TUSC2-defective gene expression is detected in the majority of lung cancers and is associated with worse overall survival. We analyzed the effects of TUSC2 re-expression on tumor cell sensitivity to the AKT inhibitor, MK2206, and explored their mutual signaling connections, in vitro and in vivo. TUSC2 transient expression in three LKB1-defective non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines combined with MK2206 treatment resulted in increased repression of cell viability and colony formation, and increased apoptotic activity. In contrast, TUSC2 did not affect the response to MK2206 treatment for two LKB1-wild type NSCLC cell lines. In vivo, TUSC2 systemic delivery, by nanoparticle gene transfer, combined with MK2206 treatment markedly inhibited growth of tumors in a human LKB1-defective H322 lung cancer xenograft mouse model. Biochemical analysis showed that TUSC2 transient expression in LKB1-defective NSCLC cells significantly stimulated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation and enzymatic activity. More importantly, AMPK gene knockdown abrogated TUSC2-MK2206 cooperation, as evidenced by reduced sensitivity to the combined treatment. Together, TUSC2 re-expression and MK2206 treatment was more effective in inhibiting the phosphorylation and kinase activities of AKT and mTOR proteins than either single agent alone. In conclusion, these findings support the hypothesis that TUSC2 expression status is a biological variable that potentiates MK2206 sensitivity in LKB1-defective NSCLC cells, and identifies the AMPK/AKT/mTOR signaling axis as an important regulator of this activity.
Gastric cancer (GC) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and there is therefore a clear need to search for more sensitive early diagnostic biomarkers. We performed a systematic review of eight published miRNA profiling studies that compared GC tissues with adjacent noncancerous tissues. A miRNA ranking system was used that took the frequency of comparisons, direction of differential expression and total sample size into consideration. We identified five miRNAs that were most consistently reported to be upregulated (miR-21, miR-106b, miR-17, miR-18a and miR-20a) and two miRNAs that were downregulated (miR-378 and miR-638). Six of these were further validated in 32 paired sets of GC and adjacent noncancerous tissue samples using real-time PCR. MiR-21, miR-106b, miR-17, miR-18a and miR-20a were confirmed to be upregulatedin GC tissues, while the expression of miR-378 was decreased. Moreover, we found a significant association between expression levels of miR-21, miR-106b, miR-17, miR-18a and miR-20a and clinicopathological features of GC. These miRNAs may be used for diagnostic and/or prognostic biomarkers for GC and therefore warrant further investigation.
Natural antisense transcripts (NATs) exist ubiquitously in mammalian genomes and play roles in the regulation of gene expression. However, both the existence of bidirectional antisense RNA regulation and the possibility of protein-coding genes that function as antisense RNAs remain speculative. Here, we found that the protein-coding gene, deoxyhypusine synthase (DHPS), as the NAT of WDR83, concordantly regulated the expression of WDR83 mRNA and protein. Conversely, WDR83 also regulated DHPS by antisense pairing in a concordant manner. WDR83 and DHPS were capable of forming an RNA duplex at overlapping 3′ untranslated regions and this duplex increased their mutual stability, which was required for the bidirectional regulation. As a pair of protein-coding cis-sense/antisense transcripts, WDR83 and DHPS were upregulated simultaneously and correlated positively in gastric cancer (GC), driving GC pathophysiology by promoting cell proliferation. Furthermore, the positive relationship between WDR83 and DHPS was also observed in other cancers. The bidirectional regulatory relationship between WDR83 and DHPS not only enriches our understanding of antisense regulation, but also provides a more complete understanding of their functions in tumor development.
bidirectional regulation; natural antisense transcript; gastric cancer
AIM: To explore the role of S-phase kinase-associated protein-2 (Skp2) in gallbladder carcinoma and to identify whether depletion of Skp2 by Skp2-RNAi could attenuate proliferation and migration of gallbladder carcinoma.
METHODS: Skp2-RNAi was transduced into cells of the gallbladder carcinoma cell line GBC-SD, using a lentiviral vector. The effect of Skp2-RNAi on the proliferation, migration, invasion and cell cycle of GBC-SD cells was studied using in vitro assays for cell proliferation, colony formation, wound healing and cell cycle. The expression of Skp2 and p27 was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western immunoblotting. The effect of Skp2-RNAi on the proliferation of GBC-SD cells in vivo was investigated by tumorigenicity experiments in nude mice.
RESULTS: Lentivirus-mediated RNAi reduced the expression of Skp2 in cultured cells. The expression of the p27 protein increased along with the down-regulation of Skp2, although no significant difference was found in p27 mRNA expression. Flow cytometry revealed that Skp2-RNAi transfection significantly increased the proportion of cells in the S phase and significantly decreased the proportion of cells in the G2/M phase. No significant difference in the frequency of cells in the G0/G1 phase was observed. The results from the cell proliferation, colony formation and wound healing assays revealed that Skp2-RNAi transfection markedly inhibited the proliferation and migration of GBC-SD cells in vitro. Additionally, tumorigenicity experiments showed that suppression of Skp2 significantly decreased the weights of the tumors (0.56 ± 0.11 and 0.55 ± 0.07 g in the control and Scr-RNAi groups vs 0.37 ± 0.09 and 0.35 ± 0.08 g in the Skp2-RNAi-L and Skp2-RNAi-H groups).
CONCLUSION: The expression of Skp2 in GBC-SD cells was inhibited following Skp2-RNAi transfection. Silencing of the Skp2 gene inhibited proliferation, migration and invasiveness of GBC-SD cells by mechanisms dependent on enhanced expression of the p27 protein.
Gallbladder carcinoma; S-phase kinase-associated protein-2; p27; Gene therapy; Cell cycle
The role of tumor suppressor gene RASSF1A in the esophageal and gastric cardia carcinogenesis is still inconclusive. In this study, the polymorphism, promoter methylation and gene expression of RASSF1A were characterized in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA).
We firstly analyzed the prevalence of RASSF1A A133S in a total of 228 cancer patients with ESCC (n=112) and GCA (n=116) and 235 normal controls by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction enzyme-digestion assay. Then, the promoter methylation status of the RASSF1A in ESCC (n=143), GCA (n=92) and corresponding adjacent normal tissues were further investigated using methylation-specific PCR (MSP) approach. Finally, the RASSF1A protein expression were determined in ESCC (n=27), GCA (n=24) and the matched adjacent normal tissues by immunohistochemical method.
The frequency of 133Ala/Se and Ser/Ser genotype was significantly higher in GCA patients than in normal controls (19.0% vs. 10.2%, P=0.02). Compared with Ala/Ala genotype, Ala/Se and Ser/Ser genotype significantly increased susceptibility to GCA (OR=2.06, 95% CI=1.09–3.97). However, this polymorphism had no association with ESCC (P=0.69). The promoter methylation of RASSF1A gene was significantly increased the risk to both ESCC (OR=5.90, 95% CI=2.78–12.52) and GCA (OR=7.50, 95% CI= 2.78–20.23). Promoter methylation of RASSF1A gene in ESCC was also associated with age and cancer cell differentiation (for age: OR=3.11, 95% CI=1.10–8.73; for differentiation: OR=0.29, 95% CI=0.12–0.69). RASSF1A positive expression was significantly decreased the risk of GCA (OR=0.16, 95% CI=0.03–0.83). In contrast, there was no statistical significance between RASSF1A positive expression and ESCC. The expression of RASSF1A protein trend to be positively related with older GCA patients (OR=16.20, 95% CI=1.57–167.74).
The present findings suggest that alterations of RASSF1A may play an important role in gastric cardia carcinogenesis in terms of polymorphism, promoter hypermethylation and protein expression. Whereas, RASSF1A hypermethylation may probably also be involved in esophageal squamous cell carcinogenesis.
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma; Gastric cardia adenocarcinoma; A133S in RASSF1A; Polymorphism; Methylation; Protein expression
Crawling locomotion of eukaryotic cells is achieved by a process dependent on the actin cytoskeleton1: protrusion of the leading edge requires assembly of a network of actin filaments2, which must be disassembled at the cell rear for sustained motility. Although ADF/cofilin proteins have been shown to contribute to actin disassembly3, it is not clear how activity of these locally acting proteins could be coordinated over the whole-cell distance scale. Here we show that nonmuscle myosin II plays a direct role in actin network disassembly in crawling cells. In moving fish keratocytes, myosin II is concentrated in regions at the rear with high rates of network disassembly. Activation of myosin II by ATP in detergent-extracted cytoskeletons results in rear-localized disassembly of the actin network. Inhibition of myosin II activity and stabilization of actin filaments synergistically impede cell motility, suggesting the existence of two disassembly pathways, one of which requires myosin II activity. Our results establish the importance of myosin II as an enzyme for actin network disassembly; we propose that gradual formation and reorganization of an actomyosin network provides an intrinsic destruction timer, enabling long-range coordination of actin network treadmilling in motile cells.
We have used a previously unavailable model of pancreatic development, derived in vitro from human embryonic stem cells, to capture a time-course of gene, miRNA and histone modification levels in pancreatic endocrine cells. We investigated whether it is possible to better understand, and hence control, the biological pathways leading to pancreatic endocrine formation by analysing this information and combining it with the available scientific literature to generate models using a casual reasoning approach. We show that the embryonic stem cell differentiation protocol is highly reproducible in producing endocrine precursor cells and generates cells that recapitulate many aspects of human embryonic pancreas development, including maturation into functional endocrine cells when transplanted into recipient animals. The availability of whole genome gene and miRNA expression data from the early stages of human pancreatic development will be of great benefit to those in the fields of developmental biology and diabetes research. Our causal reasoning algorithm suggested the involvement of novel gene networks, such as NEUROG3/E2F1/KDM5B and SOCS3/STAT3/IL-6, in endocrine cell development We experimentally investigated the role of the top-ranked prediction by showing that addition of exogenous IL-6 could affect the expression of the endocrine progenitor genes NEUROG3 and NKX2.2.
The association between polymorphisms of α-adducin (ADD1) gene and essential hypertension is still unclear. Thus, we carried out a case-control study and an interaction analysis to test whether ADD1 is a common candidate gene for hypertension in the Chinese population. Blood samples and information including body mass index (BMI), smoking habit, and alcohol abuse were collected. Meanwhile, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, triglyceride were measured by automatic biochemistry analyzer. All 6 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs) within ADD1 gene were genotyped by SNPstream genotyping system. Multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) was used to identify the interactions among the SNPs and the non-genetic factors. Results showed that plasma triglyceride, total cholesterol, and BMI were significantly higher in the hypertensive group than in the control group. Result from genotyping indicated that rs4963 was significantly associated with essential hypertension. After stratification by gender, rs4963 was associated with essential hypertension only in males. MDR analysis indicated that interaction among BMI, rs4963, and rs16843452 were involved in susceptibility of hypertension. The present study indicated that rs4963 within ADD1 gene was associated with essential hypertension in Chinese population, which might be related to altered exonic splicing and disrupted gene regulation.
The CACNA2D2 gene, a new subunit of the Ca2+-channel complex, was identified in the homozygous deletion region of chromosome 3p21.3 in human lung and breast cancers. Expression deficiency of the CACNA2D2 in cancer cells suggests a possible link of it to Ca2+ signaling in the pathogenesis of lung cancer and other cancers. We investigated the effects of overexpression of CACNA2D2 on intracellular Ca2+ contents, mitochondria homeostasis, cell proliferation, and apoptosis by adenoviral vector-mediated wild-type CACNA2D2 gene transfer in 3p21.3-deficient nonsmall cell lung cancer cell lines. Exogenous expression of CACNA2D2 significantly inhibited tumor cell growth compared with the controls. Overexpression of CACNA2D2 induced apoptosis in H1299 (12.5%), H358 (13.7%), H460 (22.3%), and A549 (50.1%) cell lines. Levels of intracellular free Ca2+ were elevated in AdCACNA2D2-transduced cells compared with the controls. Mitochondria membrane depolarization was observed prior to apoptosis in Ad-CACNA2D2 and Adp53-transduced H460 and A549 cells. Release of cyt c into the cytosol, caspase 3 activation, and PARP cleavage were also detected in these cells. Together, these results suggest that one of the pathways in CACNA2D2-induced apoptosis is mediated through disruption of mitochondria membrane integrity, the release of cyt c, and the activation of caspases, a process that is associated with regulation of cytosolic free Ca2+ contents.
tumor suppressor genes; apoptosis; calcium channel proteins; human chromosome 3p21.3; lung cancer
A group of candidate tumor suppressor genes (designated CACNA2D2, PL6, 101F6, NPRL2, BLU, RASSF1, FUS1, HYAL2, and HYAL1) has been identified in a 120-kb critical tumor homozygous deletion region (found in lung and breast cancers) of human chromosome 3p21.3. We studied the effects of six of these 3p21.3 genes (101F6, NPRL2, BLU, FUS1, HYAL2, and HYAL1) on tumor cell proliferation and apoptosis in human lung cancer cells by recombinant adenovirus-mediated gene transfer in vitro and in vivo. We found that forced expression of wild-type FUS1, 101F6, and NPRL2 genes significantly inhibited tumor cell growth by induction of apoptosis and alteration of cell cycle processes in 3p21.3 120-kb region-deficient (homozygous) H1299 and A549 cells but not in the 3p21.3 120-kb region-heterozygous H358 and the normal human bronchial epithelial cells. Intratumoral injection of Ad-101F6, Ad-FUS1, Ad-NPRL2, and Ad-HYAL2 vectors or systemic administration of protamine-complexed vectors significantly suppressed growth of H1299 and A549 tumor xenografts and inhibited A549 experimental lung metastases in nu/nu mice. Together, our results, coupled with other studies demonstrating a tumor suppressor role for the RASSSF1A isoform, suggest that multiple contiguous genes in the 3p21.3 120-kb chromosomal region may exhibit tumor suppressor activity in vitro and in vivo.
To examine the α-Gal gene expression and distribution in the different species/genus and developing phase animal ocular surface tissue.
α-Gal binding assay were carried out on various animal eye sections. Photograph, slit-lamp observation on various eye showed normal corneal transparence.
A strong α-Gal expression in invertebrates and some vertebrates ocular tissue, but no α-Gal binding in birds, fish and mammal. α-Gal expression change in the development of mice ocular surface tissue (except sclera) and display genus dependency in the different murine ocular surface tissue.
This study identified specific α-Gal epitopes binding area in the ocular surface of several species and may solve the problem that naive ocular surface may be used as natural α-Gal gene knockout model/high risk immunologic rejection model or ocular surface scaffold material.
α-Gal; xenotransplantation; animal; ocular surface; tissue engineering
Activating enhancer-binding protein-2β (AP2β) is a transcription factor involved in apoptosis. The purpose of the current study was to assess the cellular location and level of AP2β in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) and normal lung tissue and investigate whether the level and localization of AP2β expression is predictive of overall survival in patients with stage I NSCLC.
We performed immunohistochemical analysis of tissue microarrays (TMAs) prepared from stage I NSCLC specimens with adjacent normal lung tissue from two independent sets of patients who underwent lung resection with curative intent at our institution. AP2β intensity was assessed in TMAs, and AP2β staining patterns were classified as either diffuseor nucleolar in the TMAs. AP2β intensity and localization were analyzed for correlation with patients' survival.
Immunohistochemical analysis of TMAs showed that the intensity of AP2β immunohistochemical staining did not correlate with overall survival. When location of AP2β was analyzed in TMAs, all of the normal lung tissue had diffuse pattern of AP2β. In the first set of NSCLC, patients with nucleolar pattern had a significantly lower 5-year survival rate than patients with diffuse pattern (67% vs. 100%; P = 0.004); this finding was confirmed in the second set (64% vs. 91%; P = 0.02). Multivariate analysis revealed that nucleolar pattern was an independent predictor of poor overall survival in both sets.
The AP2β which is located in the nucleoplasm in normal lung tissue is found in either nucleoplasm or nucleoli in NSCLC. The patients with AP2β in the nucleoli had poor survival compared to patients with AP2β in the cytoplasm.
Lung cancer biology; survival analysis
AZD6244 is a small molecule inhibitor of the MEK kinase pathway currently in clinical trials. However, the mechanisms mediating intrinsic resistance to MEK inhibition are not fully characterized. To define molecular mechanisms of MEK inhibitor resistance, we analyzed responses of 38 lung cancer cell lines following AZD6244 treatment and their genome-wide gene expression profiles and identified a panel of genes correlated with sensitivity or resistance to AZD6244 treatment. In particular, Ingenuity pathway analysis revealed that activation of the STAT3 pathway was associated with MEK inhibitor resistance. Inhibition of this pathway by JSI-124, a STAT3-specific small molecule inhibitor, or with STAT3-specific siRNA sensitized lung cancer cells to AZD6244 and induced apoptosis. Moreover, combining a STAT3 inhibitor with AZD6244 induced expression of BIM and polyADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage, whereas activation of the STAT3 pathway inhibited BIM expression and elicited resistance to MEK inhibitors. We found that the STAT3-regulated microRNA miR-17 played a critical role in MEK inhibitor resistance, such that miR-17 inhibition sensitized resistant cells to AZD6244 by inducing BIM and PARP cleavage. Together, these results indicated that STAT3-mediated overexpression of miR-17 blocked BIM expression and caused resistance to AZD6244. Our findings suggest novel approaches to overcome resistance to MEK inhibitors by combining AZD6244 with STAT3 or miR-17 inhibitors.
Gene expression profiling; MEK inhibitor resistance; AZD6244; STAT3 pathway; miR-17
FUS1, also known as tumor suppressor candidate 2 (TUSC2), is a tumor suppressor gene located in the human chromosome 3p21.3 region. FUS1 mRNA transcripts could be detected on Northern blots in both normal lung and some lung cancer cell lines, but no endogenous FUS1 protein could be detected in a majority of lung cancer cell lines and small cell and non-small cell lung tumor tissues. However, mechanisms regulating FUS1 protein expression and its inactivation in primary lung cancer cells are largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of the 5′- and 3′-untranslated regions (UTRs) of the FUS1 gene transcript in the regulation of FUS1 protein expression. We identified RNA sequence elements in FUS1 UTRs that regulate FUS1 protein expression. We found that two small upstream open-reading frames in the 5 UTR of FUS1 mRNA could inhibit the translational initiation of FUS1 protein by interfering with the “scanning” of the ribosome initiation complexes. Several secondary RNA structural elements/motifs on the 3′UTR of FUS1 also exhibited a significant inhibitory effect on FUS1 protein expression. The 3′UTR-mediated regulatory effect on FUS1 protein expression was also differentially detected in normal lung epithelial and fibroblast cells compared with lung cancer cells. Our results provide new insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of FUS1 expression.
FUS1/TUSC2; Tumor suppressor gene; Lung cancer; untranslated region (UTR); upstream open reading frame (uORF); expression regulation
The present study examined mothers’ and fathers’ attributions and attitudes related to parenting in China.
Interviews were conducted with 241 pairs of parents to obtain maternal and paternal reports of attributions regarding successes and failures in parent-child interactions and on progressive versus authoritarian attitudes about parenting.
Mothers’ mean levels of attributions and attitudes did not differ significantly from fathers’ mean levels of attributions and attitudes. Significant correlations were found between mothers’ and fathers’ attributions regarding uncontrollable success, authoritarian attitudes, and modernity of attitudes.
Supporting the cultural evolutionary view that drastic social changes bring about non-conforming and individualistic behavioral tendencies, these findings rectify and expand the existing literature portraying Chinese parenting as uniformly Confucian and traditional.
Appropriate patient selection is needed for targeted therapies that are efficacious only in patients with specific genetic alterations. We aimed to define subgroups of patients with candidate driver genes in patients with non-small cell lung cancer.
Patients with primary lung cancer who underwent clinical genetic tests at Guangdong General Hospital were enrolled. Driver genes were detected by sequencing, high-resolution melt analysis, qPCR, or multiple PCR and RACE methods.
524 patients were enrolled in this study, and the differences in driver gene alterations among subgroups were analyzed based on histology and smoking status. In a subgroup of non-smokers with adenocarcinoma, EGFR was the most frequently altered gene, with a mutation rate of 49.8%, followed by EML4-ALK (9.3%), PTEN (9.1%), PIK3CA (5.2%), c-Met (4.8%), KRAS (4.5%), STK11 (2.7%), and BRAF (1.9%). The three most frequently altered genes in a subgroup of smokers with adenocarcinoma were EGFR (22.0%), STK11 (19.0%), and KRAS (12.0%). We only found EGFR (8.0%), c-Met (2.8%), and PIK3CA (2.6%) alterations in the non-smoker with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) subgroup. PTEN (16.1%), STK11 (8.3%), and PIK3CA (7.2%) were the three most frequently enriched genes in smokers with SCC. DDR2 and FGFR2 only presented in smokers with SCC (4.4% and 2.2%, respectively). Among these four subgroups, the differences in EGFR, KRAS, and PTEN mutations were statistically significant.
The distinct features of driver gene alterations in different subgroups based on histology and smoking status were helpful in defining patients for future clinical trials that target these genes. This study also suggests that we may consider patients with infrequent alterations of driver genes as having rare or orphan diseases that should be managed with special molecularly targeted therapies.
The c-Met receptor tyrosine kinase has been implicated in cellular transformation induced by mutant Ras, a commonly activated proto-oncogene in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the role of c-Met has not been defined in K-ras-mutant NSCLC, a disease for which no effective targeted therapeutic options currently exist. To acquire a greater understanding of its role, we used genetic and pharmacologic approaches to inhibit c-Met in mice and cultured cells. In KrasLA1 mice, which develop premalignant lung lesions that progress to multifocal lung adenocarcinomas owing to somatic mutations in K-ras, c-Met was expressed in multiple cell types within premalignant lung lesions, and high concentrations of HGF were detected in bronchoalveolar lavage samples. Short-term treatment with PHA-665752, a c-Met inhibitor, decreased the numbers of premalignant lung lesions and induced apoptosis in tumor cells and vascular endothelial cells within lesions. In cell culture, PHA-665752 induced apoptosis of a lung adenocarcinoma cell line derived from KrasLA1 mice (LKR-13) and a murine lung endothelial cell line (MEC). c-Met depletion by siRNA transfection induced apoptosis of MECs but not LKR-13 cells. Collectively, these findings suggest that apoptosis was an on-target effect of PHA-665752 in MECs but not in LKR-13 cells. We conclude that PHA-665752 inhibited lung tumorigenesis in KrasLA1 mice and may provide a novel therapeutic approach to the prevention of K-ras-mutant NSCLC. [Mol Cancer Ther 2008;7(4):952–60]
The candidate tumor suppressor fragile histidine traid (FHIT) is frequently inactivated in small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Mutations in the p53 gene also occur in the majority of SCLC leading to the accumulation of the mutant protein. Here we evaluated the effect of FHIT gene therapy alone or in combination with the mutant p53-reactivating molecule, PRIMA-1Met/APR-246, in SCLC. Overexpression of FHIT by recombinant adenoviral vector (Ad-FHIT)-mediated gene transfer in SCLC cells inhibited their growth by inducing apoptosis and when combined with PRIMA-1Met/APR-246, a synergistic cell growth inhibition was achieved.
Tumor suppressor gene; SCLC; FHIT; p53
FUS1 is a novel tumor suppressor gene identified in the human chromosome 3p21.3 region where allele losses and genetic alterations occur early and frequently for many human cancers. Expression of FUS1 protein is absent or reduced in the majority of lung cancers and premalignant lung lesions. Restoration of wt-FUS1 function in 3p21.3-deficient non-small cell lung carcinoma cells significantly inhibits tumor cell growth by induction of apoptosis and alteration of cell cycle kinetics. Here we present recent findings indicating that FUS1 induces apoptosis through the activation of the intrinsic mitochondrial-dependent and Apaf-1-associated pathways and inhibits the function of protein tyrosine kinases including EGFR, PDGFR, AKT, c-Abl, and c-Kit. Intravenous administration of a nanoparticle encapsulated FUS1 expression plasmid effectively delivers FUS1 to distant tumor sites and mediates an antitumor effect in orthotopic human lung cancer xenograft models. This approach is the rationale for an ongoing FUS1-nanoparticle-mediated gene delivery clinical trial for the treatment of lung cancer.
Tumor suppressor gene; FUS1; Signaling pathway; Lung cancer
Protein–protein interactions are key elements in the assembly of cellular regulatory and signaling protein complexes that integrate and transmit signals and information in controlling and regulating various cellular processes and functions. Many conventional methods of studying protein–protein interaction, such as the immuno-precipitation and immuno-blotting assay and the affinity-column pull-down and chromatographic analysis, are very time-consuming and labor intensive and lack accuracy and sensitivity. We have developed a simple, rapid, and sensitive assay using a ProteinChip array and SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry to analyze protein–protein interactions and map the crucial elements that are directly involved in these interactions. First, a purified “bait” protein or a synthetic peptide of interest is immobilized onto the pre-activated surface of a PS10 or PS20 ProteinChip and the unoccupied surfaces on the chip are protected by application of a layer ethanolamine to prevent them from binding to other non-interactive proteins. Then, the target-containing cellular protein lysate or synthetic peptide containing the predicted amino acid sequence of protein-interaction motif is applied to the protected array with immobilized bait protein/ peptide. The nonspecific proteins/peptides are washed off under various stringent conditions and only the proteins specifically interacting with the bait protein/peptide remain on the chip. Last, the captured interacting protein/peptide complexes are then analyzed by SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry and their identities are confirmed by their predicted distinctive masses. This method can be used to unambiguously detect the specific protein–protein interaction of known proteins/peptides, to easily identify potential cellular targets of proteins of interest, and to accurately analyze and map the structural elements of a given protein and its target proteins using synthetic peptides with the predicted potential protein interaction motifs.
SELDI-TOF-MS; ProteinChip; Peptide interactions; SEND-ID; Fus1; Apaf1
Protein phosphorylation is a dynamic post-translational modification that plays a critical role in the regulation of a wide spectrum of biological events and cellular functions including signal transduction, gene expression, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. Determination of the sites and magnitudes of protein phosphorylation has been an essential step in the analysis of the control of many biological systems. A high throughput analysis of phosphorylation of proteins would provide a simple, logical, and useful tool for a functional dissection and prediction of biological functions and signaling pathways in association with these important molecular events. We have developed a functional proteomics technique using the ProteinChip array-based SELDI-TOF-MS analysis for high throughput profiling of phosphoproteins/phosphopeptides in human serum for the early detection and diagnosis as well as for the molecular staging of human cancer. The methodology and experimental approach consists of five steps: (1) generation of a total peptide pool of serum proteins by a global trypsin digestion; (2) rapid isolation of phosphopeptides from the total serum peptide pool by an affinity selection, purification, and enrichment using a novel automated micro-bioprocessing system with phospho-antibody-conjugated paramagnetic beads and a hybrid magnet plate; (3) high throughput phosphopeptide analysis on ProteinChip arrays by automated SELDI-TOF-MS; and (4) bioinformatics and statistical methods for data analysis. This method with appropriate modifications may be equally applicable to serine-, threonine- and tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins and for selectively isolating, profiling, and identifying phosphopeptides present in a highly complex phosphor-peptide mixture prepared from various human specimens such as cells, tissue samples, and serum and other body fluids.
Phosphoprotein; Phosphopeptide; Phosphoproteome; High throughput Phospoprotein/Peptide Profiling; ProteinChip Arrays; SELDI-TOF-MS
To determine whether MRI in combination with an intravascular contrast agent is sensitive to pharmacologically-induced vasodilation and vasoconstriction in the rat kidney.
Materials and methods
R2 imaging was performed in 25 Sprague Dawley rats at 3 tesla in the presence of ferumoxytol, an ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) agent with a long plasma half-life. R2 changes were measured following manipulation of blood volume by intravenous administration of adenosine, a short-acting vasodilator, or NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME), a long-acting nitric oxide synthase inhibitor with known vasoconstrictive effects. As a control, R2 responses to adenosine and l-NAME were also examined in the absence of ferumoxytol.
In the presence of ferumoxytol, adenosine induced a significant increase in R2, while l-NAME produced a reduction, although the latter was not statistically significant. Control experiments revealed small R2 changes in the absence of ferumoxytol. An incidental finding was that the cross-sectional area of the kidney also varied dynamically with adenosine and l-NAME.
Our results suggest that ferumoxytol-enhanced R2 imaging is sensitive to adenosine-induced vasodilation. The responses to l-NAME, however, were not statistically significant. The variations in kidney size and the R2 changes in the absence of ferumoxytol may reflect alterations in the volume of the renal tubules.
MRI; kidney; blood volume; USPIO; renal tubules
Tumor suppressor gene TUSC2/FUS1 (TUSC2) is frequently inactivated early in lung cancer development. TUSC2 mediates apoptosis in cancer cells but not normal cells by upregulation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. No drug strategies currently exist targeting loss-of–function genetic abnormalities. We report the first in-human systemic gene therapy clinical trial of tumor suppressor gene TUSC2.
Patients with recurrent and/or metastatic lung cancer previously treated with platinum-based chemotherapy were treated with escalating doses of intravenous N-[1-(2,3-dioleoyloxy)propyl]-N,N,N-trimethylammonium chloride (DOTAP):cholesterol nanoparticles encapsulating a TUSC2 expression plasmid (DOTAP:chol-TUSC2) every 3 weeks.
Thirty-one patients were treated at 6 dose levels (range 0.01 to 0.09 milligrams per kilogram). The MTD was determined to be 0.06 mg/kg. Five patients achieved stable disease (2.6–10.8 months, including 2 minor responses). One patient had a metabolic response on positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. RT-PCR analysis detected TUSC2 plasmid expression in 7 of 8 post-treatment tumor specimens but not in pretreatment specimens and peripheral blood lymphocyte controls. Proximity ligation assay, performed on paired biopsies from 3 patients, demonstrated low background TUSC2 protein staining in pretreatment tissues compared with intense (10–25 fold increase) TUSC2 protein staining in post-treatment tissues. RT-PCR gene expression profiling analysis of apoptotic pathway genes in two patients with high post-treatment levels of TUSC2 mRNA and protein showed significant post-treatment changes in the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Twenty-nine genes of the 82 tested in the apoptosis array were identified by Igenuity Pathway Analysis to be significantly altered post-treatment in both patients (Pearson correlation coefficient 0.519; p<0.01).
DOTAP:chol-TUSC2 can be safely administered intravenously in lung cancer patients and results in uptake of the gene by human primary and metastatic tumors, transgene and gene product expression, specific alterations in TUSC2-regulated pathways, and anti-tumor effects (to our knowledge for the first time for systemic DOTAP:cholesterol nanoparticle gene therapy).
α-Lipoic acid (LA) is a thiol with antioxidant properties that protects against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. LA is absorbed from the diet, taken up by cells and tissues, and subsequently reduced to dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA). In view of the recent application of DHLA as a hydrophilic nanomaterial preparation, determination of its biosafety profile is essential. In the current study, we examined the cytotoxic effects of DHLA on mouse embryos at the blastocyst stage, subsequent embryonic attachment and outgrowth in vitro, in vivo implantation by embryo transfer, and early embryonic development in an animal model. Blastocysts treated with 50 μM DHLA exhibited significantly increased apoptosis and a corresponding decrease in total cell number. Notably, the implantation success rates of blastocysts pretreated with DHLA were lower than that of their control counterparts. Moreover, in vitro treatment with 50 μM DHLA was associated with increased resorption of post-implantation embryos and decreased fetal weight. Data obtained using an in vivo mouse model further disclosed that consumption of drinking water containing 100 μM DHLA led to decreased early embryo development, specifically, inhibition of development to the blastocyst stage. However, it appears that concentrations of DHLA lower than 50 μM do not exert a hazardous effect on embryonic development. Our results collectively indicate that in vitro and in vivo exposure to concentrations of DHLA higher than 50 μM DHLA induces apoptosis and retards early pre- and post-implantation development, and support the potential of DHLA to induce embryonic cytotoxicity.
dihydrolipoic acid; blastocyst; apoptosis; embryonic development
Whether Folic acid is a potential drug that may prevent the progression of colorectal carcinoma and when to use are important healthy issues we focus on. Our study is to examine the effect of folic acid on the development of the CRC and the optimal time folic acid should be provided in a mouse-ICR model induced by 1, 2-Dimethylhydrazine. Also, we investigated the gene expression profile of this model related to folic acid.
Female ICR mouse (n = 130) were divided into 7 groups either with the treatment of 1, 2-Dimethylhydrazine (20 mg/kg bodyweight) weekly or folic acid (8 mg/kg bodyweight) twice a week for 12 or 24 weeks. Using a 4 × 44 K Agilent whole genome oligo microarray assay, different gene expression among groups (NS, DMH, FA2, FA3) were identified and selected genes were validated by real-time polymerase chain reaction.
Animals with a supplementary of folic acid showed a significant decrease in the incidence, the maximum diameter and multiplicity of adenocarcinomas (P < 0.05). Furthermore, there were fewer adenomas or adenocarcinomas developed in the group of folic acid supplementation in pre-adenoma stage compared to group of post-adenoma stage. Meanwhile, about 1070 genes that were changed by 1, 2-Dimethylhydrazine can be reversed by folic acid and 172 differentially genes were identified between the groups of pre- and post- adenoma stage using microarray gene expression analysis.
Our study demonstrated that folic acid supplementary was significantly associated with the decrease risk of CRC. And the subgroup of providing folic acid without precancerous lesions was more effective than that with precancerous lesions.