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1.  CHEK2*1100delC homozygosity in the Netherlands—prevalence and risk of breast and lung cancer 
The 1100delC mutation in the CHEK2 gene has a carrier frequency of up to 1.5% in individuals from North-West Europe. Women heterozygous for 1100delC have an increased breast cancer risk (odds ratio 2.7). To explore the prevalence and clinical consequences of 1100delC homozygosity in the Netherlands, we genotyped a sporadic breast cancer hospital-based cohort, a group of non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer families, and breast tumors from a tumor tissue bank. Three 1100delC homozygous patients were found in the cohort of 1434 sporadic breast cancer patients, suggesting an increased breast cancer risk for 1100delC homozygotes (odds ratio 3.4, 95% confidence interval 0.4–32.6, P=0.3). Another 1100delC homozygote was found in 592 individuals from 108 non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer families, and two more were found after testing 1706 breast tumors and confirming homozygosity on their wild-type DNA. Follow-up data was available for five homozygous patients, and remarkably, three of them had developed contralateral breast cancer. A possible relationship between 1100delC and lung cancer risk was investigated in 457 unrelated lung cancer patients but could not be confirmed. Due to the small number of 1100delC homozygotes identified, the breast cancer risk estimate associated with this genotype had limited accuracy but is probably higher than the risk in heterozygous females. Screening for CHEK2 1100delC could be beneficial in countries with a relatively high allele frequency.
doi:10.1038/ejhg.2013.85
PMCID: PMC3865411  PMID: 23652375
CHEK2; 1100delC homozygotes; genotype risk; bilateral breast cancer; lung cancer
2.  Autophagy Controls BCG-Induced Trained Immunity and the Response to Intravesical BCG Therapy for Bladder Cancer 
PLoS Pathogens  2014;10(10):e1004485.
The anti-tuberculosis-vaccine Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the most widely used vaccine in the world. In addition to its effects against tuberculosis, BCG vaccination also induces non-specific beneficial effects against certain forms of malignancy and against infections with unrelated pathogens. It has been recently proposed that the non-specific effects of BCG are mediated through epigenetic reprogramming of monocytes, a process called trained immunity. In the present study we demonstrate that autophagy contributes to trained immunity induced by BCG. Pharmacologic inhibition of autophagy blocked trained immunity induced in vitro by stimuli such as β–glucans or BCG. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the autophagy genes ATG2B (rs3759601) and ATG5 (rs2245214) influenced both the in vitro and in vivo training effect of BCG upon restimulation with unrelated bacterial or fungal stimuli. Furthermore, pharmacologic or genetic inhibition of autophagy blocked epigenetic reprogramming of monocytes at the level of H3K4 trimethylation. Finally, we demonstrate that rs3759601 in ATG2B correlates with progression and recurrence of bladder cancer after BCG intravesical instillation therapy. These findings identify a key role of autophagy for the nonspecific protective effects of BCG.
Author Summary
Next to its effects against tuberculosis, BCG vaccination also induces non-specific beneficial effects on immune cells to increase their ability to control unrelated pathogens. It has been recently proposed that the non-specific effects of BCG are mediated through epigenetic reprogramming of monocytes, a process called trained immunity. Little is known regarding the intracellular events controlling its induction. In this study we identified autophagy as a key player in trained immunity. Pharmacological inhibition of autophagy as well as polymorphisms in autophagy-related genes blocked BCG-induced trained immunity. Furthermore, BCG vaccine is also used to treat bladder cancer. Genetic polymorphisms in autophagy-related genes correlated with progression and recurrence of bladder cancer after treatment with BCG therapy. These findings open new possibilities for improvement of future BCG-based vaccines to be used against infections and malignancies.
doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1004485
PMCID: PMC4214925  PMID: 25356988
3.  Targeted prostate cancer screening in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: results from the initial screening round of the IMPACT study 
Bancroft, Elizabeth K. | Page, Elizabeth C. | Castro, Elena | Lilja, Hans | Vickers, Andrew | Sjoberg, Daniel | Assel, Melissa | Foster, Christopher S. | Mitchell, Gillian | Drew, Kate | Maehle, Lovise | Axcrona, Karol | Evans, D. Gareth | Bulman, Barbara | Eccles, Diana | McBride, Donna | van Asperen, Christi | Vasen, Hans | Kiemeney, Lambertus A. | Ringelberg, Janneke | Cybulski, Cezary | Wokolorczyk, Dominika | Selkirk, Christina | Hulick, Peter J. | Bojesen, Anders | Skytte, Anne-Bine | Lam, Jimmy | Taylor, Louise | Oldenburg, Rogier | Cremers, Ruben | Verhaegh, Gerald | van Zelst-Stams, Wendy A. | Oosterwijk, Jan C. | Blanco, Ignacio | Salinas, Monica | Cook, Jackie | Rosario, Derek J. | Buys, Saundra | Conner, Tom | Ausems, Margreet GEM | Ong, Kai-ren | Hoffman, Jonathan | Domchek, Susan | Powers, Jacquelyn | Teixeira, Manuel R. | Maia, Sofia | Foulkes, William D. | Taherian, Nassim | Ruijs, Marielle | Helderman-van den Enden, Apollonia T. J. M. | Izatt, Louise | Davidson, Rosemarie | Adank, Muriel A. | Walker, Lisa | Schmutzler, Rita | Tucker, Kathy | Kirk, Judy | Hodgson, Shirley | Harris, Marion | Douglas, Fiona | Lindeman, Geoffrey J. | Zgajnar, Janez | Tischkowitz, Marc | Clowes, Virginia E. | Susman, Rachel | Cajal, Teresa Ramon y | Patcher, Nicholas | Gadea, Neus | Spigelman, Allan | van Os, Theo | Liljegren, Annelie | Side, Lucy | Brewer, Carole | Brady, Angela F. | Donaldson, Alan | Stefansdottir, Vigdis | Friedman, Eitan | Chen-Shtoyerman, Rakefet | Amor, David J. | Copakova, Lucia | Barwell, Julian | Giri, Veda N. | Murthy, Vedang | Nicolai, Nicola | Teo, Soo-Hwang | Greenhalgh, Lynn | Strom, Sara | Henderson, Alex | McGrath, John | Gallagher, David | Aaronson, Neil | Ardern-Jones, Audrey | Bangma, Chris | Dearnaley, David | Costello, Philandra | Eyfjord, Jorunn | Rothwell, Jeanette | Falconer, Alison | Gronberg, Henrik | Hamdy, Freddie C. | Johannsson, Oskar | Khoo, Vincent | Kote-Jarai, Zsofia | Lubinski, Jan | Axcrona, Ulrika | Melia, Jane | McKinley, Joanne | Mitra, Anita V. | Moynihan, Clare | Rennert, Gad | Suri, Mohnish | Wilson, Penny | Killick, Emma | Moss, Sue | Eeles, Rosalind A.
European urology  2014;66(3):489-499.
Background
Men with germline BRCA1/2 mutations have a higher risk of developing prostate cancer than non-carriers. IMPACT is an international consortium of 62 centres in 20 countries evaluating the use of targeted PrCa screening in men with BRCA1/2 mutations.
Objective
To report the first year’s screening results for all men at enrolment in the study.
Outcome Measurements and Statistical Analysis
PSA levels, PrCa incidence, and tumour characteristics were evaluated. Fisher’s exact test was used to compare the number of PrCa cases between groups and differences between disease types.
Design, setting and participants
We recruited men aged 40–69 years with germline BRCA1/2 mutations and a control group of men who have tested negative for a pathogenic BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation known to be present in their family. All men underwent PSA testing at enrolment and those with a PSA >3ng/ml offered prostate biopsy.
Results and limitations
We recruited 2,481 men (791 BRCA1 carriers, 531 BRCA1 controls; 731 BRCA2 carriers, 428 BRCA2 controls). 199 (8%) presented with a PSA >3ng/ml, 162 biopsies were performed and 59 PrCas diagnosed (18 BRCA1 carriers, 10 BRCA1 controls; 24 BRCA2 carriers, 7 BRCA2 controls); 66% of tumours were classified as intermediate or high-risk disease. The positive-predictive-value for biopsy using a PSA threshold of 3.0ng/ml in BRCA2 mutation carriers was 48%, double that reported in population screening studies. A significant difference in detecting intermediate or high-risk disease was observed in BRCA2 carriers. 95% of men were Caucasian thus the results cannot be generalised to all ethnic groups.
Conclusions
The IMPACT screening network will be useful for targeted PrCa screening studies in men with germline genetic risk variants as they are discovered. These preliminary results support the use of targeted PSA screening based on BRCA genotype and show that this yields a high proportion of aggressive disease.
Patient Summary
In this report we demonstrate that germline genetic markers can be used to identify men at higher risk of PrCa. Targeting screening at these men resulted in the identification of tumours that were more likely to require treatment.
doi:10.1016/j.eururo.2014.01.003
PMCID: PMC4105321  PMID: 24484606
BRCA1; BRCA2; Prostate cancer; Prostate-Specific-Antigen; Targeted screening
4.  Genome-wide association study identifies a sequence variant within the DAB2IP gene conferring susceptibility to abdominal aortic aneurysm 
Gretarsdottir, Solveig | Baas, Annette F | Thorleifsson, Gudmar | Holm, Hilma | den Heijer, Martin | de Vries, Jean-Paul P M | Kranendonk, Steef E | Zeebregts, Clark J A M | van Sterkenburg, Steven M | Geelkerken, Robert H | van Rij, Andre M | Williams, Michael J A | Boll, Albert P M | Kostic, Jelena P | Jonasdottir, Adalbjorg | Jonasdottir, Aslaug | Walters, G Bragi | Masson, Gisli | Sulem, Patrick | Saemundsdottir, Jona | Mouy, Magali | Magnusson, Kristinn P | Tromp, Gerard | Elmore, James R | Sakalihasan, Natzi | Limet, Raymond | Defraigne, Jean-Olivier | Ferrell, Robert E | Ronkainen, Antti | Ruigrok, Ynte M | Wijmenga, Cisca | Grobbee, Diederick E | Shah, Svati H | Granger, Christopher B | Quyyumi, Arshed A | Vaccarino, Viola | Patel, Riyaz S | Zafari, A Maziar | Levey, Allan I | Austin, Harland | Girelli, Domenico | Pignatti, Pier Franco | Olivieri, Oliviero | Martinelli, Nicola | Malerba, Giovanni | Trabetti, Elisabetta | Becker, Lewis C | Becker, Diane M | Reilly, Muredach P | Rader, Daniel J | Mueller, Thomas | Dieplinger, Benjamin | Haltmayer, Meinhard | Urbonavicius, Sigitas | Lindblad, Bengt | Gottsäter, Anders | Gaetani, Eleonora | Pola, Roberto | Wells, Philip | Rodger, Marc | Forgie, Melissa | Langlois, Nicole | Corral, Javier | Vicente, Vicente | Fontcuberta, Jordi | España, Francisco | Grarup, Niels | Jørgensen, Torben | Witte, Daniel R | Hansen, Torben | Pedersen, Oluf | Aben, Katja K | de Graaf, Jacqueline | Holewijn, Suzanne | Folkersen, Lasse | Franco-Cereceda, Anders | Eriksson, Per | Collier, David A | Stefansson, Hreinn | Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur | Rafnar, Thorunn | Valdimarsson, Einar M | Magnadottir, Hulda B | Sveinbjornsdottir, Sigurlaug | Olafsson, Isleifur | Magnusson, Magnus Karl | Palmason, Robert | Haraldsdottir, Vilhelmina | Andersen, Karl | Onundarson, Pall T | Thorgeirsson, Gudmundur | Kiemeney, Lambertus A | Powell, Janet T | Carey, David J | Kuivaniemi, Helena | Lindholt, Jes S | Jones, Gregory T | Kong, Augustine | Blankensteijn, Jan D | Matthiasson, Stefan E | Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur | Stefansson, Kari
Nature genetics  2010;42(8):692-697.
We performed a genome-wide association study on 1,292 individuals with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) and 30,503 controls from Iceland and The Netherlands, with a follow-up of top markers in up to 3,267 individuals with AAAs and 7,451 controls. The A allele of rs7025486 on 9q33 was found to associate with AAA, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.21 and P = 4.6 × 10−10. In tests for association with other vascular diseases, we found that rs7025486[A] is associated with early onset myocardial infarction (OR = 1.18, P = 3.1 × 10−5), peripheral arterial disease (OR = 1.14, P = 3.9 × 10−5) and pulmonary embolism (OR = 1.20, P = 0.00030), but not with intracranial aneurysm or ischemic stroke. No association was observed between rs7025486[A] and common risk factors for arterial and venous diseases—that is, smoking, lipid levels, obesity, type 2 diabetes and hypertension. Rs7025486 is located within DAB2IP, which encodes an inhibitor of cell growth and survival.
doi:10.1038/ng.622
PMCID: PMC4157066  PMID: 20622881
5.  Targeted Prostate Cancer Screening in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers: Results from the Initial Screening Round of the IMPACT Study 
Bancroft, Elizabeth K. | Page, Elizabeth C. | Castro, Elena | Lilja, Hans | Vickers, Andrew | Sjoberg, Daniel | Assel, Melissa | Foster, Christopher S. | Mitchell, Gillian | Drew, Kate | Mæhle, Lovise | Axcrona, Karol | Evans, D. Gareth | Bulman, Barbara | Eccles, Diana | McBride, Donna | van Asperen, Christi | Vasen, Hans | Kiemeney, Lambertus A. | Ringelberg, Janneke | Cybulski, Cezary | Wokolorczyk, Dominika | Selkirk, Christina | Hulick, Peter J. | Bojesen, Anders | Skytte, Anne-Bine | Lam, Jimmy | Taylor, Louise | Oldenburg, Rogier | Cremers, Ruben | Verhaegh, Gerald | van Zelst-Stams, Wendy A. | Oosterwijk, Jan C. | Blanco, Ignacio | Salinas, Monica | Cook, Jackie | Rosario, Derek J. | Buys, Saundra | Conner, Tom | Ausems, Margreet G. | Ong, Kai-ren | Hoffman, Jonathan | Domchek, Susan | Powers, Jacquelyn | Teixeira, Manuel R. | Maia, Sofia | Foulkes, William D. | Taherian, Nassim | Ruijs, Marielle | den Enden, Apollonia T. Helderman-van | Izatt, Louise | Davidson, Rosemarie | Adank, Muriel A. | Walker, Lisa | Schmutzler, Rita | Tucker, Kathy | Kirk, Judy | Hodgson, Shirley | Harris, Marion | Douglas, Fiona | Lindeman, Geoffrey J. | Zgajnar, Janez | Tischkowitz, Marc | Clowes, Virginia E. | Susman, Rachel | Ramón y Cajal, Teresa | Patcher, Nicholas | Gadea, Neus | Spigelman, Allan | van Os, Theo | Liljegren, Annelie | Side, Lucy | Brewer, Carole | Brady, Angela F. | Donaldson, Alan | Stefansdottir, Vigdis | Friedman, Eitan | Chen-Shtoyerman, Rakefet | Amor, David J. | Copakova, Lucia | Barwell, Julian | Giri, Veda N. | Murthy, Vedang | Nicolai, Nicola | Teo, Soo-Hwang | Greenhalgh, Lynn | Strom, Sara | Henderson, Alex | McGrath, John | Gallagher, David | Aaronson, Neil | Ardern-Jones, Audrey | Bangma, Chris | Dearnaley, David | Costello, Philandra | Eyfjord, Jorunn | Rothwell, Jeanette | Falconer, Alison | Gronberg, Henrik | Hamdy, Freddie C. | Johannsson, Oskar | Khoo, Vincent | Kote-Jarai, Zsofia | Lubinski, Jan | Axcrona, Ulrika | Melia, Jane | McKinley, Joanne | Mitra, Anita V. | Moynihan, Clare | Rennert, Gad | Suri, Mohnish | Wilson, Penny | Killick, Emma | Moss, Sue | Eeles, Rosalind A.
European Urology  2014;66(3):489-499.
Background
Men with germline breast cancer 1, early onset (BRCA1) or breast cancer 2, early onset (BRCA2) gene mutations have a higher risk of developing prostate cancer (PCa) than noncarriers. IMPACT (Identification of Men with a genetic predisposition to ProstAte Cancer: Targeted screening in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and controls) is an international consortium of 62 centres in 20 countries evaluating the use of targeted PCa screening in men with BRCA1/2 mutations.
Objective
To report the first year's screening results for all men at enrolment in the study.
Design, setting and participants
We recruited men aged 40–69 yr with germline BRCA1/2 mutations and a control group of men who have tested negative for a pathogenic BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation known to be present in their families. All men underwent prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing at enrolment, and those men with PSA >3 ng/ml were offered prostate biopsy.
Outcome measurements and statistical analysis
PSA levels, PCa incidence, and tumour characteristics were evaluated. The Fisher exact test was used to compare the number of PCa cases among groups and the differences among disease types.
Results and limitations
We recruited 2481 men (791 BRCA1 carriers, 531 BRCA1 controls; 731 BRCA2 carriers, 428 BRCA2 controls). A total of 199 men (8%) presented with PSA >3.0 ng/ml, 162 biopsies were performed, and 59 PCas were diagnosed (18 BRCA1 carriers, 10 BRCA1 controls; 24 BRCA2 carriers, 7 BRCA2 controls); 66% of the tumours were classified as intermediate- or high-risk disease. The positive predictive value (PPV) for biopsy using a PSA threshold of 3.0 ng/ml in BRCA2 mutation carriers was 48%—double the PPV reported in population screening studies. A significant difference in detecting intermediate- or high-risk disease was observed in BRCA2 carriers. Ninety-five percent of the men were white, thus the results cannot be generalised to all ethnic groups.
Conclusions
The IMPACT screening network will be useful for targeted PCa screening studies in men with germline genetic risk variants as they are discovered. These preliminary results support the use of targeted PSA screening based on BRCA genotype and show that this screening yields a high proportion of aggressive disease.
Patient summary
In this report, we demonstrate that germline genetic markers can be used to identify men at higher risk of prostate cancer. Targeting screening at these men resulted in the identification of tumours that were more likely to require treatment.
Take Home Message
This report demonstrates that germline genetic markers can be used to identify men at higher risk of prostate cancer. Targeting screening at these higher-risk men resulted in the identification of tumours that were more likely to require treatment.
doi:10.1016/j.eururo.2014.01.003
PMCID: PMC4105321  PMID: 24484606
BRCA1; BRCA2; Prostate cancer; Prostate-specific antigen; Targeted screening
6.  Identification of heart rate–associated loci and their effects on cardiac conduction and rhythm disorders 
den Hoed, Marcel | Eijgelsheim, Mark | Esko, Tõnu | Brundel, Bianca J J M | Peal, David S | Evans, David M | Nolte, Ilja M | Segrè, Ayellet V | Holm, Hilma | Handsaker, Robert E | Westra, Harm-Jan | Johnson, Toby | Isaacs, Aaron | Yang, Jian | Lundby, Alicia | Zhao, Jing Hua | Kim, Young Jin | Go, Min Jin | Almgren, Peter | Bochud, Murielle | Boucher, Gabrielle | Cornelis, Marilyn C | Gudbjartsson, Daniel | Hadley, David | Van Der Harst, Pim | Hayward, Caroline | Heijer, Martin Den | Igl, Wilmar | Jackson, Anne U | Kutalik, Zoltán | Luan, Jian’an | Kemp, John P | Kristiansson, Kati | Ladenvall, Claes | Lorentzon, Mattias | Montasser, May E | Njajou, Omer T | O’Reilly, Paul F | Padmanabhan, Sandosh | Pourcain, Beate St. | Rankinen, Tuomo | Salo, Perttu | Tanaka, Toshiko | Timpson, Nicholas J | Vitart, Veronique | Waite, Lindsay | Wheeler, William | Zhang, Weihua | Draisma, Harmen H M | Feitosa, Mary F | Kerr, Kathleen F | Lind, Penelope A | Mihailov, Evelin | Onland-Moret, N Charlotte | Song, Ci | Weedon, Michael N | Xie, Weijia | Yengo, Loic | Absher, Devin | Albert, Christine M | Alonso, Alvaro | Arking, Dan E | de Bakker, Paul I W | Balkau, Beverley | Barlassina, Cristina | Benaglio, Paola | Bis, Joshua C | Bouatia-Naji, Nabila | Brage, Søren | Chanock, Stephen J | Chines, Peter S | Chung, Mina | Darbar, Dawood | Dina, Christian | Dörr, Marcus | Elliott, Paul | Felix, Stephan B | Fischer, Krista | Fuchsberger, Christian | de Geus, Eco J C | Goyette, Philippe | Gudnason, Vilmundur | Harris, Tamara B | Hartikainen, Anna-liisa | Havulinna, Aki S | Heckbert, Susan R | Hicks, Andrew A | Hofman, Albert | Holewijn, Suzanne | Hoogstra-Berends, Femke | Hottenga, Jouke-Jan | Jensen, Majken K | Johansson, Åsa | Junttila, Juhani | Kääb, Stefan | Kanon, Bart | Ketkar, Shamika | Khaw, Kay-Tee | Knowles, Joshua W | Kooner, Angrad S | Kors, Jan A | Kumari, Meena | Milani, Lili | Laiho, Päivi | Lakatta, Edward G | Langenberg, Claudia | Leusink, Maarten | Liu, Yongmei | Luben, Robert N | Lunetta, Kathryn L | Lynch, Stacey N | Markus, Marcello R P | Marques-Vidal, Pedro | Leach, Irene Mateo | McArdle, Wendy L | McCarroll, Steven A | Medland, Sarah E | Miller, Kathryn A | Montgomery, Grant W | Morrison, Alanna C | Müller-Nurasyid, Martina | Navarro, Pau | Nelis, Mari | O’Connell, Jeffrey R | O’Donnell, Christopher J | Ong, Ken K | Newman, Anne B | Peters, Annette | Polasek, Ozren | Pouta, Anneli | Pramstaller, Peter P | Psaty, Bruce M | Rao, Dabeeru C | Ring, Susan M | Rossin, Elizabeth J | Rudan, Diana | Sanna, Serena | Scott, Robert A | Sehmi, Jaban S | Sharp, Stephen | Shin, Jordan T | Singleton, Andrew B | Smith, Albert V | Soranzo, Nicole | Spector, Tim D | Stewart, Chip | Stringham, Heather M | Tarasov, Kirill V | Uitterlinden, André G | Vandenput, Liesbeth | Hwang, Shih-Jen | Whitfield, John B | Wijmenga, Cisca | Wild, Sarah H | Willemsen, Gonneke | Wilson, James F | Witteman, Jacqueline C M | Wong, Andrew | Wong, Quenna | Jamshidi, Yalda | Zitting, Paavo | Boer, Jolanda M A | Boomsma, Dorret I | Borecki, Ingrid B | Van Duijn, Cornelia M | Ekelund, Ulf | Forouhi, Nita G | Froguel, Philippe | Hingorani, Aroon | Ingelsson, Erik | Kivimaki, Mika | Kronmal, Richard A | Kuh, Diana | Lind, Lars | Martin, Nicholas G | Oostra, Ben A | Pedersen, Nancy L | Quertermous, Thomas | Rotter, Jerome I | van der Schouw, Yvonne T | Verschuren, W M Monique | Walker, Mark | Albanes, Demetrius | Arnar, David O | Assimes, Themistocles L | Bandinelli, Stefania | Boehnke, Michael | de Boer, Rudolf A | Bouchard, Claude | Caulfield, W L Mark | Chambers, John C | Curhan, Gary | Cusi, Daniele | Eriksson, Johan | Ferrucci, Luigi | van Gilst, Wiek H | Glorioso, Nicola | de Graaf, Jacqueline | Groop, Leif | Gyllensten, Ulf | Hsueh, Wen-Chi | Hu, Frank B | Huikuri, Heikki V | Hunter, David J | Iribarren, Carlos | Isomaa, Bo | Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta | Jula, Antti | Kähönen, Mika | Kiemeney, Lambertus A | van der Klauw, Melanie M | Kooner, Jaspal S | Kraft, Peter | Iacoviello, Licia | Lehtimäki, Terho | Lokki, Marja-Liisa L | Mitchell, Braxton D | Navis, Gerjan | Nieminen, Markku S | Ohlsson, Claes | Poulter, Neil R | Qi, Lu | Raitakari, Olli T | Rimm, Eric B | Rioux, John D | Rizzi, Federica | Rudan, Igor | Salomaa, Veikko | Sever, Peter S | Shields, Denis C | Shuldiner, Alan R | Sinisalo, Juha | Stanton, Alice V | Stolk, Ronald P | Strachan, David P | Tardif, Jean-Claude | Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur | Tuomilehto, Jaako | van Veldhuisen, Dirk J | Virtamo, Jarmo | Viikari, Jorma | Vollenweider, Peter | Waeber, Gérard | Widen, Elisabeth | Cho, Yoon Shin | Olsen, Jesper V | Visscher, Peter M | Willer, Cristen | Franke, Lude | Erdmann, Jeanette | Thompson, John R | Pfeufer, Arne | Sotoodehnia, Nona | Newton-Cheh, Christopher | Ellinor, Patrick T | Stricker, Bruno H Ch | Metspalu, Andres | Perola, Markus | Beckmann, Jacques S | Smith, George Davey | Stefansson, Kari | Wareham, Nicholas J | Munroe, Patricia B | Sibon, Ody C M | Milan, David J | Snieder, Harold | Samani, Nilesh J | Loos, Ruth J F
Nature genetics  2013;45(6):621-631.
Elevated resting heart rate is associated with greater risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. In a 2-stage meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in up to 181,171 individuals, we identified 14 new loci associated with heart rate and confirmed associations with all 7 previously established loci. Experimental downregulation of gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster and Danio rerio identified 20 genes at 11 loci that are relevant for heart rate regulation and highlight a role for genes involved in signal transmission, embryonic cardiac development and the pathophysiology of dilated cardiomyopathy, congenital heart failure and/or sudden cardiac death. In addition, genetic susceptibility to increased heart rate is associated with altered cardiac conduction and reduced risk of sick sinus syndrome, and both heart rate–increasing and heart rate–decreasing variants associate with risk of atrial fibrillation. Our findings provide fresh insights into the mechanisms regulating heart rate and identify new therapeutic targets.
doi:10.1038/ng.2610
PMCID: PMC3696959  PMID: 23583979
7.  Harmonization of Neuroticism and Extraversion phenotypes across inventories and cohorts in the Genetics of Personality Consortium: an application of Item Response Theory 
van den Berg, Stéphanie M. | de Moor, Marleen H. M. | McGue, Matt | Pettersson, Erik | Terracciano, Antonio | Verweij, Karin J. H. | Amin, Najaf | Derringer, Jaime | Esko, Tõnu | van Grootheest, Gerard | Hansell, Narelle K. | Huffman, Jennifer | Konte, Bettina | Lahti, Jari | Luciano, Michelle | Matteson, Lindsay K. | Viktorin, Alexander | Wouda, Jasper | Agrawal, Arpana | Allik, Jüri | Bierut, Laura | Broms, Ulla | Campbell, Harry | Smith, George Davey | Eriksson, Johan G. | Ferrucci, Luigi | Franke, Barbera | Fox, Jean-Paul | de Geus, Eco J. C. | Giegling, Ina | Gow, Alan J. | Grucza, Richard | Hartmann, Annette M. | Heath, Andrew C. | Heikkilä, Kauko | Iacono, William G. | Janzing, Joost | Jokela, Markus | Kiemeney, Lambertus | Lehtimäki, Terho | Madden, Pamela A. F. | Magnusson, Patrik K. E. | Northstone, Kate | Nutile, Teresa | Ouwens, Klaasjan G. | Palotie, Aarno | Pattie, Alison | Pesonen, Anu-Katriina | Polasek, Ozren | Pulkkinen, Lea | Pulkki-Råback, Laura | Raitakari, Olli T. | Realo, Anu | Rose, Richard J. | Ruggiero, Daniela | Seppälä, Ilkka | Slutske, Wendy S. | Smyth, David C. | Sorice, Rossella | Starr, John M. | Sutin, Angelina R. | Tanaka, Toshiko | Verhagen, Josine | Vermeulen, Sita | Vuoksimaa, Eero | Widen, Elisabeth | Willemsen, Gonneke | Wright, Margaret J. | Zgaga, Lina | Rujescu, Dan | Metspalu, Andres | Wilson, James F. | Ciullo, Marina | Hayward, Caroline | Rudan, Igor | Deary, Ian J. | Räikkönen, Katri | Arias Vasquez, Alejandro | Costa, Paul T. | Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa | van Duijn, Cornelia M. | Penninx, Brenda W. J. H. | Krueger, Robert F. | Evans, David M. | Kaprio, Jaakko | Pedersen, Nancy L. | Martin, Nicholas G. | Boomsma, Dorret I.
Behavior Genetics  2014;44(4):295-313.
Mega- or meta-analytic studies (e.g. genome-wide association studies) are increasingly used in behavior genetics. An issue in such studies is that phenotypes are often measured by different instruments across study cohorts, requiring harmonization of measures so that more powerful fixed effect meta-analyses can be employed. Within the Genetics of Personality Consortium, we demonstrate for two clinically relevant personality traits, Neuroticism and Extraversion, how Item-Response Theory (IRT) can be applied to map item data from different inventories to the same underlying constructs. Personality item data were analyzed in >160,000 individuals from 23 cohorts across Europe, USA and Australia in which Neuroticism and Extraversion were assessed by nine different personality inventories. Results showed that harmonization was very successful for most personality inventories and moderately successful for some. Neuroticism and Extraversion inventories were largely measurement invariant across cohorts, in particular when comparing cohorts from countries where the same language is spoken. The IRT-based scores for Neuroticism and Extraversion were heritable (48 and 49 %, respectively, based on a meta-analysis of six twin cohorts, total N = 29,496 and 29,501 twin pairs, respectively) with a significant part of the heritability due to non-additive genetic factors. For Extraversion, these genetic factors qualitatively differ across sexes. We showed that our IRT method can lead to a large increase in sample size and therefore statistical power. The IRT approach may be applied to any mega- or meta-analytic study in which item-based behavioral measures need to be harmonized.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10519-014-9654-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s10519-014-9654-x
PMCID: PMC4057636  PMID: 24828478
Personality; Item-Response Theory; Measurement; Genome-wide association studies; Consortium; Meta-analysis
8.  Cigarette smoking and risk of ovarian cancer: a pooled analysis of 21 case–control studies 
Cancer causes & control : CCC  2013;24(5):10.1007/s10552-013-0174-4.
Purpose
The majority of previous studies have observed an increased risk of mucinous ovarian tumors associated with cigarette smoking, but the association with other histological types is unclear. In a large pooled analysis, we examined the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer associated with multiple measures of cigarette smoking with a focus on characterizing risks according to tumor behavior and histology.
Methods
We used data from 21 case–control studies of ovarian cancer (19,066 controls, 11,972 invasive and 2,752 borderline cases). Study-specific odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were obtained from logistic regression models and combined into a pooled odds ratio using a random effects model.
Results
Current cigarette smoking increased the risk of invasive mucinous (OR = 1.31; 95 % CI: 1.03–1.65) and borderline mucinous ovarian tumors (OR = 1.83; 95 % CI: 1.39–2.41), while former smoking increased the risk of borderline serous ovarian tumors (OR = 1.30; 95 % CI: 1.12–1.50). For these histological types, consistent dose– response associations were observed. No convincing associations between smoking and risk of invasive serous and endometrioid ovarian cancer were observed, while our results provided some evidence of a decreased risk of invasive clear cell ovarian cancer.
Conclusions
Our results revealed marked differences in the risk profiles of histological types of ovarian cancer with regard to cigarette smoking, although the magnitude of the observed associations was modest. Our findings, which may reflect different etiologies of the histological types, add to the fact that ovarian cancer is a heterogeneous disease.
doi:10.1007/s10552-013-0174-4
PMCID: PMC3818570  PMID: 23456270
Case–control studies; Histological type; Ovarian neoplasms; Smoking
9.  A Comparison of Multivariate Genome-Wide Association Methods 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(4):e95923.
Joint association analysis of multiple traits in a genome-wide association study (GWAS), i.e. a multivariate GWAS, offers several advantages over analyzing each trait in a separate GWAS. In this study we directly compared a number of multivariate GWAS methods using simulated data. We focused on six methods that are implemented in the software packages PLINK, SNPTEST, MultiPhen, BIMBAM, PCHAT and TATES, and also compared them to standard univariate GWAS, analysis of the first principal component of the traits, and meta-analysis of univariate results. We simulated data (N = 1000) for three quantitative traits and one bi-allelic quantitative trait locus (QTL), and varied the number of traits associated with the QTL (explained variance 0.1%), minor allele frequency of the QTL, residual correlation between the traits, and the sign of the correlation induced by the QTL relative to the residual correlation. We compared the power of the methods using empirically fixed significance thresholds (α = 0.05). Our results showed that the multivariate methods implemented in PLINK, SNPTEST, MultiPhen and BIMBAM performed best for the majority of the tested scenarios, with a notable increase in power for scenarios with an opposite sign of genetic and residual correlation. All multivariate analyses resulted in a higher power than univariate analyses, even when only one of the traits was associated with the QTL. Hence, use of multivariate GWAS methods can be recommended, even when genetic correlations between traits are weak.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0095923
PMCID: PMC3999149  PMID: 24763738
10.  Polymorphisms in the XRCC1 gene modify survival of bladder cancer patients treated with chemotherapy 
Survival of bladder cancer patients depends on several factors including disease stage and grade at diagnosis, age, health status of the patient and the applied treatment. Several studies investigated the role of DNA repair genetic variants in cancer susceptibility, but only few studies investigated their role in survival and response to chemotherapy for bladder cancer. We genotyped 28 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in DNA repair genes in 456 bladder cancer patients, reconstructed haplotypes and calculated a score for combinations of the SNPs. We estimated Hazard Ratios (adjHR) for time to death. Among patients treated with chemotherapy, variant alleles of five SNPs in the XRCC1 gene conferred better survival (rs915927 adjHR 0.55 (95%CI 0.32–0.94); rs76507 adjHR 0.48 (95%CI 0.27–0.84); rs2854501 adjHR 0.25 (95%CI 0.12–0.52); rs2854509 adjHR 0.21 (95%CI 0.09–0.46); rs3213255 adjHR 0.46 (95%CI 0.26–0.80). In this group of patients, an increasing number of variant alleles in a XRCC1 gene score were associated with a better survival (26% decrease of risk of death for each additional variant allele in XRCC1). By functional analyses we demonstrated that the previous XRCC1 SNPs confer lower DNA repair capacity. This may support the hypothesis that survival in these patients may be modulated by the different DNA repair capacity determined by genetic variants. Chemotherapy treated cancer patients bearing an increasing number of “risky” alleles in XRCC1 gene had a better survival, suggesting that a proficient DNA repair may result in resistance to therapy and shorter survival. This finding may have clinical implications for the choice of therapy.
doi:10.1002/ijc.28186
PMCID: PMC3804126  PMID: 23553206
bladder cancer; chemotherapy; DNA repair genes; survival; XRCC1
11.  Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies 11 new loci for anthropometric traits and provides insights into genetic architecture 
Berndt, Sonja I. | Gustafsson, Stefan | Mägi, Reedik | Ganna, Andrea | Wheeler, Eleanor | Feitosa, Mary F. | Justice, Anne E. | Monda, Keri L. | Croteau-Chonka, Damien C. | Day, Felix R. | Esko, Tõnu | Fall, Tove | Ferreira, Teresa | Gentilini, Davide | Jackson, Anne U. | Luan, Jian’an | Randall, Joshua C. | Vedantam, Sailaja | Willer, Cristen J. | Winkler, Thomas W. | Wood, Andrew R. | Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie | Hu, Yi-Juan | Lee, Sang Hong | Liang, Liming | Lin, Dan-Yu | Min, Josine L. | Neale, Benjamin M. | Thorleifsson, Gudmar | Yang, Jian | Albrecht, Eva | Amin, Najaf | Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L. | Cadby, Gemma | den Heijer, Martin | Eklund, Niina | Fischer, Krista | Goel, Anuj | Hottenga, Jouke-Jan | Huffman, Jennifer E. | Jarick, Ivonne | Johansson, Åsa | Johnson, Toby | Kanoni, Stavroula | Kleber, Marcus E. | König, Inke R. | Kristiansson, Kati | Kutalik, Zoltán | Lamina, Claudia | Lecoeur, Cecile | Li, Guo | Mangino, Massimo | McArdle, Wendy L. | Medina-Gomez, Carolina | Müller-Nurasyid, Martina | Ngwa, Julius S. | Nolte, Ilja M. | Paternoster, Lavinia | Pechlivanis, Sonali | Perola, Markus | Peters, Marjolein J. | Preuss, Michael | Rose, Lynda M. | Shi, Jianxin | Shungin, Dmitry | Smith, Albert Vernon | Strawbridge, Rona J. | Surakka, Ida | Teumer, Alexander | Trip, Mieke D. | Tyrer, Jonathan | Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V. | Vandenput, Liesbeth | Waite, Lindsay L. | Zhao, Jing Hua | Absher, Devin | Asselbergs, Folkert W. | Atalay, Mustafa | Attwood, Antony P. | Balmforth, Anthony J. | Basart, Hanneke | Beilby, John | Bonnycastle, Lori L. | Brambilla, Paolo | Bruinenberg, Marcel | Campbell, Harry | Chasman, Daniel I. | Chines, Peter S. | Collins, Francis S. | Connell, John M. | Cookson, William | de Faire, Ulf | de Vegt, Femmie | Dei, Mariano | Dimitriou, Maria | Edkins, Sarah | Estrada, Karol | Evans, David M. | Farrall, Martin | Ferrario, Marco M. | Ferrières, Jean | Franke, Lude | Frau, Francesca | Gejman, Pablo V. | Grallert, Harald | Grönberg, Henrik | Gudnason, Vilmundur | Hall, Alistair S. | Hall, Per | Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa | Hayward, Caroline | Heard-Costa, Nancy L. | Heath, Andrew C. | Hebebrand, Johannes | Homuth, Georg | Hu, Frank B. | Hunt, Sarah E. | Hyppönen, Elina | Iribarren, Carlos | Jacobs, Kevin B. | Jansson, John-Olov | Jula, Antti | Kähönen, Mika | Kathiresan, Sekar | Kee, Frank | Khaw, Kay-Tee | Kivimaki, Mika | Koenig, Wolfgang | Kraja, Aldi T. | Kumari, Meena | Kuulasmaa, Kari | Kuusisto, Johanna | Laitinen, Jaana H. | Lakka, Timo A. | Langenberg, Claudia | Launer, Lenore J. | Lind, Lars | Lindström, Jaana | Liu, Jianjun | Liuzzi, Antonio | Lokki, Marja-Liisa | Lorentzon, Mattias | Madden, Pamela A. | Magnusson, Patrik K. | Manunta, Paolo | Marek, Diana | März, Winfried | Mateo Leach, Irene | McKnight, Barbara | Medland, Sarah E. | Mihailov, Evelin | Milani, Lili | Montgomery, Grant W. | Mooser, Vincent | Mühleisen, Thomas W. | Munroe, Patricia B. | Musk, Arthur W. | Narisu, Narisu | Navis, Gerjan | Nicholson, George | Nohr, Ellen A. | Ong, Ken K. | Oostra, Ben A. | Palmer, Colin N.A. | Palotie, Aarno | Peden, John F. | Pedersen, Nancy | Peters, Annette | Polasek, Ozren | Pouta, Anneli | Pramstaller, Peter P. | Prokopenko, Inga | Pütter, Carolin | Radhakrishnan, Aparna | Raitakari, Olli | Rendon, Augusto | Rivadeneira, Fernando | Rudan, Igor | Saaristo, Timo E. | Sambrook, Jennifer G. | Sanders, Alan R. | Sanna, Serena | Saramies, Jouko | Schipf, Sabine | Schreiber, Stefan | Schunkert, Heribert | Shin, So-Youn | Signorini, Stefano | Sinisalo, Juha | Skrobek, Boris | Soranzo, Nicole | Stančáková, Alena | Stark, Klaus | Stephens, Jonathan C. | Stirrups, Kathleen | Stolk, Ronald P. | Stumvoll, Michael | Swift, Amy J. | Theodoraki, Eirini V. | Thorand, Barbara | Tregouet, David-Alexandre | Tremoli, Elena | Van der Klauw, Melanie M. | van Meurs, Joyce B.J. | Vermeulen, Sita H. | Viikari, Jorma | Virtamo, Jarmo | Vitart, Veronique | Waeber, Gérard | Wang, Zhaoming | Widén, Elisabeth | Wild, Sarah H. | Willemsen, Gonneke | Winkelmann, Bernhard R. | Witteman, Jacqueline C.M. | Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.R. | Wong, Andrew | Wright, Alan F. | Zillikens, M. Carola | Amouyel, Philippe | Boehm, Bernhard O. | Boerwinkle, Eric | Boomsma, Dorret I. | Caulfield, Mark J. | Chanock, Stephen J. | Cupples, L. Adrienne | Cusi, Daniele | Dedoussis, George V. | Erdmann, Jeanette | Eriksson, Johan G. | Franks, Paul W. | Froguel, Philippe | Gieger, Christian | Gyllensten, Ulf | Hamsten, Anders | Harris, Tamara B. | Hengstenberg, Christian | Hicks, Andrew A. | Hingorani, Aroon | Hinney, Anke | Hofman, Albert | Hovingh, Kees G. | Hveem, Kristian | Illig, Thomas | Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta | Jöckel, Karl-Heinz | Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M. | Kiemeney, Lambertus A. | Kuh, Diana | Laakso, Markku | Lehtimäki, Terho | Levinson, Douglas F. | Martin, Nicholas G. | Metspalu, Andres | Morris, Andrew D. | Nieminen, Markku S. | Njølstad, Inger | Ohlsson, Claes | Oldehinkel, Albertine J. | Ouwehand, Willem H. | Palmer, Lyle J. | Penninx, Brenda | Power, Chris | Province, Michael A. | Psaty, Bruce M. | Qi, Lu | Rauramaa, Rainer | Ridker, Paul M. | Ripatti, Samuli | Salomaa, Veikko | Samani, Nilesh J. | Snieder, Harold | Sørensen, Thorkild I.A. | Spector, Timothy D. | Stefansson, Kari | Tönjes, Anke | Tuomilehto, Jaakko | Uitterlinden, André G. | Uusitupa, Matti | van der Harst, Pim | Vollenweider, Peter | Wallaschofski, Henri | Wareham, Nicholas J. | Watkins, Hugh | Wichmann, H.-Erich | Wilson, James F. | Abecasis, Goncalo R. | Assimes, Themistocles L. | Barroso, Inês | Boehnke, Michael | Borecki, Ingrid B. | Deloukas, Panos | Fox, Caroline S. | Frayling, Timothy | Groop, Leif C. | Haritunian, Talin | Heid, Iris M. | Hunter, David | Kaplan, Robert C. | Karpe, Fredrik | Moffatt, Miriam | Mohlke, Karen L. | O’Connell, Jeffrey R. | Pawitan, Yudi | Schadt, Eric E. | Schlessinger, David | Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur | Strachan, David P. | Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur | van Duijn, Cornelia M. | Visscher, Peter M. | Di Blasio, Anna Maria | Hirschhorn, Joel N. | Lindgren, Cecilia M. | Morris, Andrew P. | Meyre, David | Scherag, André | McCarthy, Mark I. | Speliotes, Elizabeth K. | North, Kari E. | Loos, Ruth J.F. | Ingelsson, Erik
Nature genetics  2013;45(5):501-512.
Approaches exploiting extremes of the trait distribution may reveal novel loci for common traits, but it is unknown whether such loci are generalizable to the general population. In a genome-wide search for loci associated with upper vs. lower 5th percentiles of body mass index, height and waist-hip ratio, as well as clinical classes of obesity including up to 263,407 European individuals, we identified four new loci (IGFBP4, H6PD, RSRC1, PPP2R2A) influencing height detected in the tails and seven new loci (HNF4G, RPTOR, GNAT2, MRPS33P4, ADCY9, HS6ST3, ZZZ3) for clinical classes of obesity. Further, we show that there is large overlap in terms of genetic structure and distribution of variants between traits based on extremes and the general population and little etiologic heterogeneity between obesity subgroups.
doi:10.1038/ng.2606
PMCID: PMC3973018  PMID: 23563607
12.  Tubal ligation and risk of ovarian cancer subtypes: a pooled analysis of case-control studies 
Background Tubal ligation is a protective factor for ovarian cancer, but it is unknown whether this protection extends to all invasive histological subtypes or borderline tumors. We undertook an international collaborative study to examine the association between tubal ligation and ovarian cancer subtypes.
Methods We pooled primary data from 13 population-based case-control studies, including 10 157 patients with ovarian cancer (7942 invasive; 2215 borderline) and 13 904 control women. Invasive cases were analysed by histological type, grade and stage, and borderline cases were analysed by histological type. Pooled odds ratios were estimated using conditional logistic regression to match on site, race/ethnicity and age categories, and to adjust for age, oral contraceptive use duration and number of full-term births.
Results Tubal ligation was associated with significantly reduced risks of invasive serous (OR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.74-0.89; P < 0.001), endometrioid (OR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.40-0.59; P < 0.001), clear cell (OR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.40-0.67; P < 0.001) and mucinous (OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.52-0.89; P = 0.005) cancers. The magnitude of risk reduction was significantly greater for invasive endometrioid (P < 0.0001) and clear cell (P = 0.0018) than for serous cancer. No significant associations were found with borderline serous or mucinous tumours.
Conclusions We found that the protective effects of tubal ligation on ovarian cancer risk were subtype-specific. These findings provide insights into distinct aetiologies of ovarian cancer subtypes and mechanisms underlying the protective effects of tubal ligation.
doi:10.1093/ije/dyt042
PMCID: PMC3619957  PMID: 23569193
Ovarian cancer; tubal ligation; tubal sterilization
13.  Combined and interactive effects of environmental and GWAS-identified risk factors in ovarian cancer 
Background
There are several well-established environmental risk factors for ovarian cancer, and recent genome-wide association studies have also identified six variants that influence disease risk. However, the interplay between such risk factors and susceptibility loci has not been studied.
Methods
Data from 14 ovarian cancer case-control studies were pooled, and stratified analyses by each environmental risk factor with tests for heterogeneity were conducted to determine the presence of interactions for all histological subtypes. A genetic “risk score” was created to consider the effects of all six variants simultaneously. A multivariate model was fit to examine the association between all environmental risk factors and genetic risk score on ovarian cancer risk.
Results
Among 7,374 controls and 5,566 cases, there was no statistical evidence of interaction between the six SNPs or genetic risk score and the environmental risk factors on ovarian cancer risk. In a main effects model, women in the highest genetic risk score quartile had a 65% increased risk of ovarian cancer compared to women in the lowest (95% CI 1.48-1.84). Analyses by histological subtype yielded risk differences across subtype for endometriosis (phet<0.001), parity (phet<0.01), and tubal ligation (phet=0.041).
Conclusions
The lack of interactions suggests that a multiplicative model is the best fit for these data. Under such a model, we provide a robust estimate of each risk factor's effect, which sets the stage for absolute risk prediction modeling that considers both environmental and genetic risk factors. Further research into the observed differences in risk across histological subtype is warranted.
doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-12-1030-T
PMCID: PMC3963289  PMID: 23462924
Gene-environment interactions; ovarian cancer; epidemiology; histological subtype; pooled analysis
14.  Identification of Novel Genetic Loci Associated with Thyroid Peroxidase Antibodies and Clinical Thyroid Disease 
Medici, Marco | Porcu, Eleonora | Pistis, Giorgio | Teumer, Alexander | Brown, Suzanne J. | Jensen, Richard A. | Rawal, Rajesh | Roef, Greet L. | Plantinga, Theo S. | Vermeulen, Sita H. | Lahti, Jari | Simmonds, Matthew J. | Husemoen, Lise Lotte N. | Freathy, Rachel M. | Shields, Beverley M. | Pietzner, Diana | Nagy, Rebecca | Broer, Linda | Chaker, Layal | Korevaar, Tim I. M. | Plia, Maria Grazia | Sala, Cinzia | Völker, Uwe | Richards, J. Brent | Sweep, Fred C. | Gieger, Christian | Corre, Tanguy | Kajantie, Eero | Thuesen, Betina | Taes, Youri E. | Visser, W. Edward | Hattersley, Andrew T. | Kratzsch, Jürgen | Hamilton, Alexander | Li, Wei | Homuth, Georg | Lobina, Monia | Mariotti, Stefano | Soranzo, Nicole | Cocca, Massimiliano | Nauck, Matthias | Spielhagen, Christin | Ross, Alec | Arnold, Alice | van de Bunt, Martijn | Liyanarachchi, Sandya | Heier, Margit | Grabe, Hans Jörgen | Masciullo, Corrado | Galesloot, Tessel E. | Lim, Ee M. | Reischl, Eva | Leedman, Peter J. | Lai, Sandra | Delitala, Alessandro | Bremner, Alexandra P. | Philips, David I. W. | Beilby, John P. | Mulas, Antonella | Vocale, Matteo | Abecasis, Goncalo | Forsen, Tom | James, Alan | Widen, Elisabeth | Hui, Jennie | Prokisch, Holger | Rietzschel, Ernst E. | Palotie, Aarno | Feddema, Peter | Fletcher, Stephen J. | Schramm, Katharina | Rotter, Jerome I. | Kluttig, Alexander | Radke, Dörte | Traglia, Michela | Surdulescu, Gabriela L. | He, Huiling | Franklyn, Jayne A. | Tiller, Daniel | Vaidya, Bijay | de Meyer, Tim | Jørgensen, Torben | Eriksson, Johan G. | O'Leary, Peter C. | Wichmann, Eric | Hermus, Ad R. | Psaty, Bruce M. | Ittermann, Till | Hofman, Albert | Bosi, Emanuele | Schlessinger, David | Wallaschofski, Henri | Pirastu, Nicola | Aulchenko, Yurii S. | de la Chapelle, Albert | Netea-Maier, Romana T. | Gough, Stephen C. L. | Meyer zu Schwabedissen, Henriette | Frayling, Timothy M. | Kaufman, Jean-Marc | Linneberg, Allan | Räikkönen, Katri | Smit, Johannes W. A. | Kiemeney, Lambertus A. | Rivadeneira, Fernando | Uitterlinden, André G. | Walsh, John P. | Meisinger, Christa | den Heijer, Martin | Visser, Theo J. | Spector, Timothy D. | Wilson, Scott G. | Völzke, Henry | Cappola, Anne | Toniolo, Daniela | Sanna, Serena | Naitza, Silvia | Peeters, Robin P.
PLoS Genetics  2014;10(2):e1004123.
Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) are common, affecting 2-5% of the general population. Individuals with positive thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAbs) have an increased risk of autoimmune hypothyroidism (Hashimoto's thyroiditis), as well as autoimmune hyperthyroidism (Graves' disease). As the possible causative genes of TPOAbs and AITD remain largely unknown, we performed GWAS meta-analyses in 18,297 individuals for TPOAb-positivity (1769 TPOAb-positives and 16,528 TPOAb-negatives) and in 12,353 individuals for TPOAb serum levels, with replication in 8,990 individuals. Significant associations (P<5×10−8) were detected at TPO-rs11675434, ATXN2-rs653178, and BACH2-rs10944479 for TPOAb-positivity, and at TPO-rs11675434, MAGI3-rs1230666, and KALRN-rs2010099 for TPOAb levels. Individual and combined effects (genetic risk scores) of these variants on (subclinical) hypo- and hyperthyroidism, goiter and thyroid cancer were studied. Individuals with a high genetic risk score had, besides an increased risk of TPOAb-positivity (OR: 2.18, 95% CI 1.68–2.81, P = 8.1×10−8), a higher risk of increased thyroid-stimulating hormone levels (OR: 1.51, 95% CI 1.26–1.82, P = 2.9×10−6), as well as a decreased risk of goiter (OR: 0.77, 95% CI 0.66–0.89, P = 6.5×10−4). The MAGI3 and BACH2 variants were associated with an increased risk of hyperthyroidism, which was replicated in an independent cohort of patients with Graves' disease (OR: 1.37, 95% CI 1.22–1.54, P = 1.2×10−7 and OR: 1.25, 95% CI 1.12–1.39, P = 6.2×10−5). The MAGI3 variant was also associated with an increased risk of hypothyroidism (OR: 1.57, 95% CI 1.18–2.10, P = 1.9×10−3). This first GWAS meta-analysis for TPOAbs identified five newly associated loci, three of which were also associated with clinical thyroid disease. With these markers we identified a large subgroup in the general population with a substantially increased risk of TPOAbs. The results provide insight into why individuals with thyroid autoimmunity do or do not eventually develop thyroid disease, and these markers may therefore predict which TPOAb-positives are particularly at risk of developing clinical thyroid dysfunction.
Author Summary
Individuals with thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAbs) have an increased risk of autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD), which are common in the general population and associated with increased cardiovascular, metabolic and psychiatric morbidity and mortality. As the causative genes of TPOAbs and AITD remain largely unknown, we performed a genome-wide scan for TPOAbs in 18,297 individuals, with replication in 8,990 individuals. Significant associations were detected with variants at TPO, ATXN2, BACH2, MAGI3, and KALRN. Individuals carrying multiple risk variants also had a higher risk of increased thyroid-stimulating hormone levels (including subclinical and overt hypothyroidism), and a decreased risk of goiter. The MAGI3 and BACH2 variants were associated with an increased risk of hyperthyroidism, and the MAGI3 variant was also associated with an increased risk of hypothyroidism. This first genome-wide scan for TPOAbs identified five newly associated loci, three of which were also associated with clinical thyroid disease. With these markers we identified a large subgroup in the general population with a substantially increased risk of TPOAbs. These results provide insight into why individuals with thyroid autoimmunity do or do not eventually develop thyroid disease, and these markers may therefore predict which individuals are particularly at risk of developing clinical thyroid dysfunction.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004123
PMCID: PMC3937134  PMID: 24586183
15.  Prognostic Relevance of Urinary Bladder Cancer Susceptibility Loci 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(2):e89164.
In the last few years, susceptibility loci have been identified for urinary bladder cancer (UBC) through candidate-gene and genome-wide association studies. Prognostic relevance of most of these loci is yet unknown. In this study, we used data of the Nijmegen Bladder Cancer Study (NBCS) to perform a comprehensive evaluation of the prognostic relevance of all confirmed UBC susceptibility loci. Detailed clinical data concerning diagnosis, stage, treatment, and disease course of a population-based series of 1,602 UBC patients were collected retrospectively based on a medical file survey. Kaplan-Meier survival analyses and Cox proportional hazard regression were performed, and log-rank tests calculated, to evaluate the association between 12 confirmed UBC susceptibility variants and recurrence and progression in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) patients. Among muscle-invasive or metastatic bladder cancer (MIBC) patients, association of these variants with overall survival was tested. Subgroup analyses by tumor aggressiveness and smoking status were performed in NMIBC patients. In the overall NMIBC group (n = 1,269), a statistically significant association between rs9642880 at 8q24 and risk of progression was observed (GT vs. TT: HR = 1.08 (95% CI: 0.76–1.54), GG vs. TT: HR = 1.81 (95% CI: 1.23–2.66), P for trend = 2.6×10−3). In subgroup analyses, several other variants showed suggestive, though non-significant, prognostic relevance for recurrence and progression in NMIBC and survival in MIBC. This study provides suggestive evidence that genetic loci involved in UBC etiology may influence disease prognosis. Elucidation of the causal variant(s) could further our understanding of the mechanism of disease, could point to new therapeutic targets, and might aid in improvement of prognostic tools.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0089164
PMCID: PMC3934869  PMID: 24586564
16.  High Risk Population Isolate Reveals Low Frequency Variants Predisposing to Intracranial Aneurysms 
PLoS Genetics  2014;10(1):e1004134.
3% of the population develops saccular intracranial aneurysms (sIAs), a complex trait, with a sporadic and a familial form. Subarachnoid hemorrhage from sIA (sIA-SAH) is a devastating form of stroke. Certain rare genetic variants are enriched in the Finns, a population isolate with a small founder population and bottleneck events. As the sIA-SAH incidence in Finland is >2× increased, such variants may associate with sIA in the Finnish population. We tested 9.4 million variants for association in 760 Finnish sIA patients (enriched for familial sIA), and in 2,513 matched controls with case-control status and with the number of sIAs. The most promising loci (p<5E-6) were replicated in 858 Finnish sIA patients and 4,048 controls. The frequencies and effect sizes of the replicated variants were compared to a continental European population using 717 Dutch cases and 3,004 controls. We discovered four new high-risk loci with low frequency lead variants. Three were associated with the case-control status: 2q23.3 (MAF 2.1%, OR 1.89, p 1.42×10-9); 5q31.3 (MAF 2.7%, OR 1.66, p 3.17×10-8); 6q24.2 (MAF 2.6%, OR 1.87, p 1.87×10-11) and one with the number of sIAs: 7p22.1 (MAF 3.3%, RR 1.59, p 6.08×-9). Two of the associations (5q31.3, 6q24.2) replicated in the Dutch sample. The 7p22.1 locus was strongly differentiated; the lead variant was more frequent in Finland (4.6%) than in the Netherlands (0.3%). Additionally, we replicated a previously inconclusive locus on 2q33.1 in all samples tested (OR 1.27, p 1.87×10-12). The five loci explain 2.1% of the sIA heritability in Finland, and may relate to, but not explain, the increased incidence of sIA-SAH in Finland. This study illustrates the utility of population isolates, familial enrichment, dense genotype imputation and alternate phenotyping in search for variants associated with complex diseases.
Author Summary
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been extensively used to identify common genetic variants associated with complex diseases. As common genetic variants have explained only a small fraction of the heritability of most complex diseases, there is a growing interest in the role of how low frequency and rare variants contribute to the susceptibility. Low frequency variants are more often specific to populations of distinct ancestries. Saccular intracranial aneurysms (sIA) are balloon-like dilatations in the arteries on the surface of the brain. The rupture of sIA causes life-threatening intracranial bleeding. sIA is a complex disease, which is known to sometimes run in families. Here, we utilize the recent advancements in knowledge of genetic variation in different populations to examine the role of low-frequency variants in sIA disease in the isolated population of Finland where sIA related strokes are more common than in most other populations. By studying >8000 Finns we identify four low-frequency variants associated with the sIA disease. We also show that the association of two of the variants are seen in other European populations as well. Our findings demonstrate that multiple study designs are needed to uncover more comprehensively their genetic background, including population isolates.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004134
PMCID: PMC3907358  PMID: 24497844
17.  Common Variant at 16p11.2 Conferring Risk of Psychosis 
Steinberg, Stacy | de Jong, Simone | Mattheisen, Manuel | Costas, Javier | Demontis, Ditte | Jamain, Stéphane | Pietiläinen, Olli P H | Lin, Kuang | Papiol, Sergi | Huttenlocher, Johanna | Sigurdsson, Engilbert | Vassos, Evangelos | Giegling, Ina | Breuer, René | Fraser, Gillian | Walker, Nicholas | Melle, Ingrid | Djurovic, Srdjan | Agartz, Ingrid | Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari | Suvisaari, Jaana | Lönnqvist, Jouko | Paunio, Tiina | Olsen, Line | Hansen, Thomas | Ingason, Andres | Pirinen, Matti | Strengman, Eric | Hougaard, David M | Ørntoft, Torben | Didriksen, Michael | Hollegaard, Mads V | Nordentoft, Merete | Abramova, Lilia | Kaleda, Vasily | Arrojo, Manuel | Sanjuán, Julio | Arango, Celso | Etain, Bruno | Bellivier, Frank | Méary, Alexandre | Schürhoff, Franck | Szoke, Andrei | Ribolsi, Michele | Magni, Valentina | Siracusano, Alberto | Sperling, Swetlana | Rossner, Moritz | Christiansen, Claus | Kiemeney, Lambertus A | Franke, Barbara | van den Berg, Leonard H | Veldink, Jan | Curran, Sarah | Bolton, Patrick | Poot, Martin | Staal, Wouter | Rehnstrom, Karola | Kilpinen, Helena | Freitag, Christine M | Meyer, Jobst | Magnusson, Pall | Saemundsen, Evald | Martsenkovsky, Igor | Bikshaieva, Iana | Martsenkovska, Inna | Vashchenko, Olesya | Raleva, Marija | Paketchieva, Kamka | Stefanovski, Branislav | Durmishi, Naser | Milovancevic, Milica Pejovic | Tosevski, Dusica Lecic | Silagadze, Teimuraz | Naneishvili, Nino | Mikeladze, Nina | Surguladze, Simon | Vincent, John B | Farmer, Anne | Mitchell, Philip B | Wright, Adam | Schofield, Peter R | Fullerton, Janice M | Montgomery, Grant W | Martin, Nicholas G | Rubino, I Alex | van Winkel, Ruud | Kenis, Gunter | De Hert, Marc | Réthelyi, János M | Bitter, István | Terenius, Lars | Jönsson, Erik G | Bakker, Steven | van Os, Jim | Jablensky, Assen | Leboyer, Marion | Bramon, Elvira | Powell, John | Murray, Robin | Corvin, Aiden | Gill, Michael | Morris, Derek | O’Neill, F Anthony | Kendler, Ken | Riley, Brien | Craddock, Nick | Owen, Michael J | O’Donovan, Michael C | Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur | Kong, Augustine | Ehrenreich, Hannelore | Carracedo, Angel | Golimbet, Vera | Andreassen, Ole A | Børglum, Anders D | Mors, Ole | Mortensen, Preben B | Werge, Thomas | Ophoff, Roel A | Nöthen, Markus M | Rietschel, Marcella | Cichon, Sven | Ruggeri, Mirella | Tosato, Sarah | Palotie, Aarno | St Clair, David | Rujescu, Dan | Collier, David A | Stefansson, Hreinn | Stefansson, Kari
Molecular psychiatry  2012;19(1):10.1038/mp.2012.157.
Epidemiological and genetic data support the notion that schizophrenia and bipolar disorder share genetic risk factors. In our previous genome-wide association (GWA) study, meta-analysis and follow-up (totaling as many as 18,206 cases and 42,536 controls), we identified four loci showing genome-wide significant association with schizophrenia. Here we consider a mixed schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (psychosis) phenotype (addition of 7,469 bipolar disorder cases, 1,535 schizophrenia cases, 333 other psychosis cases, 808 unaffected family members and 46,160 controls). Combined analysis reveals a novel variant at 16p11.2 showing genome-wide significant association (rs4583255[T], OR = 1.08, P = 6.6 × 10−11). The new variant is located within a 593 kb region that substantially increases risk of psychosis when duplicated. In line with the association of the duplication with reduced body mass index (BMI), rs4583255[T] is also associated with lower BMI (P = 0.0039 in the public GIANT consortium dataset; P = 0.00047 in 22,651 additional Icelanders).
doi:10.1038/mp.2012.157
PMCID: PMC3872086  PMID: 23164818
schizophrenia; bipolar disorder; association; 16p11.2; cross-disorder
18.  Epigenetic analysis leads to identification of HNF1B as a subtype-specific susceptibility gene for ovarian cancer 
Shen, Hui | Fridley, Brooke L. | Song, Honglin | Lawrenson, Kate | Cunningham, Julie M. | Ramus, Susan J. | Cicek, Mine S. | Tyrer, Jonathan | Stram, Douglas | Larson, Melissa C. | Köbel, Martin | Ziogas, Argyrios | Zheng, Wei | Yang, Hannah P. | Wu, Anna H. | Wozniak, Eva L. | Woo, Yin Ling | Winterhoff, Boris | Wik, Elisabeth | Whittemore, Alice S. | Wentzensen, Nicolas | Weber, Rachel Palmieri | Vitonis, Allison F. | Vincent, Daniel | Vierkant, Robert A. | Vergote, Ignace | Van Den Berg, David | Van Altena, Anne M. | Tworoger, Shelley S. | Thompson, Pamela J. | Tessier, Daniel C. | Terry, Kathryn L. | Teo, Soo-Hwang | Templeman, Claire | Stram, Daniel O. | Southey, Melissa C. | Sieh, Weiva | Siddiqui, Nadeem | Shvetsov, Yurii B. | Shu, Xiao-Ou | Shridhar, Viji | Wang-Gohrke, Shan | Severi, Gianluca | Schwaab, Ira | Salvesen, Helga B. | Rzepecka, Iwona K. | Runnebaum, Ingo B. | Rossing, Mary Anne | Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Lorna | Risch, Harvey A. | Renner, Stefan P. | Poole, Elizabeth M. | Pike, Malcolm C. | Phelan, Catherine M. | Pelttari, Liisa M. | Pejovic, Tanja | Paul, James | Orlow, Irene | Omar, Siti Zawiah | Olson, Sara H. | Odunsi, Kunle | Nickels, Stefan | Nevanlinna, Heli | Ness, Roberta B. | Narod, Steven A. | Nakanishi, Toru | Moysich, Kirsten B. | Monteiro, Alvaro N.A. | Moes-Sosnowska, Joanna | Modugno, Francesmary | Menon, Usha | McLaughlin, John R. | McGuire, Valerie | Matsuo, Keitaro | Adenan, Noor Azmi Mat | Massuger, Leon F.A. G. | Lurie, Galina | Lundvall, Lene | Lubiński, Jan | Lissowska, Jolanta | Levine, Douglas A. | Leminen, Arto | Lee, Alice W. | Le, Nhu D. | Lambrechts, Sandrina | Lambrechts, Diether | Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta | Krakstad, Camilla | Konecny, Gottfried E. | Kjaer, Susanne Krüger | Kiemeney, Lambertus A. | Kelemen, Linda E. | Keeney, Gary L. | Karlan, Beth Y. | Karevan, Rod | Kalli, Kimberly R. | Kajiyama, Hiroaki | Ji, Bu-Tian | Jensen, Allan | Jakubowska, Anna | Iversen, Edwin | Hosono, Satoyo | Høgdall, Claus K. | Høgdall, Estrid | Hoatlin, Maureen | Hillemanns, Peter | Heitz, Florian | Hein, Rebecca | Harter, Philipp | Halle, Mari K. | Hall, Per | Gronwald, Jacek | Gore, Martin | Goodman, Marc T. | Giles, Graham G. | Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra | Garcia-Closas, Montserrat | Flanagan, James M. | Fasching, Peter A. | Ekici, Arif B. | Edwards, Robert | Eccles, Diana | Easton, Douglas F. | Dürst, Matthias | du Bois, Andreas | Dörk, Thilo | Doherty, Jennifer A. | Despierre, Evelyn | Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka | Cybulski, Cezary | Cramer, Daniel W. | Cook, Linda S. | Chen, Xiaoqing | Charbonneau, Bridget | Chang-Claude, Jenny | Campbell, Ian | Butzow, Ralf | Bunker, Clareann H. | Brueggmann, Doerthe | Brown, Robert | Brooks-Wilson, Angela | Brinton, Louise A. | Bogdanova, Natalia | Block, Matthew S. | Benjamin, Elizabeth | Beesley, Jonathan | Beckmann, Matthias W. | Bandera, Elisa V. | Baglietto, Laura | Bacot, François | Armasu, Sebastian M. | Antonenkova, Natalia | Anton-Culver, Hoda | Aben, Katja K. | Liang, Dong | Wu, Xifeng | Lu, Karen | Hildebrandt, Michelle A.T. | Schildkraut, Joellen M. | Sellers, Thomas A. | Huntsman, David | Berchuck, Andrew | Chenevix-Trench, Georgia | Gayther, Simon A. | Pharoah, Paul D.P. | Laird, Peter W. | Goode, Ellen L. | Pearce, Celeste Leigh
Nature communications  2013;4:10.1038/ncomms2629.
HNF1B is overexpressed in clear cell epithelial ovarian cancer, and we observed epigenetic silencing in serous epithelial ovarian cancer, leading us to hypothesize that variation in this gene differentially associates with epithelial ovarian cancer risk according to histological subtype. Here we comprehensively map variation in HNF1B with respect to epithelial ovarian cancer risk and analyse DNA methylation and expression profiles across histological subtypes. Different single-nucleotide polymorphisms associate with invasive serous (rs7405776 odds ratio (OR) = 1.13, P = 3.1 × 10−10) and clear cell (rs11651755 OR = 0.77, P = 1.6 × 10−8) epithelial ovarian cancer. Risk alleles for the serous subtype associate with higher HNF1B-promoter methylation in these tumours. Unmethylated, expressed HNF1B, primarily present in clear cell tumours, coincides with a CpG island methylator phenotype affecting numerous other promoters throughout the genome. Different variants in HNF1B associate with risk of serous and clear cell epithelial ovarian cancer; DNA methylation and expression patterns are also notably distinct between these subtypes. These findings underscore distinct mechanisms driving different epithelial ovarian cancer histological subtypes.
doi:10.1038/ncomms2629
PMCID: PMC3848248  PMID: 23535649
19.  A variant in FTO shows association with melanoma risk not due to BMI 
Iles, Mark M | Law, Matthew H | Stacey, Simon N | Han, Jiali | Fang, Shenying | Pfeiffer, Ruth | Harland, Mark | MacGregor, Stuart | Taylor, John C | Aben, Katja K | Akslen, Lars A | Avril, Marie-Françoise | Azizi, Esther | Bakker, Bert | Benediktsdottir, Kristrun R | Bergman, Wilma | Scarrà, Giovanna Bianchi | Brown, Kevin M | Calista, Donato | Chaudru, Valerié | Fargnoli, Maria Concetta | Cust, Anne E | Demenais, Florence | de Waal, Anne C | Dębniak, Tadeusz | Elder, David E | Friedman, Eitan | Galan, Pilar | Ghiorzo, Paola | Gillanders, Elizabeth M | Goldstein, Alisa M | Gruis, Nelleke A | Hansson, Johan | Helsing, Per | Hočevar, Marko | Höiom, Veronica | Hopper, John L | Ingvar, Christian | Janssen, Marjolein | Jenkins, Mark A | Kanetsky, Peter A | Kiemeney, Lambertus A | Lang, Julie | Lathrop, G Mark | Leachman, Sancy | Lee, Jeffrey E | Lubiński, Jan | Mackie, Rona M | Mann, Graham J | Mayordomo, Jose I | Molven, Anders | Mulder, Suzanne | Nagore, Eduardo | Novaković, Srdjan | Okamoto, Ichiro | Olafsson, Jon H | Olsson, Håkan | Pehamberger, Hubert | Peris, Ketty | Grasa, Maria Pilar | Planelles, Dolores | Puig, Susana | Puig-Butille, Joan Anton | Randerson-Moor, Juliette | Requena, Celia | Rivoltini, Licia | Rodolfo, Monica | Santinami, Mario | Sigurgeirsson, Bardur | Snowden, Helen | Song, Fengju | Sulem, Patrick | Thorisdottir, Kristin | Tuominen, Rainer | Van Belle, Patricia | van der Stoep, Nienke | van Rossum, Michelle M | Wei, Qingyi | Wendt, Judith | Zelenika, Diana | Zhang, Mingfeng | Landi, Maria Teresa | Thorleifsson, Gudmar | Bishop, D Timothy | Amos, Christopher I | Hayward, Nicholas K | Stefansson, Kari | Bishop, Julia A Newton | Barrett, Jennifer H
Nature genetics  2013;45(4):428-432.
We report the results of an association study of melanoma based on the genome-wide imputation of the genotypes of 1,353 cases and 3,566 controls of European origin conducted by the GenoMEL consortium. This revealed a novel association between several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in intron 8 of the FTO gene, including rs16953002, which replicated using 12,313 cases and 55,667 controls of European ancestry from Europe, the USA and Australia (combined p=3.6×10−12, per-allele OR for A=1.16). As well as identifying a novel melanoma susceptibility locus, this is the first study to identify and replicate an association with SNPs in FTO not related to body mass index (BMI). These SNPs are not in intron 1 (the BMI-related region) and show no association with BMI. This suggests FTO’s function may be broader than the existing paradigm that FTO variants influence multiple traits only through their associations with BMI and obesity.
doi:10.1038/ng.2571
PMCID: PMC3640814  PMID: 23455637
20.  Multiple independent variants at the TERT locus are associated with telomere length and risks of breast and ovarian cancer 
Bojesen, Stig E | Pooley, Karen A | Johnatty, Sharon E | Beesley, Jonathan | Michailidou, Kyriaki | Tyrer, Jonathan P | Edwards, Stacey L | Pickett, Hilda A | Shen, Howard C | Smart, Chanel E | Hillman, Kristine M | Mai, Phuong L | Lawrenson, Kate | Stutz, Michael D | Lu, Yi | Karevan, Rod | Woods, Nicholas | Johnston, Rebecca L | French, Juliet D | Chen, Xiaoqing | Weischer, Maren | Nielsen, Sune F | Maranian, Melanie J | Ghoussaini, Maya | Ahmed, Shahana | Baynes, Caroline | Bolla, Manjeet K | Wang, Qin | Dennis, Joe | McGuffog, Lesley | Barrowdale, Daniel | Lee, Andrew | Healey, Sue | Lush, Michael | Tessier, Daniel C | Vincent, Daniel | Bacot, Françis | Vergote, Ignace | Lambrechts, Sandrina | Despierre, Evelyn | Risch, Harvey A | González-Neira, Anna | Rossing, Mary Anne | Pita, Guillermo | Doherty, Jennifer A | Álvarez, Nuria | Larson, Melissa C | Fridley, Brooke L | Schoof, Nils | Chang-Claude, Jenny | Cicek, Mine S | Peto, Julian | Kalli, Kimberly R | Broeks, Annegien | Armasu, Sebastian M | Schmidt, Marjanka K | Braaf, Linde M | Winterhoff, Boris | Nevanlinna, Heli | Konecny, Gottfried E | Lambrechts, Diether | Rogmann, Lisa | Guénel, Pascal | Teoman, Attila | Milne, Roger L | Garcia, Joaquin J | Cox, Angela | Shridhar, Vijayalakshmi | Burwinkel, Barbara | Marme, Frederik | Hein, Rebecca | Sawyer, Elinor J | Haiman, Christopher A | Wang-Gohrke, Shan | Andrulis, Irene L | Moysich, Kirsten B | Hopper, John L | Odunsi, Kunle | Lindblom, Annika | Giles, Graham G | Brenner, Hermann | Simard, Jacques | Lurie, Galina | Fasching, Peter A | Carney, Michael E | Radice, Paolo | Wilkens, Lynne R | Swerdlow, Anthony | Goodman, Marc T | Brauch, Hiltrud | García-Closas, Montserrat | Hillemanns, Peter | Winqvist, Robert | Dürst, Matthias | Devilee, Peter | Runnebaum, Ingo | Jakubowska, Anna | Lubinski, Jan | Mannermaa, Arto | Butzow, Ralf | Bogdanova, Natalia V | Dörk, Thilo | Pelttari, Liisa M | Zheng, Wei | Leminen, Arto | Anton-Culver, Hoda | Bunker, Clareann H | Kristensen, Vessela | Ness, Roberta B | Muir, Kenneth | Edwards, Robert | Meindl, Alfons | Heitz, Florian | Matsuo, Keitaro | du Bois, Andreas | Wu, Anna H | Harter, Philipp | Teo, Soo-Hwang | Schwaab, Ira | Shu, Xiao-Ou | Blot, William | Hosono, Satoyo | Kang, Daehee | Nakanishi, Toru | Hartman, Mikael | Yatabe, Yasushi | Hamann, Ute | Karlan, Beth Y | Sangrajrang, Suleeporn | Kjaer, Susanne Krüger | Gaborieau, Valerie | Jensen, Allan | Eccles, Diana | Høgdall, Estrid | Shen, Chen-Yang | Brown, Judith | Woo, Yin Ling | Shah, Mitul | Azmi, Mat Adenan Noor | Luben, Robert | Omar, Siti Zawiah | Czene, Kamila | Vierkant, Robert A | Nordestgaard, Børge G | Flyger, Henrik | Vachon, Celine | Olson, Janet E | Wang, Xianshu | Levine, Douglas A | Rudolph, Anja | Weber, Rachel Palmieri | Flesch-Janys, Dieter | Iversen, Edwin | Nickels, Stefan | Schildkraut, Joellen M | Silva, Isabel Dos Santos | Cramer, Daniel W | Gibson, Lorna | Terry, Kathryn L | Fletcher, Olivia | Vitonis, Allison F | van der Schoot, C Ellen | Poole, Elizabeth M | Hogervorst, Frans B L | Tworoger, Shelley S | Liu, Jianjun | Bandera, Elisa V | Li, Jingmei | Olson, Sara H | Humphreys, Keith | Orlow, Irene | Blomqvist, Carl | Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Lorna | Aittomäki, Kristiina | Salvesen, Helga B | Muranen, Taru A | Wik, Elisabeth | Brouwers, Barbara | Krakstad, Camilla | Wauters, Els | Halle, Mari K | Wildiers, Hans | Kiemeney, Lambertus A | Mulot, Claire | Aben, Katja K | Laurent-Puig, Pierre | van Altena, Anne M | Truong, Thérèse | Massuger, Leon F A G | Benitez, Javier | Pejovic, Tanja | Perez, Jose Ignacio Arias | Hoatlin, Maureen | Zamora, M Pilar | Cook, Linda S | Balasubramanian, Sabapathy P | Kelemen, Linda E | Schneeweiss, Andreas | Le, Nhu D | Sohn, Christof | Brooks-Wilson, Angela | Tomlinson, Ian | Kerin, Michael J | Miller, Nicola | Cybulski, Cezary | Henderson, Brian E | Menkiszak, Janusz | Schumacher, Fredrick | Wentzensen, Nicolas | Marchand, Loic Le | Yang, Hannah P | Mulligan, Anna Marie | Glendon, Gord | Engelholm, Svend Aage | Knight, Julia A | Høgdall, Claus K | Apicella, Carmel | Gore, Martin | Tsimiklis, Helen | Song, Honglin | Southey, Melissa C | Jager, Agnes | van den Ouweland, Ans M W | Brown, Robert | Martens, John W M | Flanagan, James M | Kriege, Mieke | Paul, James | Margolin, Sara | Siddiqui, Nadeem | Severi, Gianluca | Whittemore, Alice S | Baglietto, Laura | McGuire, Valerie | Stegmaier, Christa | Sieh, Weiva | Müller, Heiko | Arndt, Volker | Labrèche, France | Gao, Yu-Tang | Goldberg, Mark S | Yang, Gong | Dumont, Martine | McLaughlin, John R | Hartmann, Arndt | Ekici, Arif B | Beckmann, Matthias W | Phelan, Catherine M | Lux, Michael P | Permuth-Wey, Jenny | Peissel, Bernard | Sellers, Thomas A | Ficarazzi, Filomena | Barile, Monica | Ziogas, Argyrios | Ashworth, Alan | Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra | Jones, Michael | Ramus, Susan J | Orr, Nick | Menon, Usha | Pearce, Celeste L | Brüning, Thomas | Pike, Malcolm C | Ko, Yon-Dschun | Lissowska, Jolanta | Figueroa, Jonine | Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta | Chanock, Stephen J | Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka | Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja | Rzepecka, Iwona K | Pylkäs, Katri | Bidzinski, Mariusz | Kauppila, Saila | Hollestelle, Antoinette | Seynaeve, Caroline | Tollenaar, Rob A E M | Durda, Katarzyna | Jaworska, Katarzyna | Hartikainen, Jaana M | Kosma, Veli-Matti | Kataja, Vesa | Antonenkova, Natalia N | Long, Jirong | Shrubsole, Martha | Deming-Halverson, Sandra | Lophatananon, Artitaya | Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep | Stewart-Brown, Sarah | Ditsch, Nina | Lichtner, Peter | Schmutzler, Rita K | Ito, Hidemi | Iwata, Hiroji | Tajima, Kazuo | Tseng, Chiu-Chen | Stram, Daniel O | van den Berg, David | Yip, Cheng Har | Ikram, M Kamran | Teh, Yew-Ching | Cai, Hui | Lu, Wei | Signorello, Lisa B | Cai, Qiuyin | Noh, Dong-Young | Yoo, Keun-Young | Miao, Hui | Iau, Philip Tsau-Choong | Teo, Yik Ying | McKay, James | Shapiro, Charles | Ademuyiwa, Foluso | Fountzilas, George | Hsiung, Chia-Ni | Yu, Jyh-Cherng | Hou, Ming-Feng | Healey, Catherine S | Luccarini, Craig | Peock, Susan | Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique | Peterlongo, Paolo | Rebbeck, Timothy R | Piedmonte, Marion | Singer, Christian F | Friedman, Eitan | Thomassen, Mads | Offit, Kenneth | Hansen, Thomas V O | Neuhausen, Susan L | Szabo, Csilla I | Blanco, Ignacio | Garber, Judy | Narod, Steven A | Weitzel, Jeffrey N | Montagna, Marco | Olah, Edith | Godwin, Andrew K | Yannoukakos, Drakoulis | Goldgar, David E | Caldes, Trinidad | Imyanitov, Evgeny N | Tihomirova, Laima | Arun, Banu K | Campbell, Ian | Mensenkamp, Arjen R | van Asperen, Christi J | van Roozendaal, Kees E P | Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne | Collée, J Margriet | Oosterwijk, Jan C | Hooning, Maartje J | Rookus, Matti A | van der Luijt, Rob B | van Os, Theo A M | Evans, D Gareth | Frost, Debra | Fineberg, Elena | Barwell, Julian | Walker, Lisa | Kennedy, M John | Platte, Radka | Davidson, Rosemarie | Ellis, Steve D | Cole, Trevor | Paillerets, Brigitte Bressac-de | Buecher, Bruno | Damiola, Francesca | Faivre, Laurence | Frenay, Marc | Sinilnikova, Olga M | Caron, Olivier | Giraud, Sophie | Mazoyer, Sylvie | Bonadona, Valérie | Caux-Moncoutier, Virginie | Toloczko-Grabarek, Aleksandra | Gronwald, Jacek | Byrski, Tomasz | Spurdle, Amanda B | Bonanni, Bernardo | Zaffaroni, Daniela | Giannini, Giuseppe | Bernard, Loris | Dolcetti, Riccardo | Manoukian, Siranoush | Arnold, Norbert | Engel, Christoph | Deissler, Helmut | Rhiem, Kerstin | Niederacher, Dieter | Plendl, Hansjoerg | Sutter, Christian | Wappenschmidt, Barbara | Borg, Åke | Melin, Beatrice | Rantala, Johanna | Soller, Maria | Nathanson, Katherine L | Domchek, Susan M | Rodriguez, Gustavo C | Salani, Ritu | Kaulich, Daphne Gschwantler | Tea, Muy-Kheng | Paluch, Shani Shimon | Laitman, Yael | Skytte, Anne-Bine | Kruse, Torben A | Jensen, Uffe Birk | Robson, Mark | Gerdes, Anne-Marie | Ejlertsen, Bent | Foretova, Lenka | Savage, Sharon A | Lester, Jenny | Soucy, Penny | Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B | Olswold, Curtis | Cunningham, Julie M | Slager, Susan | Pankratz, Vernon S | Dicks, Ed | Lakhani, Sunil R | Couch, Fergus J | Hall, Per | Monteiro, Alvaro N A | Gayther, Simon A | Pharoah, Paul D P | Reddel, Roger R | Goode, Ellen L | Greene, Mark H | Easton, Douglas F | Berchuck, Andrew | Antoniou, Antonis C | Chenevix-Trench, Georgia | Dunning, Alison M
Nature genetics  2013;45(4):371-384e2.
TERT-locus single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and leucocyte telomere measures are reportedly associated with risks of multiple cancers. Using the iCOGs chip, we analysed ~480 TERT-locus SNPs in breast (n=103,991), ovarian (n=39,774) and BRCA1 mutation carrier (11,705) cancer cases and controls. 53,724 participants have leucocyte telomere measures. Most associations cluster into three independent peaks. Peak 1 SNP rs2736108 minor allele associates with longer telomeres (P=5.8×10−7), reduced estrogen receptor negative (ER-negative) (P=1.0×10−8) and BRCA1 mutation carrier (P=1.1×10−5) breast cancer risks, and altered promoter-assay signal. Peak 2 SNP rs7705526 minor allele associates with longer telomeres (P=2.3×10−14), increased low malignant potential ovarian cancer risk (P=1.3×10−15) and increased promoter activity. Peak 3 SNPs rs10069690 and rs2242652 minor alleles increase ER-negative (P=1.2×10−12) and BRCA1 mutation carrier (P=1.6×10−14) breast and invasive ovarian (P=1.3×10−11) cancer risks, but not via altered telomere length. The cancer-risk alleles of rs2242652 and rs10069690 respectively increase silencing and generate a truncated TERT splice-variant.
doi:10.1038/ng.2566
PMCID: PMC3670748  PMID: 23535731
21.  GWAS meta-analysis and replication identifies three new susceptibility loci for ovarian cancer 
Pharoah, Paul D. P. | Tsai, Ya-Yu | Ramus, Susan J. | Phelan, Catherine M. | Goode, Ellen L. | Lawrenson, Kate | Price, Melissa | Fridley, Brooke L. | Tyrer, Jonathan P. | Shen, Howard | Weber, Rachel | Karevan, Rod | Larson, Melissa C. | Song, Honglin | Tessier, Daniel C. | Bacot, François | Vincent, Daniel | Cunningham, Julie M. | Dennis, Joe | Dicks, Ed | Aben, Katja K. | Anton-Culver, Hoda | Antonenkova, Natalia | Armasu, Sebastian M. | Baglietto, Laura | Bandera, Elisa V. | Beckmann, Matthias W. | Birrer, Michael J. | Bloom, Greg | Bogdanova, Natalia | Brenton, James D. | Brinton, Louise A. | Brooks-Wilson, Angela | Brown, Robert | Butzow, Ralf | Campbell, Ian | Carney, Michael E | Carvalho, Renato S. | Chang-Claude, Jenny | Chen, Y. Anne | Chen, Zhihua | Chow, Wong-Ho | Cicek, Mine S. | Coetzee, Gerhard | Cook, Linda S. | Cramer, Daniel W. | Cybulski, Cezary | Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka | Despierre, Evelyn | Doherty, Jennifer A | Dörk, Thilo | du Bois, Andreas | Dürst, Matthias | Eccles, Diana | Edwards, Robert | Ekici, Arif B. | Fasching, Peter A. | Fenstermacher, David | Flanagan, James | Gao, Yu-Tang | Garcia-Closas, Montserrat | Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra | Giles, Graham | Gjyshi, Anxhela | Gore, Martin | Gronwald, Jacek | Guo, Qi | Halle, Mari K | Harter, Philipp | Hein, Alexander | Heitz, Florian | Hillemanns, Peter | Hoatlin, Maureen | Høgdall, Estrid | Høgdall, Claus K. | Hosono, Satoyo | Jakubowska, Anna | Jensen, Allan | Kalli, Kimberly R. | Karlan, Beth Y. | Kelemen, Linda E. | Kiemeney, Lambertus A. | Kjaer, Susanne Krüger | Konecny, Gottfried E. | Krakstad, Camilla | Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta | Lambrechts, Diether | Lambrechts, Sandrina | Le, Nhu D. | Lee, Nathan | Lee, Janet | Leminen, Arto | Lim, Boon Kiong | Lissowska, Jolanta | Lubiński, Jan | Lundvall, Lene | Lurie, Galina | Massuger, Leon F.A.G. | Matsuo, Keitaro | McGuire, Valerie | McLaughlin, John R | Menon, Usha | Modugno, Francesmary | Moysich, Kirsten B. | Nakanishi, Toru | Narod, Steven A. | Ness, Roberta B. | Nevanlinna, Heli | Nickels, Stefan | Noushmehr, Houtan | Odunsi, Kunle | Olson, Sara | Orlow, Irene | Paul, James | Pejovic, Tanja | Pelttari, Liisa M | Permuth-Wey, Jenny | Pike, Malcolm C | Poole, Elizabeth M | Qu, Xiaotao | Risch, Harvey A. | Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Lorna | Rossing, Mary Anne | Rudolph, Anja | Runnebaum, Ingo | Rzepecka, Iwona K | Salvesen, Helga B. | Schwaab, Ira | Severi, Gianluca | Shen, Hui | Shridhar, Vijayalakshmi | Shu, Xiao-Ou | Sieh, Weiva | Southey, Melissa C. | Spellman, Paul | Tajima, Kazuo | Teo, Soo-Hwang | Terry, Kathryn L. | Thompson, Pamela J | Timorek, Agnieszka | Tworoger, Shelley S. | van Altena, Anne M. | Berg, David Van Den | Vergote, Ignace | Vierkant, Robert A. | Vitonis, Allison F. | Wang-Gohrke, Shan | Wentzensen, Nicolas | Whittemore, Alice S. | Wik, Elisabeth | Winterhoff, Boris | Woo, Yin Ling | Wu, Anna H | Yang, Hannah P. | Zheng, Wei | Ziogas, Argyrios | Zulkifli, Famida | Goodman, Marc T. | Hall, Per | Easton, Douglas F | Pearce, Celeste L | Berchuck, Andrew | Chenevix-Trench, Georgia | Iversen, Edwin | Monteiro, Alvaro N.A. | Gayther, Simon A. | Schildkraut, Joellen M. | Sellers, Thomas A.
Nature genetics  2013;45(4):362-370e2.
Genome wide association studies (GWAS) have identified four susceptibility loci for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) with another two loci being close to genome-wide significance. We pooled data from a GWAS conducted in North America with another GWAS from the United Kingdom. We selected the top 24,551 SNPs for inclusion on the iCOGS custom genotyping array. Follow-up genotyping was carried out in 18,174 cases and 26,134 controls from 43 studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. We validated the two loci at 3q25 and 17q21 previously near genome-wide significance and identified three novel loci associated with risk; two loci associated with all EOC subtypes, at 8q21 (rs11782652, P=5.5×10-9) and 10p12 (rs1243180; P=1.8×10-8), and another locus specific to the serous subtype at 17q12 (rs757210; P=8.1×10-10). An integrated molecular analysis of genes and regulatory regions at these loci provided evidence for functional mechanisms underlying susceptibility that implicates CHMP4C in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer.
doi:10.1038/ng.2564
PMCID: PMC3693183  PMID: 23535730
22.  Genome-wide Association Study for Ovarian Cancer Susceptibility using Pooled DNA 
Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified four low-penetrance ovarian cancer susceptibility loci. We hypothesized that further moderate or low penetrance variants exist among the subset of SNPs not well tagged by the genotyping arrays used in the previous studies which would account for some of the remaining risk. We therefore conducted a time- and cost-effective stage 1 GWAS on 342 invasive serous cases and 643 controls genotyped on pooled DNA using the high density Illumina 1M-Duo array. We followed up 20 of the most significantly associated SNPs, which are not well tagged by the lower density arrays used by the published GWAS, and genotyping them on individual DNA. Most of the top 20 SNPs were clearly validated by individually genotyping the samples used in the pools. However, none of the 20 SNPs replicated when tested for association in a much larger stage 2 set of 4,651 cases and 6,966 controls from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. Given that most of the top 20 SNPs from pooling were validated in the same samples by individual genotyping, the lack of replication is likely to be due to the relatively small sample size in our stage 1 GWAS rather than due to problems with the pooling approach. We conclude that there are unlikely to be any moderate or large effects on ovarian cancer risk untagged by the less dense arrays. However our study lacked power to make clear statements on the existence of hitherto untagged small effect variants.
doi:10.1017/thg.2012.38
PMCID: PMC3785301  PMID: 22794196
23.  Increased risk of lung cancer in individuals with a family history of the disease: A pooled analysis from the International Lung Cancer Consortium 
Background and Methods
Familial aggregation of lung cancer exists after accounting for cigarette smoking. However, the extent to which family history affects risk by smoking status, histology, relative type and ethnicity is not well described. This pooled analysis included 24 case-control studies in the International Lung Cancer Consortium. Each study collected age of onset/interview, gender, race/ethnicity, cigarette smoking, histology and first-degree family history of lung cancer. Data from 24,380 lung cancer cases and 23,305 healthy controls were analyzed. Unconditional logistic regression models and generalized estimating equations were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals.
Results
Individuals with a first-degree relative with lung cancer had a 1.51-fold increase in risk of lung cancer, after adjustment for smoking and other potential confounders(95% CI: 1.39, 1.63). The association was strongest for those with a family history in a sibling, after adjustment (OR=1.82, 95% CI: 1.62, 2.05). No modifying effect by histologic type was found. Never smokers showed a lower association with positive familial history of lung cancer (OR=1.25, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.52), slightly stronger for those with an affected sibling (OR=1.44, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.93), after adjustment.
Conclusions
The increased risk among never smokers and similar magnitudes of the effect of family history on lung cancer risk across histological types suggests familial aggregation of lung cancer is independent of those associated with cigarette smoking. While the role of genetic variation in the etiology of lung cancer remains to be fully characterized, family history assessment is immediately available and those with a positive history represent a higher risk group.
doi:10.1016/j.ejca.2012.01.038
PMCID: PMC3445438  PMID: 22436981
24.  Identification and molecular characterization of a new ovarian cancer susceptibility locus at 17q21.31 
Permuth-Wey, Jennifer | Lawrenson, Kate | Shen, Howard C. | Velkova, Aneliya | Tyrer, Jonathan P. | Chen, Zhihua | Lin, Hui-Yi | Chen, Y. Ann | Tsai, Ya-Yu | Qu, Xiaotao | Ramus, Susan J. | Karevan, Rod | Lee, Janet | Lee, Nathan | Larson, Melissa C. | Aben, Katja K. | Anton-Culver, Hoda | Antonenkova, Natalia | Antoniou, Antonis | Armasu, Sebastian M. | Bacot, François | Baglietto, Laura | Bandera, Elisa V. | Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill | Beckmann, Matthias W. | Birrer, Michael J. | Bloom, Greg | Bogdanova, Natalia | Brinton, Louise A. | Brooks-Wilson, Angela | Brown, Robert | Butzow, Ralf | Cai, Qiuyin | Campbell, Ian | Chang-Claude, Jenny | Chanock, Stephen | Chenevix-Trench, Georgia | Cheng, Jin Q. | Cicek, Mine S. | Coetzee, Gerhard A. | Cook, Linda S. | Couch, Fergus J. | Cramer, Daniel W. | Cunningham, Julie M. | Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka | Despierre, Evelyn | Doherty, Jennifer A | Dörk, Thilo | du Bois, Andreas | Dürst, Matthias | Easton, Douglas F | Eccles, Diana | Edwards, Robert | Ekici, Arif B. | Fasching, Peter A. | Fenstermacher, David A. | Flanagan, James M. | Garcia-Closas, Montserrat | Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra | Giles, Graham G. | Glasspool, Rosalind M. | Gonzalez-Bosquet, Jesus | Goodman, Marc T. | Gore, Martin | Górski, Bohdan | Gronwald, Jacek | Hall, Per | Halle, Mari K. | Harter, Philipp | Heitz, Florian | Hillemanns, Peter | Hoatlin, Maureen | Høgdall, Claus K. | Høgdall, Estrid | Hosono, Satoyo | Jakubowska, Anna | Jensen, Allan | Jim, Heather | Kalli, Kimberly R. | Karlan, Beth Y. | Kaye, Stanley B. | Kelemen, Linda E. | Kiemeney, Lambertus A. | Kikkawa, Fumitaka | Konecny, Gottfried E. | Krakstad, Camilla | Kjaer, Susanne Krüger | Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta | Lambrechts, Diether | Lambrechts, Sandrina | Lancaster, Johnathan M. | Le, Nhu D. | Leminen, Arto | Levine, Douglas A. | Liang, Dong | Lim, Boon Kiong | Lin, Jie | Lissowska, Jolanta | Lu, Karen H. | Lubiński, Jan | Lurie, Galina | Massuger, Leon F.A.G. | Matsuo, Keitaro | McGuire, Valerie | McLaughlin, John R | Menon, Usha | Modugno, Francesmary | Moysich, Kirsten B. | Nakanishi, Toru | Narod, Steven A. | Nedergaard, Lotte | Ness, Roberta B. | Nevanlinna, Heli | Nickels, Stefan | Noushmehr, Houtan | Odunsi, Kunle | Olson, Sara H. | Orlow, Irene | Paul, James | Pearce, Celeste L | Pejovic, Tanja | Pelttari, Liisa M. | Pike, Malcolm C. | Poole, Elizabeth M. | Raska, Paola | Renner, Stefan P. | Risch, Harvey A. | Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Lorna | Rossing, Mary Anne | Rudolph, Anja | Runnebaum, Ingo B. | Rzepecka, Iwona K. | Salvesen, Helga B. | Schwaab, Ira | Severi, Gianluca | Shridhar, Vijayalakshmi | Shu, Xiao-Ou | Shvetsov, Yurii B. | Sieh, Weiva | Song, Honglin | Southey, Melissa C. | Spiewankiewicz, Beata | Stram, Daniel | Sutphen, Rebecca | Teo, Soo-Hwang | Terry, Kathryn L. | Tessier, Daniel C. | Thompson, Pamela J. | Tworoger, Shelley S. | van Altena, Anne M. | Vergote, Ignace | Vierkant, Robert A. | Vincent, Daniel | Vitonis, Allison F. | Wang-Gohrke, Shan | Weber, Rachel Palmieri | Wentzensen, Nicolas | Whittemore, Alice S. | Wik, Elisabeth | Wilkens, Lynne R. | Winterhoff, Boris | Woo, Yin Ling | Wu, Anna H. | Xiang, Yong-Bing | Yang, Hannah P. | Zheng, Wei | Ziogas, Argyrios | Zulkifli, Famida | Phelan, Catherine M. | Iversen, Edwin | Schildkraut, Joellen M. | Berchuck, Andrew | Fridley, Brooke L. | Goode, Ellen L. | Pharoah, Paul D. P. | Monteiro, Alvaro N.A. | Sellers, Thomas A. | Gayther, Simon A.
Nature communications  2013;4:1627.
Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) has a heritable component that remains to be fully characterized. Most identified common susceptibility variants lie in non-protein-coding sequences. We hypothesized that variants in the 3′ untranslated region at putative microRNA (miRNA) binding sites represent functional targets that influence EOC susceptibility. Here, we evaluate the association between 767 miRNA binding site single nucleotide polymorphisms (miRSNPs) and EOC risk in 18,174 EOC cases and 26,134 controls from 43 studies genotyped through the Collaborative Oncological Gene-environment Study. We identify several miRSNPs associated with invasive serous EOC risk (OR=1.12, P=10−8) mapping to an inversion polymorphism at 17q21.31. Additional genotyping of non-miRSNPs at 17q21.31 reveals stronger signals outside the inversion (P=10−10). Variation at 17q21.31 associates with neurological diseases, and our collaboration is the first to report an association with EOC susceptibility. An integrated molecular analysis in this region provides evidence for ARHGAP27 and PLEKHM1 as candidate EOC susceptibility genes.
doi:10.1038/ncomms2613
PMCID: PMC3709460  PMID: 23535648
25.  Detection of Mitochondrial DNA Alterations in Urine from Urothelial Cell Carcinoma Patients 
The present study aims at understanding the timing and nature of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) alterations in urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) and their detection in urine sediments. The entire 16.5 kb mitochondrial genome was sequenced in matched normal lymphocytes, tumor and urine sediments from 31 UCC patients and compared with different clinical stages and histological grades. The mtDNA content index was examined in all the specimens. Sixty five percent (20/31) of the patients harbored at least 1 somatic mtDNA mutation. A total of 25 somatic mtDNA mutations were detected, which were more frequent in the respiratory complex coding regions (Complex-I, III, IV and V) of the mtDNA and significantly affected respiratory complex-III compared to the other complexes (P=0.021–0.039). Compared to stage Ta, mtDNA mutation was higher in stage T1 and significantly higher in stage T2 (P=0.01) patients. MtDNA mutation was also significantly higher (P=0.04) in stage T2 compared to stage T1 patients. Ninety percent (18/20) of the patients harboring mtDNA mutation in the tumor also had mutation in their urine sediments. Eighty percent (20/25) of the tumor-associated mtDNA mutations was detectable in the urine sediments. Compared to the normal lymphocytes, the mtDNA content increased significantly in the tumor (P=0.0013) and corresponding urine sediments (P=0.0025) in 19/25 (76%) patients analyzed. Our results indicate that mtDNA alterations occur frequently in progressive stages of UCC patients and are readily detectable in the urine sediments. MtDNA mutations appear to provide a promising tool for developing early detection and monitoring strategies for UCC patients.
doi:10.1002/ijc.26357
PMCID: PMC3328657  PMID: 21826645
Urothelial cell carcinoma; mitochondria; mtDNA alteration; urine detection

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