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1.  Automated detection of genetic abnormalities combined with cytology in sputum is a sensitive predictor of lung cancer 
Modern Pathology  2008;21(8):950-960.
Detection of lung cancer by sputum cytology has low sensitivity but is noninvasive and, if improved, could be a powerful tool for early lung cancer detection. To evaluate whether the accuracy of diagnosing lung cancer by evaluating sputa for cytologic atypia and genetic abnormalities is greater than that of conventional cytology alone, automated scoring of genetic abnormalities for 3p22.1 and 10q22.3 (SP-A) by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and conventional cytology was done on sputa from 35 subjects with lung cancer, 25 high-risk smokers, and 6 healthy control subjects. Multivariate analysis was performed to select variables that most accurately predicted lung cancer. A model of probability for the presence of lung cancer was derived for each subject. Cells exfoliated from patients with lung cancer contained genetic aberrations and cytologic atypias at significantly higher levels than in those from control subjects. When combined with cytologic atypia, a model of risk for lung cancer was derived that had 74% sensitivity and 82% specificity to predict the presence of lung cancer, whereas conventional cytology achieved only 37% sensitivity and 87% specificity. For diagnosing lung cancer in sputum, a combination of molecular and cytologic variables was superior to using conventional cytology alone.
doi:10.1038/modpathol.2008.71
PMCID: PMC3377448  PMID: 18500269
surfactant protein A gene; 3p22.1; FISH; cytology; field cancerization effect; sputum
2.  Methotrexate enhances the anti-inflammatory effect of CF101 via up-regulation of the A3 adenosine receptor expression 
Methotrexate (MTX) exerts an anti-inflammatory effect via its metabolite adenosine, which activates adenosine receptors. The A3 adenosine receptor (A3AR) was found to be highly expressed in inflammatory tissues and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA). CF101 (IB-MECA), an A3AR agonist, was previously found to inhibit the clinical and pathological manifestations of AIA. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of MTX on A3AR expression level and the efficacy of combined treatment with CF101 and MTX in AIA rats. AIA rats were treated with MTX, CF101, or both agents combined. A3AR mRNA, protein expression and exhibition were tested in paw and PBMC extracts from AIA rats utilizing immunohistochemistry staining, RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. A3AR level was tested in PBMC extracts from patients chronically treated with MTX and healthy individuals. The effect of CF101, MTX and combined treatment on A3AR expression level was also tested in PHA-stimulated PBMCs from healthy individuals and from MTX-treated patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Combined treatment with CF101 and MTX resulted in an additive anti-inflammatory effect in AIA rats. MTX induced A2AAR and A3AR over-expression in paw cells from treated animals. Moreover, increased A3AR expression level was detected in PBMCs from MTX-treated RA patients compared with cells from healthy individuals. MTX also increased the protein expression level of PHA-stimulated PBMCs from healthy individuals. The increase in A3AR level was counteracted in vitro by adenosine deaminase and mimicked in vivo by dipyridamole, demonstrating that receptor over-expression was mediated by adenosine. In conclusion, the data presented here indicate that MTX induces increased A3AR expression and exhibition, thereby potentiating the inhibitory effect of CF101 and supporting combined use of these drugs to treat RA.
doi:10.1186/ar2078
PMCID: PMC1794513  PMID: 17101059
3.  The PI3K–NF-κB signal transduction pathway is involved in mediating the anti-inflammatory effect of IB-MECA in adjuvant-induced arthritis 
The anti-inflammatory effect of adenosine was previously found to be mediated via activation of the A3 adenosine receptor (A3AR). The aim of the present study was to decipher the molecular mechanism involved with the inhibitory effect of IB-MECA, an A3AR agonist, on adjuvant-induced arthritis.
The adjuvant-induced arthritis rats responded to IB-MECA treatment with a decrease in the clinical score and the pathological score of the disease. The response to IB-MECA was neutralized by the antagonist MRS 1220, confirming that the efficacy of the synthetic agonist was A3AR mediated.
The A3AR protein expression level was highly expressed in the synovia, in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells and in the drain lymph node (DLN) tissues of adjuvant-induced arthritis rats in comparison with naïve animals. Downregulation of A3AR expression was noted upon treatment with IB-MECA. Analysis of synovia and DLN protein extracts revealed a decreased expression level of PI3K, PKB/Akt, IKK, NF-κB and tumor necrosis factor alpha, known to affect survival and apoptosis of inflammatory cells, whereas the caspase-3 level was upregulated.
Taken together, high A3AR expression is found in the synovia, in the immune cells in the DLN and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. IB-MECA, an orally bioavailable molecule, activates the A3AR, inducing receptor downregulation and the initiation of a molecular mechanism that involves de-regulation of the PI3K–NF-κB signaling pathway. As a result, a potent anti-inflammatory effect manifested in the improvement of the disease clinical score and pathological score occurs. The finding that the A3AR expression level in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells and in the DLN reflects the receptor status in the remote inflammatory site suggests use of the A3AR as a follow-up biomarker.
doi:10.1186/ar1887
PMCID: PMC1526584  PMID: 16507132
4.  CF101, An Agonist to the A3 Adenosine Receptor, Enhances the Chemotherapeutic Effect of 5-Fluorouracil in a Colon Carcinoma Murine Model 
Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)  2005;7(1):85-90.
Abstract
NF-κB and the upstream kinase PKB/Akt are highly expressed in chemoresistance tumor cells and may hamper the apoptotic pathway. CF101, a specific agonist to the A3 adenosine receptor, inhibits the development of colon carcinoma growth in cell cultures and xenograft murine models. Because CF101 has been shown to downregulate PKB/Akt and NF-κB protein expression level, we presumed that its combination with chemotherapy will enhance the antitumor effect of the cytotoxic drug. In this study, we utilized 3-[4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and colony formation assays and a colon carcinoma xenograft model. It has been shown that a combined treatment of CF101 and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) enhanced the cytotoxic effect of the latter on HCT-116 human colon carcinoma growth. Downregulation of PKB/Akt, NF-κB, and cyclin D1, and upregulation of caspase-3 protein expression level were observed in cells and tumor lesions on treatment with a combination of CF101 and 5-FU. Moreover, in mice treated with the combined therapy, myelotoxicity was prevented as was evidenced by normal white blood cell and neutrophil counts. These results show that CF101 potentiates the cytotoxic effect of 5-FU, thus preventing drug resistance. The myeloprotective effect of CF101 suggests its development as an add-on treatment to 5-FU.
PMCID: PMC1490317  PMID: 15720820
A3 adenosine receptor agonist; colon carcinoma; 5-FU; NF-κB; PKB/Akt

Results 1-4 (4)