Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for ~4% of all human malignancies and is the 9th leading cause of male cancer death in the United States. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of variation within microRNA (miRNA) binding sites of genes in the VHL-HIF1α pathway on RCC risk. We identified 429 miRNA binding site single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 102 pathway genes and assessed 53 tagging-SNPs for 31 of these genes for risk in a case-control study consisting of 894 RCC cases and 1,516 controls. Results showed that five SNPs were significantly associated with RCC risk. The most significant finding was rs743409 in MAPK1. Under the additive model, the variant was associated with a 10% risk reduction (OR: 0.90, 95% CI, 0.77-0.98). Other significant findings were for SNPs in CDCP1, TFRC, and DEC1. Cumulative effects analysis showed that subjects carrying four or five unfavorable genotypes had a 2.14-fold increase in risk (95% CI, 1.03-4.43, P = 0.04) than those with no unfavorable genotypes. Potential higher-order gene-gene interactions were identified and categorized subjects into different risk groups. The OR of the high-risk group defined by two SNPs: CDCP1:rs6773576 (GG) and DEC1:rs10982724 (GG) was 4.46-times higher than that of low-risk reference group (95% CI, 1.31-15.08). Overall, our study provides the first evidence supporting a connection between miRNA binding site SNPs within the VHL-HIF1α pathway and RCC risk. These novel genetic risk factors might help identify individuals at high risk to enable detection of tumors at an early, curable stage.
VHL-HIF1α pathway; microRNA; renal cell carcinoma
Risk prediction models for hepatocellular carcinoma are available for individuals with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections who are at high risk but not for the general population with average or unknown risk. We developed five simple risk prediction models based on clinically available data from the general population.
A prospective cohort of 428 584 subjects from a private health screening firm in Taiwan was divided into two subgroups—one with known HCV test results (n = 130 533 subjects) and the other without (n = 298 051 subjects). A total of 1668 incident hepatocellular carcinomas occurred during an average follow-up of 8.5 years. Model inputs included age, sex, health history–related variables; HBV or HCV infection–related variables; serum levels of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), and alfa-fetoprotein (AFP), as well as other variables of routine blood panels for liver function. Cox proportional hazards regression method was used to identify risk predictors of hepatocellular carcinoma. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to assess discriminatory accuracy of the models. Models were internally validated. All statistical tests were two-sided.
Age, sex, health history, HBV and HCV status, and serum ALT, AST, AFP levels were statistically significant independent predictors of hepatocellular carcinoma risk (all P < .05). Use of serum transaminases only in a model showed a higher discrimination compared with HBV or HCV only (for transaminases, area under the curve [AUC] = 0.912, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.909 to 0.915; for HBV, AUC = 0.840, 95% CI = 0.833 to 0.848; and for HCV, AUC = 0.841, 95% CI = 0.834 to 0.847). Adding HBV and HCV data to the transaminase-only model improved the discrimination (AUC = 0.933, 95% CI = 0.929 to 0.949). Internal validation showed high discriminatory accuracy and calibration of these models.
Models with transaminase data were best able to predict hepatocellular carcinoma risk even among subjects with unknown or HBV- or HCV-negative infection status.
We adopted a two-stage study design to screen 927 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in 73 apoptotic-pathway genes in a case-control study and then performed a fast-track validation of the significant SNPs in a replication population to identify sequence variations in the apoptotic pathway modulating lung cancer risk. Fifty-five SNPs showed significant associations in the discovery population comprised of 661 lung cancer cases and 959 controls. Six of these SNPs located in three genes (Bcl-2, CASP9 and ANKS1B) were validated in a replication population with 1154 cases and 1373 controls. Additive model was the best-fitting model for five SNPs (rs1462129 and rs255102 of Bcl-2, rs6685648 of CASP9 and rs1549102, rs11110099 of ANKS1B) and recessive model was the best fit for one SNP (rs10745877 of ANKS1B). In the analysis of joint effects with subjects carrying no unfavorable genotypes as the reference group, those carrying one, two, and three or more unfavorable genotypes had an odds ratio (OR) of 2.22 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.08–4.57, P = 0.03], 2.70 (95% CI = 1.33–5.49; P = 0.006) and 4.13 (95% CI = 2.00–8.57; P = 0.0001), respectively (P for trend = 6.05E-06). The joint effect of unfavorable genotypes was also validated in the replication population. The SNPs identified are located in or near key genes known to play important roles in apoptosis regulation, supporting the strong biological relevance of our findings. Future studies are needed to identify the causal SNPs and elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms.
Past studies have shown that the inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 5-phosphatase (PIB5PA), is commonly downregulated or lost in melanomas, which contributes to elevated activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt in melanoma cells. In this report, we provide evidence that PIB5PA deficiency plays a role in resistance of melanoma cells to RAF/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitors. Ectopic expression of PIB5PA enhanced apoptosis induced by the RAF inhibitor PLX4720 in BRAFV600E and by the MEK inhibitor U0126 in both BRAFV600E and wild-type BRAF melanoma cells. This was due to inhibition of PI3K/Akt, as co-introduction of an active form of Akt (myr-Akt) abolished the effect of overexpression of PIB5PA on apoptosis induced by PLX4720 or U0126. While overexpression of PIB5PA triggered activation of Bad and down-regulation of Mcl-1, knockdown of Bad or overexpression of Mcl-1 recapitulated, at least in part, the effect of myr-Akt, suggesting that regulation of Bad and Mcl-1 is involved in PIB5PA-mediated sensitization of melanoma cells to the inhibitors. The role of PIB5PA deficiency in BRAF inhibitor resistance was confirmed by knockdown of PIB5PA, which led to increased growth of BRAFV600E melanoma cells selected for resistance to PLX4720. Consistent with its role in vitro, overexpression of PIB5PA and the MEK inhibitor selumetinib cooperatively inhibited melanoma tumor growth in a xenograft model. Taken together, these results identify loss of PIB5PA as a novel resistance mechanism of melanoma to RAF/MEK inhibitors and suggest that restoration of PIB5PA may be a useful strategy to improve the therapeutic efficacy of the inhibitors in the treatment of melanoma.
Members of the Killer Immunoglobulin-Like Receptor (KIR) family, a large group of polymorphic receptors expressed on Natural Killer (NK) cells, recognise particular peptide-laden Human Leukocyte Antigen (pHLA) class I molecules and play a pivotal role in innate immune responses1. Allelic variation and extensive polymorphism within the three-domain KIR family (KIR3D, domains D0–D1–D2) affects pHLA binding specificity and is linked to the control of viral replication and the treatment outcome of certain haematological malignancies1–3. We describe the structure of the KIR3DL1 receptor, bound to HLA-B*5701 complexed with a self-peptide. KIR3DL1 clamped around the C-terminal end of the HLA-B*5701 antigen (Ag)-binding cleft, resulting in two discontinuous footprints on the pHLA. Firstly, the D0 domain, a distinguishing feature of the KIR3D family, extended towards β2-microglobulin and abutted a region of the HLA molecule that exhibited limited polymorphism, thereby acting as an “innate HLA sensor” domain. Secondly, while the D2-HLA-B*5701 interface exhibited a high degree of complementarity, the D1-pHLA-B*5701 contacts were sub-optimal and accommodated a degree of sequence variation both within the peptide and the polymorphic region of the HLA molecule. While the two-domain KIR (KIR2D) and KIR3DL1 docked similarly onto HLA-C4,5 and HLA-B respectively, the corresponding D1-mediated interactions differed markedly, thereby providing insight into the specificity of KIR3DL1 for discrete HLA-A and HLA-B allotypes. Collectively, in association with extensive mutagenesis studies at the KIR3DL1-pHLA B*5701 interface, we provide a framework for understanding the intricate interplay between peptide variability, KIR3D and HLA polymorphism in determining the specificity requirements of this essential innate interaction that is conserved across primate species.
Shewanella spp. is infrequently recovered from clinical specimens. Following two outbreaks of food poisoning, eight Shewanella spp. strains were obtained from the fecal specimens of patients, food and food processing-related materials. Tetrodotoxin (TTX) was identified in the culture supernatants of these strains, and the toxin’s biological activity was detected using a mouse bioassay. This study suggested that Shewanella strains can colonize and survive in human intestines. The study also raises the issues of the accumulation of TTX produced by Shewanella in food and the possible role of TTX-producing Shewanella in food poisoning.
Tetrodotoxin; Shewanella; Food poisoning
Insulin is known to regulate multiple cellular functions and is used for the treatment of diabetes. MicroRNAs have been demonstrated to be involved in many human diseases, including Type 2 diabetes. In this study, we showed that insulin decreased miR-99a expression levels, but induced glucose consumption and lactate production, and increased the expression of mTOR, HIF-1α and PKM2 in HepG2 and HL7702 cells. Forced expression of miR-99a or rapamycin treatment blocked insulin-induced PKM2 and HIF-1α expression, and glucose consumption and lactate production. Meanwhile, knockdown of HIF-1α inhibited PKM2 expression and insulin-induced glucose consumption. Taken together, these findings will reveal the role and mechanism ofinsulin in regulating glycolytic activities via miR-99a/mTOR.
In the title compound, C15H9Br2NO3, the chromene unit is not quite planar (r.m.s. deviation from planarity = 0.0888 Å). The dihydropyran ring adopts an envelope conformation with the phenyl-substituted C atom fused to the dihydropyran ring as the flap. The dihedral angle between the plane defined by this C atom and the adjacent C and O atoms and the mean plane of the dihydropyran ring excluding the phenyl-substituted C atom is 25.1 (3)°. The dihedral angle between the mean plane of the chromene unit and the phenyl ring is 85.7 (1)°. The crystal structure features C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds and Br⋯O contacts [3.289 (3) Å] involving the nitro O atoms.
Persistently increasing incident of cancer in human beings has served to emphasize the importance of studies on mechanism of antitumor substances. Chlorogenic acid (CA), extracted from folium cortex eucommiae, has been confirmed to have lots of biological activities encompassing inhibition of tumor. However, the anticancer mechanism of CA remains unclear. Here, we have utilized a whole mouse genome oligo microarray (4∗44K) to analyze gene expression level of female BALB/c mice (implanted with EMT-6 sarcoma cells) after treatment with low, medium, and high-dose CA (5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, and 20 mg/kg), docetaxel, interferon, and normal saline separately at 6 time points (3rd, 6th, 9th, 12th, 15th, and 18th days after administration). Differentially expressed genes screened out by time-series analysis, GO analysis, and pathway analysis, and four immune-related genes were selected for further confirmation using RT-qPCR. The results demonstrated that CA is able to change gene expression and that the responsive genes (CaN, NFATC2, NFATC2ip, and NFATC3) involved in immune pathways had been significantly upregulated by CA. Expression of immune factors such as IL-2R and IFN-γ can be improved by CA to promote activation and proliferation of T cells, macrophages, and NK cells, thus enhancing their surveillance and killing abilities, further suppressing the growth rate of tumor cells.
There are 516 known kinases in the human genome. Because of their important role maintaining proper cellular function, they are often misregulated during tumorigenesis and associated with clinical outcomes in cancer patients, including clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). However, less is known about the global expression status of these genes in renal cell carcinoma and their association with clinical outcomes. We performed a systematic analysis of gene expression for 503 kinases in 93 tumor samples and adjacent normal tissues. Expression patterns for 41 kinases were able to clearly differentiate tumor and normal samples. Expression of I-kappa-B kinase epsilon (IKBKE) was associated with a 5.3-fold increased risk of dying [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.93–14.59, P-value: 0.0012]. Individuals with high IKBKE expression were at a significantly increased risk of death (hazard ratio: 3.34, 95% CI: 1.07–10.40, P-value: 0.038) resulting in a significantly reduced overall survival time compared with those with low IKBKE tumor expression (P-value: 0.049). These results for IKBKE were validated in a replication population consisting of 237 ccRCC patients (P-value: 0.0021). Furthermore, IKBKE was observed to be higher expressed in tumors compared with adjacent normal tissues (P-value < 10−7). IKBKE is a member of the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) signaling pathway and interestingly, gene expression patterns for other members of the NF-κB pathway were not associated with survival, suggesting that IKBKE gene expression may be an independent marker of variation in overall survival. Overall, these results support a novel role for IKBKE expression in modulating overall survival in ccRCC patients.
We investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms within ultraconserved elements (UCEs) are associated with susceptibility to overall colorectal cancer (CRC) and susceptibility to tumor site-specific CRC. The study included 787 CRC patients and 551 healthy controls. The study comprised of a training set (520 cases and 341 controls) and a replication set (267 cases and 210 controls). We observed associations in rs7849 and rs1399685 with CRC risk. For example, a dose-dependent trend (per-allele odds ratio (OR), 0.78; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.63–1.00; P for trend = 0.05) associated with the variant allele of rs7849 in the training set. The significant trend toward a decrease in CRC risk was confirmed in the replication set (per-allele OR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.52–0.99; P for trend = 0.044). When stratified by tumor location, for left-sided CRC (LCRC) risk, significant association was observed for the variant-containing genotypes of rs1399685 (OR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.02–3.06) and the risk was replicated in the replication population (OR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.02–4.07). The variant genotypes of rs9784100 and rs7849 conferred decreased risk but the associations were not replicated. Three right-sided CRC (RCRC) susceptibility loci were identified in rs6124509, rs4243289 and rs12218935 but none of the loci was replicated. Joint effects and potential higher order gene–gene interactions among significant variants further categorized patients into different risk groups. Our results strongly suggest that several genetic variants in the UCEs may contribute to CRC susceptibility, individually and jointly, and that different genetic etiology may be involved in RCRC and LCRC.
The objective of this study was to determine copy number variant (CNV) and promoter genetic variants in glutathione S-transferase Mu class 1 (GSTM1) and the risk of recurrence (REC)/second primary tumor (SPT) in patients with previously diagnosed early stage head and neck cancer. Among 441 subjects, 133 experienced REC and/or an SPT, while 308 had single primary disease. TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to measure the exact copy number of GSTM1 and direct sequencing was used to determine genetic variants in the GSTM1 promoter region. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) associated with copy number and genetic variants. REC/SPT-free survival times were compared by constructing Kaplan–Meier curves and differences between curves were tested by logrank test. Results showed a significantly decreased REC/SPT (HR = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.35–0.95) and longer REC/SPT-free survival in subjects with at least two copies of GSTM1 compared with the GSTM1 homozygous deletion, but not in those with one copy of GSTM1. The −498G, −426G, and −339T alleles were significantly associated with REC/SPT, with HRs of 0.11 (0.02–0.85), 0.28 (0.11–0.74) and 2.02 (1.07–3.82), respectively. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis showed that the −498G, −426G, and −339C alleles were also significantly associated with increased REC/SPT-free survival. Further haplotype analysis showed the haplotype P−498G-−426G-−339C carriers had decreased REC/SPT with a HR of 0.09 (95% CI 0.01–0.71) and increased REC/SPT-free survival compared with those with haplotype P−498C-−426A-−339T. The P−498C-−426A-−339T-containing reporter construct had significantly increased luciferase expression. These results suggest that the GSTM1 CNV and promoter haplotype are better predictors of REC/SPTs of head and neck cancer than just measuring the presence/absence of GSTM1.
GSTM1; copy number variant; REC; SPT; single nucleotide polymorphism
The incidence of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) in patients over 80 years old is >20 times greater than that observed in younger patients. Previously, no standard treatment protocol for elderly patients with AML existed, however the development of hypomethylating agents, including decitabine, has brought about promising results in AML. In the present study, we report on the usage of a lower than routine dosage of decitabine in patients over 80 years old with AML. Since January 2010, 5 patients diagnosed with AML over the age of 80 years old received treatment with decitabine in our hospital. Decitabine was administered at a dose of 10–15 mg/m2 and repeated every other day for a total of 5 days. This cycle was repeated for ∼6 weeks. The 5 patients received a total of 19 cycles of treatment with decitabine. No patient achieved complete or partial remission. An antileukemic effect was observed in 25% of courses (3/12). An increase in platelet count of >20×109/l was observed in 26.3% (5/19) of cycles compared with previous treatment. An increase in hemoglobin concentration of >20 g/l was observed in 36.8% (7/19) of cycles in comparison to previous treatment, four of which achieved normal hemoglobin levels. One patient became red blood cell transfusion-independent. The median survival time was 19.8±4.8 months. Survival time from decitabine administration to mortality was 13.2±5.1 months. The main side-effect was bone marrow suppression with grade III–IV thrombocytopenia, grade III–IV leukocytopenia, grade III–IV neutropenia and anemia accounting for 94.7% (18/19), 47.4% (9/19), 89.5% (17/19) and 21.1% (4/19), respectively. Severe infection or bleeding was not observed and no patient stopped treatment due to adverse effects. In conclusion, extremely low-dose decitabine may be used safely in elderly patients and achieved longer survival times than reported previously in AML patients aged 80 and above. It is suggested that complete remission may not be the primary objective, while improvement of quality of life may be a better choice in AML patients over 80 years old. The cases observed in our study were limited, so more cases are required for further study.
decitabine; acute myelogenous leukemia; methylation; elderly
Early-stage non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is potentially curable, however, many patients develop recurrent disease. Therefore, identification of biomarkers that can be used to predict patient’s risk of recurrence and survival is critical. Genetic polymorphisms or single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of DNA- and histone-modifying genes, particularly those of O6-methylguanine DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT), have been linked to an increased risk of lung cancer as well as treatment outcomes in other tumors.
We assessed the association of 165 SNPs in selected epigenetic enzyme genes, DNA methyltransferases, and methyl-CpG–binding proteins with cancer recurrence in 467 patients with stage I or II NSCLC treated with either surgery alone (N = 340) or surgery plus (neo)-adjuvant chemotherapy (N = 127).
We found several SNPs to be strongly correlated with tumor recurrence. We identified 10 SNPs that correlated with the outcome in patients treated with surgery alone but not in patients treated with surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy, which suggested that the addition of platinum-based chemotherapy could reverse the high genetic risk of recurrence. We also identified 10 SNPs that predicted the risk of recurrence in patients treated with surgery plus adjuvant chemotherapy but not in patients treated with surgery alone. The cumulative effect of these SNPs significantly predicted outcomes with P-values of 10−9and 10−6, respectively.
The first set of genotypes may be used as novel predictive biomarkers to identify patients with stage I NSCLC, who could benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy, and the second set of SNPs might predict response to adjuvant chemotherapy.
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most lethal urologic cancer. Only two common susceptibility loci for RCC have been confirmed to date. To identify additional RCC common susceptibility loci, we conducted an independent genome-wide association study (GWAS). We analyzed 533 191 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for association with RCC in 894 cases and 1516 controls of European descent recruited from MD Anderson Cancer Center in the primary scan, and validated the top 500 SNPs in silico in 3772 cases and 8505 controls of European descent involved in the only published GWAS of RCC. We identified two common variants in linkage disequilibrium, rs718314 and rs1049380 (r2 = 0.64, D ′ = 0.84), in the inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor, type 2 (ITPR2) gene on 12p11.23 as novel susceptibility loci for RCC (P = 8.89 × 10−10 and P = 6.07 × 10−9, respectively, in meta-analysis) with an allelic odds ratio of 1.19 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13–1.26] for rs718314 and 1.18 (95% CI: 1.12–1.25) for rs1049380. It has been recently identified that rs718314 in ITPR2 is associated with waist–hip ratio (WHR) phenotype. To our knowledge, this is the first genetic locus associated with both cancer risk and WHR.
Cell cycle progression contributes to the cellular response to DNA-damaging factors, such as chemotherapy and radiation. We hypothesized that the genetic variations in cell cycle pathway genes may modulate treatment responses and affect survival in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We genotyped 374 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 49 cell cycle-related genes in 598 patients with stages III–IV NSCLC treated with first-line platinum-based chemotherapy with/without radiation. We analyzed the individual and combined associations of these SNPs with survival and evaluated their gene–gene interactions using survival tree analysis. In the analysis of survival in all the patients, 39 SNPs reached nominal significance (P < 0.05) and 4 SNPs were significant at P <0.01. However, none of these SNPs remained significant after correction for multiple comparisons at a false discovery rate of 10%. In stratified analysis by treatment modality, after adjusting for multiple comparisons, nine SNPs in chemotherapy alone and one SNP in chemoradiation remained significant. The most significant SNP in chemotherapy group was CCNB2:rs1486878 [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25–2.30, P = 0.001]. TP73: rs3765701 was the only significant SNP in chemoradiation group (HR = 1.87; 95% CI = 1.35–2.59, P = 1.8 × 10−4). In cumulative analysis, we found a significant gene-dosage effect in patients receiving chemotherapy alone. Survival tree analysis demonstrated potential higher order gene–gene and gene–treatment interactions, which could be used to predict survival status based on distinct genetic signatures. These results suggest that genetic variations in cell cycle pathway genes may affect the survival of patients with stages III–IV NSCLC individually and jointly.
This study aimed to analyze the volatile chemical profile of Longjing tea, and further develop a prediction model for aroma quality of Longjing tea based on potent odorants. A total of 21 Longjing samples were analyzed by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Pearson’s linear correlation analysis and partial least square (PLS) regression were applied to investigate the relationship between sensory aroma scores and the volatile compounds. Results showed that 60 volatile compounds could be commonly detected in this famous green tea. Terpenes and esters were two major groups characterized, representing 33.89% and 15.53% of the total peak area respectively. Ten compounds were determined to contribute significantly to the perceived aroma quality of Longjing tea, especially linalool (0.701), nonanal (0.738), (Z)-3-hexenyl hexanoate (−0.785), and β-ionone (−0.763). On the basis of these 10 compounds, a model (correlation coefficient of 89.4% and cross-validated correlation coefficient of 80.4%) was constructed to predict the aroma quality of Longjing tea. Summarily, this study has provided a novel option for quality prediction of green tea based on HS-SPME/GC-MS technique.
Partial least square (PLS) regression; Green tea; Headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME); Volatile profile; Quality prediction
The integration host factor (IHF) is an abundant nucleoid-associated protein and an essential co-factor for phage λ site-specific recombination and gene regulation in E. coli. Introduction of a sharp DNA kink at specific cognate sites is critical for these functions. Interestingly, the intracellular concentration of IHF is much higher than the concentration needed for site-specific interactions, suggesting that non-specific binding of IHF to DNA plays a role in the physical organization of bacterial chromatin. However, it is unclear how non-specific DNA association contributes to DNA organization. By using a combination of single DNA manipulation and atomic force microscopy imaging methods, we show here that distinct modes of non-specific DNA binding of IHF result in complex global DNA conformations. Changes in KCl and IHF concentrations, as well as tension applied to DNA, dramatically influence the degree of DNA-bending. In addition, IHF can crosslink DNA into a highly compact DNA meshwork that is observed in the presence of magnesium at low concentration of monovalent ions and high IHF-DNA stoichiometries. Our findings provide important insights into how IHF contributes to bacterial chromatin organization, gene regulation, and biofilm formation.
Genome-wide and candidate-gene association studies of bladder cancer have identified 10 susceptibility loci thus far. We conducted a meta-analysis of two previously published genome-wide scans (4501 cases and 6076 controls of European background) and followed up the most significant association signals [17 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 10 genomic regions] in 1382 cases and 2201 controls from four studies. A combined analysis adjusted for study center, age, sex, and smoking status identified a novel susceptibility locus that mapped to a region of 18q12.3, marked by rs7238033 (P = 8.7 × 10–9; allelic odds ratio 1.20 with 95% CI: 1.13–1.28) and two highly correlated SNPs, rs10775480/rs10853535 (r2= 1.00; P = 8.9 × 10–9; allelic odds ratio 1.16 with 95% CI: 1.10–1.22). The signal localizes to the solute carrier family 14 member 1 gene, SLC14A1, a urea transporter that regulates cellular osmotic pressure. In the kidney, SLC14A1 regulates urine volume and concentration whereas in erythrocytes it determines the Kidd blood groups. Our findings suggest that genetic variation in SLC14A1 could provide new etiological insights into bladder carcinogenesis.
We analyzed the association between meat intake, heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and bladder cancer (BC) risk in a large case-control study comprised of 884 BC cases and 878 healthy controls, recruited from 1999 to 2009. Epidemiologic and dietary data were collected via an in-person interview. Compared to the lowest quartile of red meat intake, the odds ratios (ORs) for the second, third and fourth quartiles were 1.17 (95% CI: 0.87–1.58), 1.47 (95% CI: 1.09–1.99) and 1.95 (95% CI: 1.41–2.68), respectively, (p-for trend <0.001). In a subset of participants with intakes of HCAs available, compared with those with the lowest quartile of intake, the ORs for the second, third and fourth quartiles were 1.47 (95% CI: 0.60–3.64), 2.58 (95% CI: 1.09–6.11) and 3.32 (95% CI: 1.37–8.01), respectively, (p for trend <0.001). In cumulative analysis of SNPs in the pathway, compared with subjects carrying 0–4 unfavorable genotypes, subjects carrying 5 and 6 or more unfavorable genotypes were at 1.60-fold (95% CI: 1.20–2.12) and 2.37-fold (95% CI: 1.82–3.10) increased risk, respectively. Moreover, subjects carrying six or more unfavorable genotypes and whose red meat intake was in the highest quartile were at 5.09-fold increased risk (95% CI: 2.89–8.96; p < 0.001). These results strongly support that high red meat intake, high intake of HCAs and carrying high number of unfavorable genotypes in the HCA metabolic pathways are associated with increased risk of BC in the study population.
bladder cancer risk; red meat intake; heterocyclic amines
The title compound, C16H16N2O2, was synthesized using a novel tandem annulation reaction between 1-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)ethanone and ethyl (E)-4-bromobut-2-enoate under mild conditions. The dihedral angles formed by the mean plane of the five-membered imidazole ring with the dihydropyridin and benzene rings are 1.54 (9) and 1.85 (9)°, respectively.
This study sought to determine the role of copy number variants (CNV) combined with other genetic variants in the Glutathione S-transferases Mu class1 (GSTM1) promoter in the development of urinary bladder cancer. TaqMan real-time PCR and direct sequencing were used to determine genetic variants. Haploblocks and haplotype were constructed and estimated by Haploview and Phase, respectively. Logistic regression revealed a significantly decreased bladder cancer risk in subjects with at least 2 copies of GSTM1 (OR=0.56; 95%CI=0.39-0.81) but not in those with 1 copy of the gene. GSTM1 promoter screening revealed an insertion variant (-1543TTCT) and 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (-1529C>G, -1490A>G, -1143A>G, -888A>T, -498G>C, -486C>G, -471C>T, -426G>A, -344C>T, -343A>T, -341C>T, -339C>T, -304G>A, and -164C>T). Four haploblocks were evident by Haploview. There was no significant association between any single SNP/haplotype and bladder cancer risk. However, when stratified by copy number, the two copy carriers with the -1543 insertion had decreased bladder cancer risk (OR, 0.58; 95%CI, 0.32-0.10) and similar results were found in two copy carriers with -888 A, -486G, - 344 C, -343 A, -341 C allele and haplotype INS-1543-C-1529-A-1429 in LD block 1, A-1143-A-888 in LD block 2, C-498-G-486-T-471 in LD block 3, C-344-A-343-C-341-C-339 and C-344-A-343-C-341-T-339 in LD block 4. These results suggest that GSTM1 CNV is a better predictor of bladder cancer susceptibility than measuring presence/absence of GSTM1 and other genetic variants also can modify bladder cancer risk.
Glutathione-S-transferase M1; Copy number variant; single nucleotide polymorphism; bladder cancer
A multicomponent DNA vaccine, encoding Toxoplasma gondii GRA1 and SAG1, was constructed and tested for its ability to confer protection. BALB/c mice were challenged with tachyzoites of the virulent T. gondii RH strain at 4 weeks following the last immunization, and immune responses and survival times were observed. The results show that vaccination by the multicomponent vaccine prolonged survival of mice challenged with the T. gondii RH strain (from average 4.50 ± 0.22 to 7.60 ± 0.74 days); induced high levels of IgG antibody (from 0.252 ± 0.080 to 0.790 ± 0.083), IFN-gamma (from 598.74 ± 67.50 to 853.77 ± 66.74 pg/ml), and IL-2 (from 89.44 ± 10.66 to 192.24 ± 19.90 pg/ml); changed the CD4+/CD8+ lymphocyte ratio (from 1.81 ± 0.14 to 1.09 ± 0.19); and stimulated NK cell-killing activity (from 46.81 ± 3.96 to 64.15 ± 7.71 %). These findings demonstrate that a multicomponent DNA vaccine, encoding GRA1 and SAG1, primes a strong humoral and cellular immune response and enhances protection against T. gondii challenge. The new, combined DNA vaccine provides another means to combat T. gondii infection.
The magnitude of benefit is variable for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients receiving platinum-based chemotherapy. The purpose of this study is to determine whether genetic variations in the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) pathway are associated with clinical outcomes in NSCLC patients receiving first-line platinum-based chemotherapy. Five hundred and ninety-eight advanced-stage NSCLC patients who received first-line platinum-based chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy were recruited at the MD Anderson Cancer Center between 1995 and 2007. DNA from blood was genotyped for 227 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 23 TGF-β pathway-related genes to evaluate their associations with overall survival. In individual SNP analysis, 22 variants were significantly associated with overall survival, of which the strongest associations were found for BMP2:rs235756 [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.45; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11–1.90] and SMAD3:rs4776342 (HR = 1.25; 95% CI, 1.06–1.47). Fifteen and 18 genetic loci displayed treatment-specific associations for chemotherapy and chemoradiation, respectively, identifying a majority of the cases who would be predicted to respond favorably to a specific treatment regimen. BMP2:rs235753 and a haplotype in SMAD3 were associated with overall survival for both treatment modalities. Cumulative effect analysis showed that multiple risk genotypes had a significant dose-dependent effect on overall survival (Ptrend = 2.44 x 10−15). Survival tree analysis identified subgroups of patients with dramatically different median survival times of 45.39 versus 13.55 months and 18.02 versus 5.89 months for high- and low- risk populations when treated with chemoradiation and chemotherapy, respectively. These results suggest that genetic variations in the TGF-β pathway are potential predictors of overall survival in NSCLC patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy with or without radiation.
Understanding the pathogenesis of influenza infection is a key factor leading to the prevention and control of future outbreaks. Pandemic 2009 Influenza H1N1 infection, although frequently mild, led to a severe and fatal form of disease in certain cases that make its virulence nature debatable. Much effort has been made toward explaining the determinants of disease severity; however, no absolute reason has been established.
This study presents the heterogeneous virulence of clinically similar strains of pandemic 2009 influenza virus in human alveolar adenocarcinoma cells and mice. The viruses were obtained from patients who were admitted in a local hospital in China with a similar course of infection and recovered. The A/Nanchang/8002/2009 and A/Nanchang/8011/2009 viruses showed efficient replication and high lethality in mice while infection with A/Nanchang/8008/2009 was not lethal with impaired viral replication, minimal pathology and modest proinflammatory activity in lungs. Sequence analysis displayed prominent differences between polymerase subunits (PB2 and PA) of viral genomes that might correlate with their different phenotypic behavior.
The study confirms that biological heterogeneity, linked with the extent of viral replication, exists among pandemic H1N1 strains that may serve as a benchmark for future investigations on influenza pathogenesis.
Pandemic H1N1 influenza; Viral heterogeneity; Clinical presentation; Host adaptation; Viral polymerase; Virulence; Pathogenesis