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1.  Clinical Characteristics of Breast Cancers in African-American Women with Benign Breast Disease: A Comparison to the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program 
The breast journal  2014;20(6):571-577.
Benign breast disease (BBD) is a very common condition, diagnosed in approximately half of all American women throughout their lifecourse. White women with BBD are known to be at substantially increased risk of subsequent breast cancer; however, nothing is known about breast cancer characteristics that develop after a BBD diagnosis in African-American women. Here, we compared 109 breast cancers that developed in a population of African-American women with a history of BBD to 10,601 breast cancers that developed in a general population of African-American women whose cancers were recorded by the Metropolitan Detroit Cancer Surveillance System (MDCSS population). Demographic and clinical characteristics of the BBD population were compared to the MDCSS population, using chi-squared tests, Fisher's exact tests, t-tests, and Wilcoxon tests where appropriate. Kaplan–Meier curves and Cox regression models were used to examine survival. Women in the BBD population were diagnosed with lower grade (p = 0.02), earlier stage cancers (p = 0.003) that were more likely to be hormone receptor-positive (p = 0.03) compared to the general metropolitan Detroit African-American population. In situ cancers were more common among women in the BBD cohort (36.7%) compared to the MDCSS population (22.1%, p < 0.001). Overall, women in the BBD population were less likely to die from breast cancer after 10 years of follow-up (p = 0.05), but this association was not seen when analyses were limited to invasive breast cancers. These results suggest that breast cancers occurring after a BBD diagnosis may have more favorable clinical parameters, but the majority of cancers are still invasive, with survival rates similar to the general African-American population.
PMCID: PMC4201874  PMID: 25200244
African-American; benign breast disease; breast cancer; risk; survival
2.  Differences in the cancer burden among foreign-born and US-born Arab Americans living in metropolitan Detroit 
Cancer causes & control : CCC  2013;24(11):1955-1961.
Migrant studies often provide clues for cancer etiology. We estimated the cancer burden among Arab Americans (ArA) by immigrant status in the metropolitan Detroit area, home to one of the highest concentrations of ArA in USA.
A validated name algorithm was used to identify ArA cancer cases diagnosed 1990–2009 in the Detroit SEER database. Recorded birthplace was supplemented with imputation of nativity using birthdate and social security number. Age-adjusted, gender-specific proportional incidence ratios and 95 % confidence intervals were calculated comparing all ArA, foreign-born ArA, and US-born ArA, to non-Hispanic Whites (NHW).
Foreign-born ArA males had higher proportions of multiple myeloma, leukemia, kidney, liver, stomach, and bladder cancer than NHW, while bladder cancer and leukemia were higher among US-born ArA males. For ArA women, gall bladder and thyroid cancers were proportionally higher among both foreign- and US-born compared with NHW. Stomach cancer was proportionally higher only among foreign-born women.
Cancer proportional incidence patterns among ArA show some similarity to other migrant groups, with higher proportional incidences of stomach and liver cancers among foreign-born than US-born. Other patterns, such as tobacco-related cancers among ArA men and gall bladder and thyroid cancers among ArA women, will require more investigation of genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors.
PMCID: PMC4189086  PMID: 24013772
Arab Americans; Migrant groups; Cancer incidence; Proportional incidence ratios
3.  Mortality Rates Among Arab Americans in Michigan 
The objectives of this study were to: (1) calculate age-specific and age-adjusted cause-specific mortality rates for Arab Americans; and (2) compare these rates with those for blacks and whites. Mortality rates were estimated using Michigan death certificate data, an Arab surname and first name list, and 2000 U.S. Census data. Age-specific rates, age-adjusted all-cause and cause-specific rates were calculated. Arab Americans (75+) had higher mortality rates than whites and blacks. Among men, all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates for Arab Americans were in the range of whites and blacks. However, Arab American men had lower mortality rates from cancer and chronic lower respiratory disease compared to both whites and blacks. Among women, Arab Americans had lower mortality rates from heart disease, cancer, stroke, and diabetes than whites and blacks. Arab Americans are growing in number. Future study should focus on designing rigorous separate analyses for this population.
PMCID: PMC4149176  PMID: 21318619
Arab; Mortality rates; Surnames
4.  An investigation of risk factors for renal cell carcinoma by histologic subtype in two case-control studies 
To investigate whether renal cell carcinoma (RCC) histologic subtypes possess different etiologies, we conducted analyses of established RCC risk factors by subtype (clear cell, papillary, chromophobe) in two case-control studies conducted in the United States (1,217 cases, 1,235 controls) and Europe (1,097 cases, 1,476 controls). Histology was ascertained for 706 U.S. cases (58% of total) and 917 European cases (84%) through a central slide review conducted by a single pathologist. For the remaining cases, histology was abstracted from the original diagnostic pathology report. Case-only analyses were performed to compute odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) summarizing subtype differences by age, sex, and race. Case-control analyses were performed to compute subtype-specific ORs for other risk factors using polytomous regression. In case-only analyses, papillary cases (N=237) were older (OR=1.2, 95% CI=1.1–1.4 per 10-year increase), less likely to be female (OR=0.5, 95 % CI=0.4- 0.8) and more likely to be black (OR=2.6, 95% CI=1.8–3.9) compared to clear cell cases (N=1,524). In case-control analyses, BMI was associated with clear cell (OR=1.2, 95% CI=1.1–1.3 per 5kg/m2 increase) and chromophobe RCC (N=80; OR=1.2, 95% CI=1.1- 1.4), but not papillary RCC (OR=1.1, 95% CI=1.0–1.2; test vs. clear cell, P=0.006). No subtype differences were observed for associations with smoking, hypertension or family history of kidney cancer. Our findings support the existence of distinct age, sex and racial distributions for RCC subtypes, and suggest that the obesity-RCC association differs by histology.
PMCID: PMC3717609  PMID: 23150424
Renal cell carcinoma; histology; case-control studies; body mass index
5.  The association between chronic renal failure and renal cell carcinoma may differ between black and white Americans 
Cancer causes & control : CCC  2012;24(1):167-174.
In the United States, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) incidence is higher among blacks than among whites. Risk of RCC is elevated among end-stage renal disease patients, although no studies have looked at differences by race in the relationship between chronic renal failure and RCC.
We investigated RCC risk in relation to chronic renal failure in a population-based case-control study of blacks and whites in Chicago and Detroit. Data, including information on kidney disease, were collected from interviews with 1,217 RCC cases (361 blacks, 856 whites) and 1,235 controls (523 blacks, 712 whites). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression.
Risk of RCC was increased in relation to chronic renal failure (OR 4.7, 95% CI 2.2–10.1) and dialysis (OR 18.0, 95% CI 3.6–91). The association remained after defining exposure as those who had chronic renal failure ≥10 years prior to RCC diagnosis. Chronic renal failure was more strongly associated with RCC among blacks than among whites (OR 8.7, 95% CI 3.3–22.9 and 2.0, 0.7–5.6 respectively; Pinteraction=0.03) and among those without a history of diabetes relative to diabetic subjects (OR 8.3, 95% CI 3.1–22.7 and 1.9, 0.6–5.9 respectively; Pinteraction=0.03).
These results suggest that chronic renal failure is a strong risk factor for RCC, particularly among black and non-diabetic subjects. Our findings of differences in risk estimates by race, to our knowledge the first such report, require replication.
PMCID: PMC3531044  PMID: 23179659
renal cell carcinoma; kidney cancer; chronic renal failure; end-stage renal disease; racial disparities
6.  Benign breast disease and the risk of subsequent breast cancer in African American women 
Benign breast disease (BBD) is an established risk factor for breast cancer among Caucasian women, but less is known about BBD in African American (AA) women. As AA women suffer from disproportionate mortality due to breast cancer, special focus on pathological characteristics that may influence disease risk is warranted.
Benign breast biopsies from AA women were identified by the University Pathology Group in Detroit, Michigan. AA women age 20 to 84 who underwent a breast biopsy from 1997 to 2000 were eligible for the study. Subsequent breast cancers were identified through a linkage with the Detroit SEER program. The first biopsy was reviewed by the pathologist, and lesions were classified following Dupont and Page criteria along with involution and other histologic features. Logistic regression was used to estimate the risk of developing a subsequent breast cancer with the histologic characteristics of BBD.
1,406 BBD biopsies from AA women were included in this study with a median follow-up of 10.1 years. The majority (68%) showed non-proliferative disease, 29% had proliferative disease without atypia, and 3% had proliferative disease with atypia. Subsequent incident breast cancers occurred in 55 women (3.9%). Women whose biopsies showed proliferative disease with atypia were over three-fold more likely to develop breast cancer as women who had non-proliferative disease (RR 3.29, 95% C.I. 1.21-8.93).
Better characterization of the risk of breast cancer among women with BBD, considering both ethnicity and detailed molecular findings, can lead to better surveillance, earlier diagnosis, and, potentially, improved survival.
PMCID: PMC3518609  PMID: 23087047
7.  Evidence Supports a Faster Growth Rate and/or Earlier Transformation to Clinically Significant Prostate Cancer in Black Than in White American Men and Influences Racial Progression and Mortality Disparity 
The Journal of urology  2010;183(5):10.1016/j.juro.2010.01.015.
The incidence of prostate cancer is approximately 60% higher and the mortality rate is 2 to 3 times greater in black than in white American men. We propose that a more rapid prostate cancer growth rate and/or earlier transformation from latent to aggressive prostate cancer in black than in white men contribute to this disparity.
Materials and Methods
We evaluated entirely embedded prostate glands on autopsy from 1,056 black and white men who died of causes other than prostate cancer. We also reviewed data from our radical prostatectomy database and from the Detroit Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database.
Autopsy data indicated that sub-clinical prostate cancer in black and white men starts at early age and clinical characteristics do not differ by race at early ages. Radical prostatectomy specimen data revealed that prostate cancer volume and Gleason grade were greater in black than in white men. Advanced or meta-static prostate cancer occurred at a 4:1 ratio in black and white men, respectively, in the Detroit Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results registry database.
Results showed that age at prostate cancer initiation and clinical characteristics did not differ by race in our autopsy series, prostate cancer volume after radical prostatectomy was greater in black than in white men and disease became distant disease at a ratio of 4 black men to 1 white man in the Detroit Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results population. These findings support the concept that prostate cancer grows more rapidly in black than in white men and/or earlier transformation from latent to aggressive prostate cancer occurs in black than in white men.
PMCID: PMC3840791  PMID: 20299055
prostate; prostatic neoplasms; African continental ancestry group; European continental ancestry group; disease progression
8.  Body Mass Index and Renal Cell Cancer: The Influence of Race and Sex 
Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.)  2012;23(6):821-828.
Obesity is a risk factor for renal cell (or renal) cancer. The increasing prevalence of obesity may be contributing to the rising incidence of this cancer over the past several decades. The effects of early-age obesity and change in body mass index (BMI) on renal cancer have been studied less thoroughly, and the influence of race has never been formally investigated.
Using data gathered as part of a large case-control study of renal cancer (1,214 cases and 1,234 controls), we investigated associations with BMI at several time points, as well as with height. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed using logistic regression modeling. Race- and sex-stratified analyses were conducted to evaluate subgroup differences.
Obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) early in adulthood (OR=1.6 [95% CI=1.1 to 2.4]) and 5 years before diagnosis (1.6 [1.1 to 2.2]) was associated with renal cancer. The association with early-adult obesity was stronger among whites than blacks (Test for interaction, P=0.006), while the association with obesity near diagnosis was marginally stronger in women than men (Test for interaction, P=0.08). The strongest association with renal cancer was observed for obese whites both in early adulthood and prior to interview (2.6 [1.5 to 4.4]); this association was not present among blacks. Estimates of the annual excess rate of renal cancer (per 100,000 persons) attributed to both overweight and obesity (BMI > 25 kg/m2) ranged from 9.9 among black men to 5.6 among white women.
Obesity, both early and later in life, is associated with an increased risk of renal cancer. The association with early obesity appears to be stronger among whites than blacks.
PMCID: PMC3466395  PMID: 23007040
9.  Racial differences in oncogene mutations detected in early stage, low grade endometrial cancers 
To describe the pattern and frequency of oncogene mutations in white and African American (AA) women with endometrial cancer, and to determine if racial differences in oncogene mutations exist among women with pathologically similar tumors.
Endometrial cancer patients from a large, urban hospital were identified through medical records, and representative formalin fixed paraffin embedded tumor blocks were retrieved. The study sample included 150 patients (84 AA) who underwent total abdominal hysterectomy for endometrial cancer. The Sequenom MassARRAY system and the OncoCarta Assay v1.0 (Sequenom), were employed to test for 238 mutations in 19 common oncogenes. Chi-square tests and Fisher’s exact tests were used to assess differences in distribution of variables by race and oncogene mutation status.
There were 20 mutations identified in 2 oncogenes (PIK3CA and KRAS) in tumors from 19 women (12.7%). The majority of mutations were found in PIK3CA (16/20). Thirteen percent of endometroid tumors harbored mutations (11 PIK3CA and 2 KRAS), as did 29% of the Malignant Mixed Mullerian tumors (3 PIK3CA and 1 KRAS). There were no observed mutations in serous, clear cell, or mucinous tumor types. Among low grade endometrioid cancers, tumors from AA patients were significantly associated with harboring either a KRAS or PIK3CA mutation (p=0.04), with 7 PIK3CA mutations and all 4 KRAS mutations identified in AA women.
This study provides preliminary evidence that oncogene mutation frequency of some subtypes of histologically similar endometrial carcinoma differ by race. Additional studies are needed to further explore this phenomenon in patients with endometrial carcinoma.
PMCID: PMC3512561  PMID: 23013731
10.  Cigarette smoking and renal cell carcinoma risk among black and white Americans: effect modification by hypertension and obesity 
Incidence of kidney cancer has been increasing over the past three decades, with more rapid increases and higher incidence rates among blacks than whites in the United States. An association between cigarette smoking and renal cell carcinoma (RCC), the most common form of kidney cancer, has been reported for whites, but the association in blacks is less clear.
The association between smoking and RCC was examined in 1,217 incident cases and 1,235 population controls frequency-matched on age, race, gender and study site in the Kidney Cancer Study in Detroit, MI and Chicago, IL.
In white individuals, increasing duration and number of pack years of were both associated with increased risk of RCC after adjusting for age, gender, education, study site, body mass index (BMI) and history of hypertension (p-trend=0.0002 and p-trend=0.002, respectively). Among black individuals, RCC risk increased with duration of smoking (p- trend=0.02), but not other measures. Compared to current smokers, RCC risk decreased with increasing years of smoking cessation among both whites and blacks (p- trend=0.01 and 0.02, respectively). When examining risk according to hypertension history, associations between smoking and RCC risk were observed only among individuals who reported never having been diagnosed with hypertension. Similarly, cigarette smoking was associated with increased risk of RCC among non-obese individuals, but not among those with BMI≥30 kg/m2.
Our observation that smoking is associated with RCC only in non-obese individuals and those with no history of hypertension are novel findings
The complex relationships between RCC, smoking, hypertension and obesity require additional confirmation.
PMCID: PMC3348421  PMID: 22426145
Renal Cell Carcinoma; Cigarette Smoking; Hypertension; Body Mass Index; Race/Ethnicity
11.  A case-control study of reproductive factors and renal cell carcinoma among black and white women in the United States 
Cancer causes & control : CCC  2011;22(11):1537-1544.
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) incidence is higher among blacks than whites in the United States, and has been associated with the frequency and timing of childbirth among women in some epidemiologic studies. We investigated whether reproductive factors are associated with RCC, overall and by race, within a population-based case-control study.
Between 2002 and 2007, 497 female cases of incident RCC (136 black, 361 white) and 546 female controls (273 black, 273 white) within the Detroit and Chicago metropolitan areas were enrolled. Information on reproductive history and other factors was collected through in-person interviews. Multivariate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using unconditional logistic regression.
Reduced RCC risk was observed among women aged ≥30 years at first live birth, relative to an age of <20 years (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3–0.9). This association was present among both white (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2–0.9) and, though not statistically significant, black women (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.2–1.8). In analyses restricted to clear cell adenocarcinoma, the most common RCC histologic subtype, the association was particularly strong (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.2–0.8). We did not observe clear evidence of association with RCC for other reproductive factors.
Our findings further support an association between late maternal age at first birth and reduced RCC risk, and suggest that the association may be particularly strong for clear cell adenocarcinoma.
PMCID: PMC3460515  PMID: 21866373
Renal cell carcinoma; reproductive factors; case-control studies; hysterectomy; parity
12.  A Case-Control Study of Peripheral Blood Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number and Risk of Renal Cell Carcinoma 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(8):e43149.
Low mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number is a common feature of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), and may influence tumor development. Results from a recent case-control study suggest that low mtDNA copy number in peripheral blood may be a marker for increased RCC risk. In an attempt to replicate that finding, we measured mtDNA copy number in peripheral blood DNA from a U.S. population-based case-control study of RCC.
Methodology/Principal Findings
Relative mtDNA copy number was measured in triplicate by a quantitative real-time PCR assay using DNA extracted from peripheral whole blood. Cases (n = 603) had significantly lower mtDNA copy number than controls (n = 603; medians 0.85, 0.91 respectively; P = 0.0001). In multiple logistic regression analyses, the lowest quartile of mtDNA copy number was associated with a 60% increase in RCC risk relative to the highest quartile (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.1–2.2; Ptrend = 0.009). This association remained in analyses restricted to cases treated by surgery alone (OR Q1 = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.0–2.1) and to localized tumors (2.0, 1.3–2.8).
Our findings from this investigation, to our knowledge the largest of its kind, offer important confirmatory evidence that low mtDNA copy number is associated with increased RCC risk. Additional research is needed to assess whether the association is replicable in prospective studies.
PMCID: PMC3427307  PMID: 22937019
13.  A case–control study of occupation/industry and renal cell carcinoma risk 
BMC Cancer  2012;12:344.
The role of occupation in the etiology of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is unclear. Here, we investigated associations between employment in specific occupations and industries and RCC, and its most common histologic subtype, clear cell RCC (ccRCC).
Between 2002 and 2007, a population-based case–control study of Caucasians and African Americans (1,217 cases; 1,235 controls) was conducted within the Detroit and Chicago metropolitan areas to investigate risk factors for RCC. As part of this study, occupational histories were ascertained through in-person interviews. We computed odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) relating occupation and industry to RCC risk using adjusted unconditional logistic regression models.
Employment in the agricultural crop production industry for five years or more was associated with RCC (OR = 3.3 [95% CI = 1.0-11.5]) and ccRCC in particular (OR = 6.3 [95% CI = 1.7-23.3], P for trend with duration of employment = 0.0050). Similarly, RCC risk was elevated for employment of five years or longer in non-managerial agricultural and related occupations (ORRCC = 2.1 [95% CI = 1.0-4.5]; ORccRCC = 3.1 [95% CI = 1.4-6.8]). Employment in the dry-cleaning industry was also associated with elevated risk (ORRCC = 2.0 [95% CI = 0.9-4.4], P for trend = 0.093; ORccRCC = 3.0 [95% CI = 1.2-7.4], P for trend = 0.031). Suggestive elevated associations were observed for police/public safety workers, health care workers and technicians, and employment in the electronics, auto repair, and cleaning/janitorial services industries; protective associations were suggested for many white-collar jobs including computer science and administrative occupations as well employment in the business, legislative, and education industries.
Our findings provide support for an elevated risk of RCC in the agricultural and dry-cleaning industries and suggest that these associations may be stronger for the ccRCC subtype. Additional studies are needed to confirm these findings.
PMCID: PMC3502582  PMID: 22873580
Kidney cancer; Renal cancer; Clear cell RCC; Occupation; Industry; Race
14.  Racial Differences in the Use of Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer in a Large Urban Integrated Health System 
Background. Racial differences in breast cancer survival may be in part due to variation in patterns of care. To better understand factors influencing survival disparities, we evaluated patterns of receipt of adjuvant chemotherapy among 2,234 women with invasive, nonmetastatic breast cancer treated at the Henry Ford Health System (HFHS) from 1996 through 2005. Methods. Sociodemographic and clinical information were obtained from linked datasets from the HFHS, Metropolitan Detroit Cancer Surveillance Systems, and U.S. Census. Comorbidity was measured using the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI), and economic deprivation was categorized using a neighborhood deprivation index. Results. African American (AA) women were more likely than whites to have advanced tumors with more aggressive clinical features, to have more comorbidity and to be socioeconomically deprived. While in the unadjusted model, AAs were more likely to receive chemotherapy (odds ratio (OR) 1.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02–1.46) and to have a delay in receipt of chemotherapy beyond 60 days (OR 1.68, 95% CI, 1.26–1.48), after multivariable adjustment there were no racial differences in receipt (odds ratio (OR) 1.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.73–1.43), or timing of chemotherapy (OR 1.18, 95 CI, 0.8–1.74). Conclusions. Societal factors and not race appear to have an impact on treatment delay among African American women with early breast cancer.
PMCID: PMC3363414  PMID: 22690339
15.  Admixture mapping of lung cancer in 1812 African-Americans 
Carcinogenesis  2010;32(3):312-317.
Lung cancer continues to be the leading cause of cancer death in the USA and the best example of a cancer with undisputed evidence of environmental risk. However, a genetic contribution to lung cancer has also been demonstrated by studies of familial aggregation, family-based linkage, candidate gene studies and most recently genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The African-American population has been underrepresented in these genetic studies and has patterns of cigarette use and linkage disequilibrium that differ from patterns in other populations. Therefore, studies in African-Americans can provide complementary data to localize lung cancer susceptibility genes and explore smoking dependence-related genes. We used admixture mapping to further characterize genetic risk of lung cancer in a series of 837 African-American lung cancer cases and 975 African-American controls genotyped at 1344 ancestry informative single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Both case-only and case–control analyses were conducted using ADMIXMAP adjusted for age, sex, pack-years of smoking, family history of lung cancer, history of emphysema and study site. In case-only analyses, excess European ancestry was observed over a wide region on chromosome 1 with the largest excess seen at rs6587361 for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (Z-score = −4.33; P = 1.5 × 10−5) and for women with NSCLC (Z-score = −4.82; P = 1.4 × 10−6). Excess African ancestry was also observed on chromosome 3q with a peak Z-score of 3.33 (P = 0.0009) at rs181696 among ever smokers with NSCLC. These results add to the findings from the GWAS in Caucasian populations and suggest novel regions of interest.
PMCID: PMC3047238  PMID: 21115650
16.  Results from a Prostate Cancer Admixture Mapping Study in African American Men 
Human genetics  2009;126(5):637-642.
There are considerable racial disparities in prostate cancer risk, with a 60% higher incidence rate among African American (AA) men compared with European American (EA) men, and a 2.4 fold higher mortality rate in AA men than in EA men. Recently, studies have implicated several African-ancestry associated prostate cancer susceptibility loci on chromosome 8q24. In the current study, we performed admixture mapping in AA men from two independent case-control studies of prostate cancer to confirm the 8q24 ancestry association and also identify other genomic regions that may harbor prostate cancer susceptibility genes. A total of 482 cases and 261 controls were genotyped for 1,509 ancestry informative markers across the genome. The mean estimated individual admixture proportions were 20% European and 80% African. The most significant observed increase in European ancestry occurred at rs2141360 on chromosome 7q31 in both the case-only (p=0.0000035) and case-control analyses. The most significant observed increase in African ancestry across the genome occurred at a locus on chromosome 5q35 identified by SNPs rs7729084 (case-only analysis: p=0.002), and rs12474977 (case-control analysis: p=0.004), which are separated by 646 kb and were adjacent to one another on the panel. On chromosome 8, rs4367565 was associated with the greatest excess African ancestry in both the case-only and case-control analyses (case-only and case-control p=0.02), confirming previously reported African-ancestry associations with chromosome 8q24. In conclusion, we confirmed ancestry associations on 8q24, and identified additional ancestry-associated regions potentially harboring prostate cancer susceptibility loci.
PMCID: PMC2975267  PMID: 19568772
Prostate Cancer; Admixture Mapping; Ancestry; PODXL; DOCK4

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