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1.  Genetic Variants in Nicotine Addiction and Alcohol Metabolism Genes, Oral Cancer Risk and the Propensity to Smoke and Drink Alcohol: A Replication Study in India 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(2):e88240.
Background
Genetic variants in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and alcohol metabolism genes have been associated with propensity to smoke tobacco and drink alcohol, respectively, and also implicated in genetic susceptibility to head and neck cancer. In addition to smoking and alcohol, tobacco chewing is an important oral cancer risk factor in India. It is not known if these genetic variants influence propensity or oral cancer susceptibility in the context of this distinct etiology.
Methods
We examined 639 oral and pharyngeal cancer cases and 791 controls from two case-control studies conducted in India. We investigated six variants known to influence nicotine addiction or alcohol metabolism, including rs16969968 (CHRNA5), rs578776 (CHRNA3), rs1229984 (ADH1B), rs698 (ADH1C), rs1573496 (ADH7), and rs4767364 (ALDH2).
Results
The CHRN variants were associated with the number of chewing events per day, including in those who chewed tobacco but never smoked (P =  0.003, P =  0.01 for rs16969968 and rs578776 respectively). Presence of the variant allele contributed to approximately 13% difference in chewing frequency compared to non-carriers. While no association was observed between rs16969968 and oral cancer risk (OR =  1.01, 95% CI =  0.83– 1.22), rs578776 was modestly associated with a 16% decreased risk of oral cancer (OR =  0.84, 95% CI =  0.72– 0.98). There was little evidence for association between polymorphisms in genes encoding alcohol metabolism and oral cancer in this population.
Conclusion
The association between rs16969968 and number of chewing events implies that the effect on smoking propensity conferred by this gene variant extends to the use of smokeless tobacco.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0088240
PMCID: PMC3914962  PMID: 24505444
2.  Influence of common genetic variation on lung cancer risk: meta-analysis of 14 900 cases and 29 485 controls 
Human Molecular Genetics  2012;21(22):4980-4995.
Recent genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified common genetic variants at 5p15.33, 6p21–6p22 and 15q25.1 associated with lung cancer risk. Several other genetic regions including variants of CHEK2 (22q12), TP53BP1 (15q15) and RAD52 (12p13) have been demonstrated to influence lung cancer risk in candidate- or pathway-based analyses. To identify novel risk variants for lung cancer, we performed a meta-analysis of 16 GWASs, totaling 14 900 cases and 29 485 controls of European descent. Our data provided increased support for previously identified risk loci at 5p15 (P = 7.2 × 10−16), 6p21 (P = 2.3 × 10−14) and 15q25 (P = 2.2 × 10−63). Furthermore, we demonstrated histology-specific effects for 5p15, 6p21 and 12p13 loci but not for the 15q25 region. Subgroup analysis also identified a novel disease locus for squamous cell carcinoma at 9p21 (CDKN2A/p16INK4A/p14ARF/CDKN2B/p15INK4B/ANRIL; rs1333040, P = 3.0 × 10−7) which was replicated in a series of 5415 Han Chinese (P = 0.03; combined analysis, P = 2.3 × 10−8). This large analysis provides additional evidence for the role of inherited genetic susceptibility to lung cancer and insight into biological differences in the development of the different histological types of lung cancer.
doi:10.1093/hmg/dds334
PMCID: PMC3607485  PMID: 22899653
3.  An analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms of 125 DNA repair genes in the Texas genome-wide association study of lung cancer with a replication for the XRCC4 SNPs 
DNA repair  2011;10(4):398-407.
DNA repair genes are important for maintaining genomic stability and limiting carcinogenesis. We analyzed all single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 125 DNA repair genes covered by the Illumina HumanHap300 (v1.1) BeadChips in a previously conducted genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 1,154 lung cancer cases and 1,137 controls and replicated the top-hits of XRCC4 SNPs in an independent set of 597 cases and 611 controls in Texas populations. We found that six of 20 XRCC4 SNPs were associated with a decreased risk of lung cancer with a P value of 0.01 or lower in the discovery dataset, of which the most significant SNP was rs10040363 (P for allelic test = 4.89 ×10−4). Moreover, the data in this region allowed us to impute a potentially functional SNP rs2075685 (imputed P for allelic test = 1.3 ×10−3). A luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that the rs2075685G>T change in the XRCC4 promoter increased expression of the gene. In the replication study of rs10040363, rs1478486, rs9293329, and rs2075685, however, only rs10040363 achieved a borderline association with a decreased risk of lung cancer in a dominant model (adjusted OR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.62–1.03, P = 0.079). In the final combined analysis of both the Texas GWAS discovery and replication datasets, the strength of the association was increased for rs10040363 (adjusted OR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.66–0.89, Pdominant = 5×10−4 and P for trend = 5×10−4) and rs1478486 (adjusted OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.71 −0.94, Pdominant = 6×10−3 and P for trend = 3.5×10−3). Finally, we conducted a meta-analysis of these XRCC4 SNPs with available data from published GWA studies of lung cancer with a total of 12,312 cases and 47,921 controls, in which none of these XRCC4 SNPs was associated with lung cancer risk. It appeared that rs2075685, although associated with increased expression of a reporter gene and lung cancer risk in the Texas populations, did not have an effect on lung cancer risk in other populations. This study underscores the importance of replication using published data in larger populations.
doi:10.1016/j.dnarep.2011.01.005
PMCID: PMC3062723  PMID: 21296624
XRCC4; variant; Genetic susceptibility; genome-wide association study; replication study
4.  Association of a novel functional promoter variant (rs2075533 C>T) in the apoptosis gene TNFSF8 with risk of lung cancer—a finding from Texas lung cancer genome-wide association study 
Carcinogenesis  2011;32(4):507-515.
Published genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified few variants in the known biological pathways involved in lung cancer etiology. To mine the possibly hidden causal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we explored all SNPs in the extrinsic apoptosis pathway from our published GWAS dataset for 1154 lung cancer cases and 1137 cancer-free controls. In an initial association analysis of 611 tagSNPs in 41 apoptosis-related genes, we identified only 10 tagSNPs associated with lung cancer risk with a P value <10−2, including four tagSNPs in DAPK1 and three tagSNPs in TNFSF8. Unlike DAPK1 SNPs, TNFSF8 rs2181033 tagged other four predicted functional but untyped SNPs (rs776576, rs776577, rs31813148 and rs2075533) in the promoter region. Therefore, we further tested binding affinity of these four SNPs by performing the electrophoretic mobility shift assay. We found that only rs2075533T allele modified levels of nuclear proteins bound to DNA, leading to significantly decreased expression of luciferase reporter constructs by 5- to –10-fold in H1299, HeLa and HCT116 cell lines compared with the C allele. We also performed a replication study of the untyped rs2075533 in an independent Texas population but did not confirm the protective effect. We further performed a mini meta-analysis for SNPs of TNFSF8 obtained from other four published lung cancer GWASs with 12  214 cases and 47  721 controls, and we found that only rs3181366 (r2 = 0.69 with the untyped rs2075533) was associated to lung cancer risk (P = 0.008). Our findings suggest a possible role of novel TNFSF8 variants in susceptibility to lung cancer.
doi:10.1093/carcin/bgr014
PMCID: PMC3066422  PMID: 21292647
5.  Xenobiotic Metabolizing Gene Variants and Renal Cell Cancer: A Multicenter Study 
Background: The countries of Central and Eastern Europe have among the highest worldwide rates of renal cell cancer (RCC). Few studies have examined whether genetic variation in xenobiotic metabolic pathway genes may modify risk for this cancer. Methods: The Central and Eastern Europe Renal Cell Cancer study was a hospital-based case–control study conducted between 1998 and 2003 across seven centers in Central and Eastern Europe. Detailed data were collected from 874 cases and 2053 controls on demographics, work history, and occupational exposure to chemical agents. Genes [cytochrome P-450 family, N-acetyltransferases, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase I (NQO1), microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH), catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT)] were selected for the present analysis based on their putative role in xenobiotic metabolism. Haplotypes were calculated using fastPhase. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by unconditional logistic regression adjusted for country of residence, age, sex, smoking, alcohol intake, obesity, and hypertension. Results: We observed an increased risk of RCC with one SNP. After adjustment for multiple comparisons it did not remain significant. Neither NAT1 nor NAT2 slow acetylation was associated with disease. Conclusion: We observed no association between this pathway and renal cell cancer.
doi:10.3389/fonc.2012.00016
PMCID: PMC3355831  PMID: 22645715
renal cell cancer; epidemiology; NAT1; NAT2; CYP; NQO1; mEH; COMT
6.  Correction: A Genome-Wide Association Study of Upper Aerodigestive Tract Cancers Conducted within the INHANCE Consortium 
McKay, James D. | Truong, Therese | Gaborieau, Valerie | Chabrier, Amelie | Chuang, Shu-Chun | Byrnes, Graham | Zaridze, David | Shangina, Oxana | Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila | Lissowska, Jolanta | Rudnai, Peter | Fabianova, Eleonora | Bucur, Alexandru | Bencko, Vladimir | Holcatova, Ivana | Janout, Vladimir | Foretova, Lenka | Lagiou, Pagona | Trichopoulos, Dimitrios | Benhamou, Simone | Bouchardy, Christine | Ahrens, Wolfgang | Merletti, Franco | Richiardi, Lorenzo | Talamini, Renato | Barzan, Luigi | Kjaerheim, Kristina | Macfarlane, Gary J. | Macfarlane, Tatiana V. | Simonato, Lorenzo | Canova, Cristina | Agudo, Antonio | Castellsagué, Xavier | Lowry, Ray | Conway, David I. | McKinney, Patricia A. | Healy, Claire M. | Toner, Mary E. | Znaor, Ariana | Curado, Maria Paula | Koifman, Sergio | Menezes, Ana | Wünsch-Filho, Victor | Neto, José Eluf | Garrote, Leticia Fernández | Boccia, Stefania | Cadoni, Gabriella | Arzani, Dario | Olshan, Andrew F. | Weissler, Mark C. | Funkhouser, William K. | Luo, Jingchun | Lubiński, Jan | Trubicka, Joanna | Lener, Marcin | Oszutowska, Dorota | Schwartz, Stephen M. | Chen, Chu | Fish, Sherianne | Doody, David R. | Muscat, Joshua E. | Lazarus, Philip | Gallagher, Carla J. | Chang, Shen-Chih | Zhang, Zuo-Feng | Wei, Qingyi | Sturgis, Erich M. | Wang, Li-E | Franceschi, Silvia | Herrero, Rolando | Kelsey, Karl T. | McClean, Michael D. | Marsit, Carmen J. | Nelson, Heather H. | Romkes, Marjorie | Buch, Shama | Nukui, Tomoko | Zhong, Shilong | Lacko, Martin | Manni, Johannes J. | Peters, Wilbert H. M. | Hung, Rayjean J. | McLaughlin, John | Vatten, Lars | Njølstad, Inger | Goodman, Gary E. | Field, John K. | Liloglou, Triantafillos | Vineis, Paolo | Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise | Palli, Domenico | Tumino, Rosario | Krogh, Vittorio | Panico, Salvatore | González, Carlos A. | Quirós, J. Ramón | Martínez, Carmen | Navarro, Carmen | Ardanaz, Eva | Larrañaga, Nerea | Khaw, Kay-Tee | Key, Timothy | Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas | Peeters, Petra H. M. | Trichopoulou, Antonia | Linseisen, Jakob | Boeing, Heiner | Hallmans, Göran | Overvad, Kim | Tjønneland, Anne | Kumle, Merethe | Riboli, Elio | Välk, Kristjan | Voodern, Tõnu | Metspalu, Andres | Zelenika, Diana | Boland, Anne | Delepine, Marc | Foglio, Mario | Lechner, Doris | Blanché, Hélène | Gut, Ivo G. | Galan, Pilar | Heath, Simon | Hashibe, Mia | Hayes, Richard B. | Boffetta, Paolo | Lathrop, Mark | Brennan, Paul
PLoS Genetics  2011;7(4):10.1371/annotation/9952526f-2f1f-47f3-af0f-1a7cf6f0abc1.
doi:10.1371/annotation/9952526f-2f1f-47f3-af0f-1a7cf6f0abc1
PMCID: PMC3084181
7.  International Lung Cancer Consortium: Coordinated association study of 10 potential lung cancer susceptibility variants 
Carcinogenesis  2010;31(4):625-633.
Background. Analysis of candidate genes in individual studies has had only limited success in identifying particular gene variants that are conclusively associated with lung cancer risk. In the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO), we conducted a coordinated genotyping study of 10 common variants selected because of their prior evidence of an association with lung cancer. These variants belonged to candidate genes from different cancer-related pathways including inflammation (IL1B), folate metabolism (MTHFR), regulatory function (AKAP9 and CAMKK1), cell adhesion (SEZL6) and apoptosis (FAS, FASL, TP53, TP53BP1 and BAT3). Methods. Genotype data from 15 ILCCO case–control studies were available for a total of 8431 lung cancer cases and 11 072 controls of European descent and Asian ethnic groups. Unconditional logistic regression was used to model the association between each variant and lung cancer risk. Results. Only the association between a non-synonymous variant of TP53BP1 (rs560191) and lung cancer risk was significant (OR = 0.91, P = 0.002). This association was more striking for squamous cell carcinoma (OR = 0.86, P = 6 × 10−4). No heterogeneity by center, ethnicity, smoking status, age group or sex was observed. In order to confirm this association, we included results for this variant from a set of independent studies (9966 cases/11 722 controls) and we reported similar results. When combining all these studies together, we reported an overall OR = 0.93 (0.89–0.97) (P = 0.001). This association was significant only for squamous cell carcinoma [OR = 0.89 (0.85–0.95), P = 1 × 10−4]. Conclusion. This study suggests that rs560191 is associated to lung cancer risk and further highlights the value of consortia in replicating or refuting published genetic associations.
doi:10.1093/carcin/bgq001
PMCID: PMC2847090  PMID: 20106900
8.  Association between a 15q25 gene variant, smoking quantity and tobacco-related cancers among 17 000 individuals 
Background Genetic variants in 15q25 have been identified as potential risk markers for lung cancer (LC), but controversy exists as to whether this is a direct association, or whether the 15q variant is simply a proxy for increased exposure to tobacco carcinogens.
Methods We performed a detailed analysis of one 15q single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs16969968) with smoking behaviour and cancer risk in a total of 17 300 subjects from five LC studies and four upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer studies.
Results Subjects with one minor allele smoked on average 0.3 cigarettes per day (CPD) more, whereas subjects with the homozygous minor AA genotype smoked on average 1.2 CPD more than subjects with a GG genotype (P < 0.001). The variant was associated with heavy smoking (>20 CPD) [odds ratio (OR) = 1.13, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.96–1.34, P = 0.13 for heterozygotes and 1.81, 95% CI 1.39–2.35 for homozygotes, P < 0.0001]. The strong association between the variant and LC risk (OR = 1.30, 95% CI 1.23–1.38, P = 1 × 10–18), was virtually unchanged after adjusting for this smoking association (smoking adjusted OR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.19–1.35, P = 5 × 10–13). Furthermore, we found an association between the variant allele and an earlier age of LC onset (P = 0.02). The association was also noted in UADT cancers (OR = 1.08, 95% CI 1.01–1.15, P = 0.02). Genome wide association (GWA) analysis of over 300 000 SNPs on 11 219 subjects did not identify any additional variants related to smoking behaviour.
Conclusions This study confirms the strong association between 15q gene variants and LC and shows an independent association with smoking quantity, as well as an association with UADT cancers.
doi:10.1093/ije/dyp288
PMCID: PMC2913450  PMID: 19776245
Lung cancer; nicotine dependence; smoking quantity; UADT cancer
9.  A Genome-Wide Association Study of Upper Aerodigestive Tract Cancers Conducted within the INHANCE Consortium 
McKay, James D. | Truong, Therese | Gaborieau, Valerie | Chabrier, Amelie | Chuang, Shu-Chun | Byrnes, Graham | Zaridze, David | Shangina, Oxana | Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila | Lissowska, Jolanta | Rudnai, Peter | Fabianova, Eleonora | Bucur, Alexandru | Bencko, Vladimir | Holcatova, Ivana | Janout, Vladimir | Foretova, Lenka | Lagiou, Pagona | Trichopoulos, Dimitrios | Benhamou, Simone | Bouchardy, Christine | Ahrens, Wolfgang | Merletti, Franco | Richiardi, Lorenzo | Talamini, Renato | Barzan, Luigi | Kjaerheim, Kristina | Macfarlane, Gary J. | Macfarlane, Tatiana V. | Simonato, Lorenzo | Canova, Cristina | Agudo, Antonio | Castellsagué, Xavier | Lowry, Ray | Conway, David I. | McKinney, Patricia A. | Healy, Claire M. | Toner, Mary E. | Znaor, Ariana | Curado, Maria Paula | Koifman, Sergio | Menezes, Ana | Wünsch-Filho, Victor | Neto, José Eluf | Garrote, Leticia Fernández | Boccia, Stefania | Cadoni, Gabriella | Arzani, Dario | Olshan, Andrew F. | Weissler, Mark C. | Funkhouser, William K. | Luo, Jingchun | Lubiński, Jan | Trubicka, Joanna | Lener, Marcin | Oszutowska, Dorota | Schwartz, Stephen M. | Chen, Chu | Fish, Sherianne | Doody, David R. | Muscat, Joshua E. | Lazarus, Philip | Gallagher, Carla J. | Chang, Shen-Chih | Zhang, Zuo-Feng | Wei, Qingyi | Sturgis, Erich M. | Wang, Li-E | Franceschi, Silvia | Herrero, Rolando | Kelsey, Karl T. | McClean, Michael D. | Marsit, Carmen J. | Nelson, Heather H. | Romkes, Marjorie | Buch, Shama | Nukui, Tomoko | Zhong, Shilong | Lacko, Martin | Manni, Johannes J. | Peters, Wilbert H. M. | Hung, Rayjean J. | McLaughlin, John | Vatten, Lars | Njølstad, Inger | Goodman, Gary E. | Field, John K. | Liloglou, Triantafillos | Vineis, Paolo | Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise | Palli, Domenico | Tumino, Rosario | Krogh, Vittorio | Panico, Salvatore | González, Carlos A. | Quirós, J. Ramón | Martínez, Carmen | Navarro, Carmen | Ardanaz, Eva | Larrañaga, Nerea | Khaw, Kay-Tee | Key, Timothy | Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas | Peeters, Petra H. M. | Trichopoulou, Antonia | Linseisen, Jakob | Boeing, Heiner | Hallmans, Göran | Overvad, Kim | Tjønneland, Anne | Kumle, Merethe | Riboli, Elio | Välk, Kristjan | Voodern, Tõnu | Metspalu, Andres | Zelenika, Diana | Boland, Anne | Delepine, Marc | Foglio, Mario | Lechner, Doris | Blanché, Hélène | Gut, Ivo G. | Galan, Pilar | Heath, Simon | Hashibe, Mia | Hayes, Richard B. | Boffetta, Paolo | Lathrop, Mark | Brennan, Paul | Horwitz, Marshall S.
PLoS Genetics  2011;7(3):e1001333.
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been successful in identifying common genetic variation involved in susceptibility to etiologically complex disease. We conducted a GWAS to identify common genetic variation involved in susceptibility to upper aero-digestive tract (UADT) cancers. Genome-wide genotyping was carried out using the Illumina HumanHap300 beadchips in 2,091 UADT cancer cases and 3,513 controls from two large European multi-centre UADT cancer studies, as well as 4,821 generic controls. The 19 top-ranked variants were investigated further in an additional 6,514 UADT cancer cases and 7,892 controls of European descent from an additional 13 UADT cancer studies participating in the INHANCE consortium. Five common variants presented evidence for significant association in the combined analysis (p≤5×10−7). Two novel variants were identified, a 4q21 variant (rs1494961, p = 1×10−8) located near DNA repair related genes HEL308 and FAM175A (or Abraxas) and a 12q24 variant (rs4767364, p = 2×10−8) located in an extended linkage disequilibrium region that contains multiple genes including the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) gene. Three remaining variants are located in the ADH gene cluster and were identified previously in a candidate gene study involving some of these samples. The association between these three variants and UADT cancers was independently replicated in 5,092 UADT cancer cases and 6,794 controls non-overlapping samples presented here (rs1573496-ADH7, p = 5×10−8; rs1229984-ADH1B, p = 7×10−9; and rs698-ADH1C, p = 0.02). These results implicate two variants at 4q21 and 12q24 and further highlight three ADH variants in UADT cancer susceptibility.
Author Summary
We have used a two-phased study approach to identify common genetic variation involved in susceptibility to upper aero-digestive tract cancer. Using Illumina HumanHap300 beadchips, 2,091 UADT cancer cases and 3,513 controls from two large European multi-centre UADT cancer studies, as well as 4,821 generic controls, were genotyped for a panel 317,000 genetic variants that represent the majority of common genetic in the human genome. The 19 top-ranked variants were then studied in an additional series of 6,514 UADT cancer cases and 7,892 controls of European descent from an additional 13 UADT cancer studies. Five variants were significantly associated with UADT cancer risk after the completion of both stages, including three residing within the alcohol dehydrogenase genes (ADH1B, ADH1C, ADH7) that have been previously described. Two additional variants were found, one near the ALDH2 gene and a second variant located in HEL308, a DNA repair gene. These results implicate two variants 4q21 and 12q24 and further highlight three ADH variants UADT cancer susceptibility.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1001333
PMCID: PMC3060072  PMID: 21437268
10.  The INSIG2 rs7566605 polymorphism is not associated with body mass index and breast cancer risk 
BMC Cancer  2010;10:563.
Background
The single nucleotide polymorphism rs7566605, located in the promoter of the INSIG2 gene, has been the subject of a strong scientific effort aimed to elucidate its possible association with body mass index (BMI). The first report showing that rs7566605 could be associated with body fatness was a genome-wide association study (GWAS) which used BMI as the primary phenotype. Many follow-up studies sought to validate the association of rs7566605 with various markers of obesity, with several publications reporting inconsistent findings. BMI is considered to be one of the measures of choice to evaluate body fatness and there is evidence that body fatness is related with an increased risk of breast cancer (BC).
Methods
we tested in a large-scale association study (3,973 women, including 1,269 invasive BC cases and 2,194 controls), nested within the EPIC cohort, the involvement of rs7566605 as predictor of BMI and BC risk.
Results and Conclusions
In this study we were not able to find any statistically significant association between this SNP and BMI, nor did we find any significant association between the SNP and an increased risk of breast cancer overall and by subgroups of age, or menopausal status.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-10-563
PMCID: PMC2965729  PMID: 20955599
11.  Lung cancer susceptibility locus at 5p15.33 
Nature genetics  2008;40(12):1404-1406.
We carried out a genome-wide association study of lung cancer (3,259 cases and 4,159 controls), followed by replication in 2,899 cases and 5,573 controls. Two uncorrelated disease markers at 5p15.33, rs402710 and rs2736100 were detected by the genome-wide data (P = 2 × 10-7 and P = 4 × 10-6) and replicated by the independent study series (P = 7 × 10-5 and P = 0.016). The susceptibility region contains two genes, TERT and CLPTM1L, suggesting that one or both may have a role in lung cancer etiology.
doi:10.1038/ng.254
PMCID: PMC2748187  PMID: 18978790
12.  PPC: an algorithm for accurate estimation of SNP allele frequencies in small equimolar pools of DNA using data from high density microarrays 
Nucleic Acids Research  2005;33(17):e142.
Robust estimation of allele frequencies in pools of DNA has the potential to reduce genotyping costs and/or increase the number of individuals contributing to a study where hundreds of thousands of genetic markers need to be genotyped in very large populations sample sets, such as genome wide association studies. In order to make accurate allele frequency estimations from pooled samples a correction for unequal allele representation must be applied. We have developed the polynomial based probe specific correction (PPC) which is a novel correction algorithm for accurate estimation of allele frequencies in data from high-density microarrays. This algorithm was validated through comparison of allele frequencies from a set of 10 individually genotyped DNA's and frequencies estimated from pools of these 10 DNAs using GeneChip 10K Mapping Xba 131 arrays. Our results demonstrate that when using the PPC to correct for allelic biases the accuracy of the allele frequency estimates increases dramatically.
doi:10.1093/nar/gni142
PMCID: PMC1240117  PMID: 16199750
13.  The chromosome 2p21 region harbors a complex genetic architecture for association with risk for renal cell carcinoma 
Human Molecular Genetics  2011;21(5):1190-1200.
In follow-up of a recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) that identified a locus in chromosome 2p21 associated with risk for renal cell carcinoma (RCC), we conducted a fine mapping analysis of a 120 kb region that includes EPAS1. We genotyped 59 tagged common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 2278 RCC and 3719 controls of European background and observed a novel signal for rs9679290 [P = 5.75 × 10−8, per-allele odds ratio (OR) = 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.17–1.39]. Imputation of common SNPs surrounding rs9679290 using HapMap 3 and 1000 Genomes data yielded two additional signals, rs4953346 (P = 4.09 × 10−14) and rs12617313 (P = 7.48 × 10−12), both highly correlated with rs9679290 (r2 > 0.95), but interestingly not correlated with the two SNPs reported in the GWAS: rs11894252 and rs7579899 (r2 < 0.1 with rs9679290). Genotype analysis of rs12617313 confirmed an association with RCC risk (P = 1.72 × 10−9, per-allele OR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.18–1.39) In conclusion, we report that chromosome 2p21 harbors a complex genetic architecture for common RCC risk variants.
doi:10.1093/hmg/ddr551
PMCID: PMC3277315  PMID: 22113997
14.  Smoking Related Cancers and Loci at Chromosomes 15q25, 5p15, 6p22.1 and 6p21.33 in the Polish Population 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(9):e25057.
Genetic factors associated with the risk of smoking related cancers have until recently remained elusive. Since the publication of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on lung cancer new genetic loci have been identified that appear to be associated with disease risk. In this replication study we genotyped 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located at the 5p12.3-p15.33, 6p21.3-p22.1, 6q23-q27 and 15q25.1 loci in 874 lung, 450 bladder, 418 laryngeal cancer cases and cancer-free controls, matched by year of birth and sex to the cases. Our results revealed that loci in the chromosome region 15q25.1 (rs16969968[A], rs8034191[G]) and 5p15 (rs402710[T]) are associated with lung cancer risk in the Polish population (smoking status adjusted OR = 1.45, 1.35, 0.77; p≤0.0001, 0.0005, 0.002; 95%CI 1.23–1.72, 1.14–1.59, 0.66–0.91 respectively). None of the other regions analyzed herein were implicated in the risk of lung, bladder or laryngeal cancer. This study supports previous findings on lung cancer but fails to show association of SNPs located in 15q25.1 and 5p15 region with other smoking related cancers like bladder and laryngeal cancer.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0025057
PMCID: PMC3178595  PMID: 21966413
15.  A Phase II, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Dose-Ranging Study of Belimumab in Patients With Active Systemic Lupus Erythematosus 
Arthritis and rheumatism  2009;61(9):1168-1178.
Objective
To assess the safety, tolerability, biological activity, and efficacy of belimumab in combination with standard of care therapy (SOC) in patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
Methods
Patients with SELENA-SLEDAI score≥4 (N=449) were randomly assigned to belimumab (1, 4, 10 mg/kg) or placebo in a 52-week study. Co-primary endpoints were: 1) percentage change in the SELENA-SLEDAI score at week 24; 2) time to the first SLE flare.
Results
Significant differences between the treatment and placebo groups were not attained for either primary endpoint and no dose response was observed. Reduction in SELENA-SLEDAI score from baseline was 19.5% in the combined belimumab group versus 17.2% in the placebo group. The median time to first SLE flare was 67 days in the combined belimumab group versus 83 days in the placebo group. However, the median time to first SLE flare during weeks 24–52 was significantly longer with belimumab treatment (154 versus 108 days; P=0.0361). In the subgroup (71.5%) of serologically active patients (ANA ≥1:80 and/or anti-dsDNA ≥30 IU/mL), belimumab treatment resulted in significantly better responses at week 52 than placebo for SELENA-SLEDAI (−28.8% versus −14.2%; P=0.0435); PGA (−32.7% versus −10.7%; P=0.0011); and SF-36 PCS (+3.0 versus +1.2 points; P=0.0410). Treatment with belimumab resulted in 63–71% depletion of naive, activated, and plasmacytoid CD20+ B cells and a 29.4% reduction in anti-dsDNA titers (P ≤0.0017) by week 52. The rates of adverse events (AEs) and serious AEs were similar in the belimumab and placebo groups.
Conclusion
Belimumab was biologically active and well tolerated. Belimumab effect on the reduction of SLE disease activity or flares was not significant. However, serologically active SLE patients responded significantly better to belimumab therapy plus SOC than SOC alone.
doi:10.1002/art.24699
PMCID: PMC2758229  PMID: 19714604
16.  Identification of a prostate cancer susceptibility gene on chromosome 5p13q12 associated with risk of both familial and sporadic disease 
Genetic heterogeneity is a difficulty frequently encountered in the search for genes conferring susceptibility to prostate cancer. To circumvent this issue, we selected a large prostate cancer pedigree for genome-wide linkage analysis from a population that is genetically homogeneous. Selected cases and first-degree relatives were genotyped with Affymetrix 10K SNP arrays, identifying a 14 Mb haplotype on chromosome 5 (5p13–q12) inherited identical-by-descent (IBD) by multiple cases. Microsatellite genotyping of additional deceased case samples confirmed that a total of eight cases inherited the common haplotype (P=0.0017). Re-sequencing of eight prioritised candidate genes in the region in six selected individuals identified 15 SNPs segregating with the IBD haplotype, located within the ITGA2 gene. Three of these polymorphisms were selected for genotyping in an independent Tasmanian data set comprising 127 cases with familial prostate cancer, 412 sporadic cases and 319 unaffected controls. Two were associated with prostate cancer risk: rs3212649 (OR=1.67 (1.07–2.6), P=0.0009) and rs1126643 (OR=1.52 (1.01–2.28), P=0.0088). Significant association was observed in both familial and sporadic prostate cancer. Although the functional SNP remains to be identified, considerable circumstantial evidence, provided by in vivo and in vitro studies, supports a role for ITGA2 in tumour development.
doi:10.1038/ejhg.2008.171
PMCID: PMC2986161  PMID: 18830231
genetic; susceptibility; prostate; cancer; risk

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