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1.  Perspectives of Mothers in Farmworker Households on Reducing the Take-Home Pathway of Pesticide Exposure 
Farmworkers carry pesticide residue home on their clothing, boots, and skin, placing other household members at risk, particularly children. Specific precautions are recommended to reduce this take-home pathway, yet few studies have examined the perspectives of farmworkers and other household members regarding these behaviors and the reasons for or against adoption. The authors conducted semistructured interviews with 37 Mexican/Mexican-American women in farmworker households to explore the family and cultural context in which pesticide safety practices are performed and to identify factors that facilitate or hinder their adoption. Whereas women could describe the take-home pathway, they were less able to connect it with their family’s susceptibility to pesticide exposure. Women experienced difficulty integrating the prevention behaviors into their everyday lives because of competing responsibilities, conflicts with their husbands’ intentions and with cultural health beliefs, perceived lack of control, and community barriers that interfered with women’s motivations. Implications for practice are discussed.
doi:10.1177/1090198108328911
PMCID: PMC4111917  PMID: 19136611
pesticides; farmworker; take-home pathway
2.  Associations of perceived neighborhood physical and social environments with physical activity and television viewing in African American men and women 
American journal of health promotion : AJHP  2013;27(6):10.4278/ajhp.120306-QUAN-127.
Purpose
Few studies have assessed how attributes of neighborhood environments contribute to sedentary, in addition to active, behaviors. This study investigated associations of perceived social and physical aspects of neighborhood environments with television (TV) viewing and physical activity (PA) in African American adults.
Design
Cross-sectional analysis of self-reported survey.
Setting
Large mega-church in Houston, TX.
Subjects
1,374 African American men and women.
Measures
Outcomes included log-transformed daily TV viewing and participation in medium/high levels of PA, measured by the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Neighborhood perceptions were assessed with the Social Cohesion and Trust and the Neighborhood Problems scales.
Analysis
Multivariable models that controlled for clustering within neighborhoods.
Results
Reporting more neighborhood problems was significantly associated with greater log-transformed TV viewing in women (β=0.017, SE=0.006, p=0.003), and social cohesion was positively associated with PA in women (OR=1.06, 95% CI=1.02, 1.11, p=0.006). Concerns about litter and walking after dark, and a lack of places to shop were associated with increased TV viewing among women, and concerns about traffic and walking after dark were associated with reduced PA among men.
Conclusion
Physical and social neighborhood conditions were associated with TV viewing and PA, particularly in women. Neighborhood-based strategies to reduce sedentary behaviors and enhance PA should include attention to social as well as physical aspects of neighborhood environments.
doi:10.4278/ajhp.120306-QUAN-127
PMCID: PMC3880192  PMID: 23398134
physical activity; television viewing; African American; neighborhood; social environment
3.  Subjective Social Status and Health Behaviors Among African Americans 
Objectives
To examine associations of the US and community subjective social status (SSS) ladders with smoking status, at-risk drinking, fruit and vegetable intake, physical activity, and body mass index among 1467 church-going African American adults from a larger cohort study.
Methods
Regression analyses, adjusted for sociodemographics, examined associations between SSS ladders and health behaviors.
Results
The SSS-US ladder was significantly associated with fruit and vegetable consumption (p = .007) and physical activity (p = .005). The SSS-community ladder was not significantly associated with any health behaviors.
Conclusions
Among this sample of African Americans, the SSS-US ladder is more predictive of some health behaviors than is the SSS-community ladder.
doi:10.5993/AJHB.37.1.12
PMCID: PMC3433853  PMID: 22943107
African Americans; social status; cancer risk behavior; physical activity; fruit and vegetable intake
4.  Design of a randomized controlled trial for multiple cancer risk behaviors among Spanish-speaking Mexican-origin smokers 
BMC Public Health  2013;13:237.
Background
Smoking, poor diet, and physical inactivity account for as much as 60% of cancer risk. Latinos experience profound disparities in health behaviors, as well as the cancers associated with them. Currently, there is a dearth of controlled trials addressing these health behaviors among Latinos. Further, to the best of our knowledge, no studies address all three behaviors simultaneously, are culturally sensitive, and are guided by formative work with the target population. Latinos represent 14% of the U.S. population and are the fastest growing minority group in the country. Efforts to intervene on these important lifestyle factors among Latinos may accelerate the elimination of cancer-related health disparities.
Methods/design
The proposed study will evaluate the efficacy of an evidence-based and theoretically-driven Motivation And Problem Solving (MAPS) intervention, adapted and culturally-tailored for reducing cancer risk related to smoking, poor diet, and physical inactivity among high-risk Mexican-origin smokers who are overweight/obese (n = 400). Participants will be randomly assigned to one of two groups: Health Education (HE) or MAPS (HE + up to 18 MAPS counseling calls over 18 months). Primary outcomes are smoking status, servings of fruits and vegetables, and both self-reported and objectively measured physical activity. Outcome assessments will occur at baseline, 6 months, 12 months, and 18 months.
Discussion
The current study will contribute to a very limited evidence base on multiple risk factor intervention studies on Mexican-origin individuals and has the potential to inform both future research and practice related to reducing cancer risk disparities. An effective program targeting multiple cancer risk behaviors modeled after chronic care programs has the potential to make a large public health impact because of the dearth of evidence-based interventions for Latinos and the extended period of support that is provided in such a program.
Trial registration
National Institutes of Health Clinical Trials Registry # NCT01504919
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-237
PMCID: PMC3610197  PMID: 23506397
Latinos; Mexican; Mexican American; Smoking cessation; Fruits/vegetables; Physical activity
5.  A Community-Based Participatory Planning Process and Multilevel Intervention Design: Toward Eliminating Cardiovascular Health Inequities 
Health promotion practice  2011;12(6):900-911.
The elimination of persistent health inequities requires the engagement of multiple perspectives, resources and skills. Community-based participatory research is one approach to developing action strategies that promote health equity by addressing contextual as well as individual level factors, and that can contribute to addressing more fundamental factors linked to health inequity. Yet many questions remain about how to implement participatory processes that engage local insights and expertise, are informed by the existing public health knowledge base, and build support across multiple sectors to implement solutions. We describe a CBPR approach used to conduct a community assessment and action planning process, culminating in development of a multilevel intervention to address inequalities in cardiovascular disease in Detroit, Michigan. We consider implications for future efforts to engage communities in developing strategies toward eliminating health inequities.
doi:10.1177/1524839909359156
PMCID: PMC3212629  PMID: 21873580
Community capacity; multilevel interventions; community-based participatory planning; health disparities
6.  Sitting time and health outcomes among Mexican origin adults: obesity as a mediator 
BMC Public Health  2012;12:896.
Background
Sitting time and sedentary behaviors have been associated with adverse health outcomes including obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) within non- Hispanic White populations. Similar associations have not been described within Hispanic populations despite their high CVD risk profile. This study aimed to assess the association between sitting time and obesity, self-reported diagnosed diabetes, hypertension and high cholesterol among a large cohort (N=11,268) of Mexican origin adults and to assess whether obesity mediated these associations.
Methods
Using a cross-sectional design, data collected between 2004 and 2010 were analyzed in late 2010. Regression analyses evaluated associations between self-reported daily sitting hours and disease outcomes, controlling for demographics, employment status, family disease history, and light, moderate and strenuous physical activity.
Results
Participants were mostly female (81.1%) Mexican origin adults. Sitting time was associated with increased odds of being obese, having diabetes and having hypertension, but not high cholesterol. Adjusted odds ratios of participants who reported sitting > 4 hours/day compared to those sitting 1-2 hours/day were for obesity OR=1.55 (95% CI 1.39, 1.73), p<.001, for diabetes OR=1.29 (95% CI, 1.09, 1.52), p=.003, for hypertension OR=1.17 (95% CI, 1.01, 1.37), p=.041. Associations controlled for physical activity and employment status. Effects on hypertension and diabetes were mediated by obesity.
Conclusions
Sitting time was significantly associated with detrimental health outcomes, independent of physical activity. Obesity mediated these relationships for diabetes and hypertension. Future research should assess whether interventions addressing sitting time are feasible and effective among Mexican origin populations.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-896
PMCID: PMC3527190  PMID: 23092387
Sitting time; Diabetes; Obesity; Hypertension; Hispanic
7.  Gender differences in sociodemographic and behavioral influences of physical activity in Mexican-origin adolescents 
Background
Understanding the factors that contribute to physical activity (PA) in Mexican-origin adolescents is essential to the design of effective efforts to enhance PA participation in this population.
Methods
Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify sociodemographic and behavioral correlates of self-reported PA in school and community settings in 1,154 Mexican-origin adolescents aged 12–17 years in Houston, TX.
Results
The majority of adolescents were born in the US (74%), approximately half (51%) were overweight or obese, and nearly three-quarters (73%) watched more than 2 hours of weekday television. Similarities and differences by setting and gender were observed in the relationships between sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics and PA. In boys, parental education and attending physical education (PE) were positively associated with PA across multiple PA outcomes. Adolescent linguistic acculturation was inversely associated with participation in community sports, whereas parental linguistic acculturation was positively associated with PA at school. In girls, PA in school and community settings was inversely associated with TV viewing and positively associated with PE participation.
Conclusions
These findings highlight similarities and differences in correlates of PA among boys and girls, and point towards potential sources of opportunities as well as disparities for PA behaviors in Mexican-origin adolescents.
PMCID: PMC3250565  PMID: 21952224
Mexican American; acculturation; physical education
8.  Reducing the Take-Home Pathway of Pesticide Exposure: Behavioral Outcomes from the ¡Para Niños Saludables! Study 
Objective
To evaluate the effectiveness of a community intervention in promoting adoption of behaviors to reduce the take-home pathway of pesticide exposure in farmworker households.
Methods
Using two cross-sectional samples of farmworker households in 11 intervention and 12 comparison communities in Washington State, we examined whether differences over time in reported pesticide safety practices varied by community intervention status.
Results
Pesticide safety practices increased in both intervention and comparison communities over time. Changes were significantly greater in intervention communities for removing work shoes before entering the home (p=0.003) and marginally significantly greater for changing out of work clothes within one hour of arriving home (p=0.05).
Conclusions
The intervention was associated with modest effects in certain behaviors among farmworkers. Further research is needed to identify successful strategies for reducing the take-home pathway of pesticide exposure.
doi:10.1097/JOM.0b013e3181ad4995
PMCID: PMC3138476  PMID: 19620892
9.  Piloting interventions within a community-based participatory research framework: Lessons learned from the Healthy Environments Partnership 
Background
Community-based participatory research partnerships implementing pilot interventions experience unique opportunities and dilemmas.
Objectives
We describe challenges and opportunities associated with conducting a pilot intervention within a longstanding CBPR partnership, lessons learned for use of a participatory process to pilot community interventions, and recommendations to funders on mechanisms for funding pilot interventions to help address these challenges.
Methods
We conducted key informant interviews and convened a group discussion with host organization leaders and project personnel.
Lessons Learned
Findings highlight: opportunities and challenges related to needs and desires of community constituents and the ability of pilot interventions to meet those needs, and the importance of ongoing communication to address anticipated and unanticipated challenges that arise in the context of short-term pilot interventions in community settings.
Conclusions
We suggest consideration of several funding mechanisms for supporting the implementation of larger scale interventions following promising pilot efforts in community settings.
doi:10.1353/cpr.0.0094
PMCID: PMC2820110  PMID: 20097994
Community-based participatory research; pilot intervention; formative evaluation; community capacity; sustainability

Results 1-9 (9)