 hours). GSNO also reduced brain infarctions and enhanced the levels of NO and GSH. In a long-term treatment (14 days), GSNO protected axonal integrity, maintained myelin levels, promoted synaptic plasticity, and enhanced the expression of neurotrophic factors.
Conclusion
Our findings indicate the participation of peroxynitrite in the pathobiology of TBI. GSNO treatment of TBI not only reduces peroxynitrite but also protects the integrity of the neurovascular unit, indicating that GSNO blunts the deleterious effects of peroxynitrite. A long-term treatment of TBI with the same low dose of GSNO promotes synaptic plasticity and enhances the expression of neurotrophic factors. These results support that GSNO reduces the levels of oxidative metabolites, protects the neurovascular unit, and promotes neurorepair mechanisms in TBI.
doi:10.1186/1742-2094-8-78
PMCID: PMC3158546  PMID: 21733162
3.  Administration of S-nitrosoglutathione after traumatic brain injury protects the neurovascular unit and reduces secondary injury in a rat model of controlled cortical impact 
Background
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of preventable death and serious morbidity in young adults. This complex pathological condition is characterized by significant blood brain barrier (BBB) leakage that stems from cerebral ischemia, inflammation, and redox imbalances in the traumatic penumbra of the injured brain. Once trauma has occurred, combating these exacerbations is the keystone of an effective TBI therapy. Following other brain injuries, nitric oxide modulators such as S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) maintain not only redox balance but also inhibit the mechanisms of secondary injury. Therefore, we tested whether GSNO shows efficacy in a rat model of experimental TBI.
Methods
TBI was induced by controlled cortical impact (CCI) in adult male rats. GSNO (50 μg/kg body weight) was administered at two hours after CCI. GSNO-treated injured animals (CCI+GSNO group) were compared with vehicle-treated injured animals (CCI+VEH group) in terms of tissue morphology, BBB leakage, edema, inflammation, cell death, and neurological deficit.
Results
Treatment of the TBI animals with GSNO reduced BBB disruption as evidenced by decreased Evan's blue extravasation across brain, infiltration/activation of macrophages (ED1 positive cells), and reduced expression of ICAM-1 and MMP-9. The GSNO treatment also restored CCI-mediated reduced expression of BBB integrity proteins ZO-1 and occludin. GSNO-mediated improvements in tissue histology shown by reduction of lesion size and decreased loss of both myelin (measured by LFB staining) and neurons (assayed by TUNEL) further support the efficacy of GSNO therapy. GSNO-mediated reduced expression of iNOS in macrophages as well as decreased neuronal cell death may be responsible for the histological improvement and reduced exacerbations. In addition to these biochemical and histological improvements, GSNO-treated injured animals recovered neurobehavioral functions as evaluated by the rotarod task and neurological score measurements.
Conclusion
GSNO is a promising candidate to be evaluated in humans after brain trauma because it not only protects the traumatic penumbra from secondary injury and improves overall tissue structure but also maintains the integrity of BBB and reduces neurologic deficits following CCI in a rat model of experimental TBI.
doi:10.1186/1742-2094-6-32
PMCID: PMC2777134  PMID: 19889224
4.  Oxidative imbalance in non-stimulated X-Adrenoleukodystrophy derived lymphoblasts 
Developmental neuroscience  2009;30(6):410-418.
X-Adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a peroxisomal disorder characterized by accumulation of very long chain (VLC) fatty acids, which induces alterations in cellular redox and induction of inflammatory disease, both of which are reported to play a role in pathogenesis of the severe form of the disease (childhood ALD). Here we report on the status of oxidative stress (NADPH oxidase activity) and inflammatory mediators in a X-ALD lymphoblast cell line under non-stimulated conditions. X-ALD lymphoblasts contain near 7 fold higher levels of the C26:0 fatty acid, as compared to controls; levels that were down regulated by treatment with Sodium Phenylacetate (NaPA), lovastatin or combination of both drugs. In addition, free radical synthesis was elevated in X-ALD lymphoblasts, and protein levels of the NADPH oxidase gp91PHOX membrane subunit were significantly upregulated, but no changes were observed in the p47PHOX and p67PHOX cytoplasmic subunits. Unexpectedly, there was no increase in gp91PHOX mRNA levels in X-ALD lymphoblasts. Furthermore, X-ALD lymphoblasts produced higher levels of nitric oxide (NO) and cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β); and treatment with NaPA, or lovastatin decreased the synthesis of NO. Our data indicates that X-ALD lymphoblasts are significantly affected by the accumulation of VLC fatty acids, which in turn induces changes in the cell membrane properties/functions that may play a role in the development/progression of the pathogenesis of X-ALD disease.
doi:10.1159/000191212
PMCID: PMC2744110  PMID: 19127062
X-Adrenoleukodystrophy; NADPH oxidase; lymphoblasts; oxidative stress; nitric oxide; cytokines; TNFα; neuroinflammation; very long chain fatty acids; peroxisomal disorder
5.  N-acetyl-L-cysteine ameliorates the inflammatory disease process in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in Lewis rats 
We report that N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) treatment blocked induction of TNF-α, IL-1β, IFN-γ and iNOS in the CNS and attenuated clinical disease in the myelin basic protein induced model of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) in Lewis rats. Infiltration of mononuclear cells into the CNS and induction of inflammatory cytokines and iNOS in multiple sclerosis (MS) and EAE have been implicated in subsequent disease progression and pathogenesis. To understand the mechanism of efficacy of NAC against EAE, we examined its effect on the production of cytokines and the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the CNS. NAC treatment attenuated the transmigration of mononuclear cells thereby lessening the neuroinflammatory disease. Splenocytes from NAC-treated EAE animals showed reduced IFN-γ production, a Th1 cytokine and increased IL-10 production, an anti-inflammatory cytokine. Further, splenocytes from NAC-treated EAE animals also showed decreased nitrite production when stimulated in vitro by LPS. These observations indicate that NAC treatment may be of therapeutic value in MS against the inflammatory disease process associated with the infiltration of activated mononuclear cells into the CNS.
doi:10.1186/1740-2557-2-4
PMCID: PMC1097751  PMID: 15869713
EAE; Macrophages; infiltration N-acetyl-L-cysteine; CNS

Results 1-5 (5)