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author:("Gao, xiaoming")
1.  Quantitative evaluation of fucose reducing effects in a humanized antibody on Fcγ receptor binding and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity activities 
mAbs  2012;4(3):326-340.
The presence or absence of core fucose in the Fc region N-linked glycans of antibodies affects their binding affinity toward FcγRIIIa as well as their antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity. However, the quantitative nature of this structure-function relationship remains unclear. In this study, the in vitro biological activity of an afucosylated anti-CD20 antibody was fully characterized. Further, the effect of fucose reduction on Fc effector functions was quantitatively evaluated using the afucosylated antibody, its “regular” fucosylated counterpart and a series of mixtures containing varying proportions of “regular” and afucosylated materials. Compared with the “regular” fucosylated antibody, the afucosylated antibody demonstrated similar binding interactions with the target antigen (CD20), C1q and FcγRIa, moderate increases in binding to FcγRIIa and IIb, and substantially increased binding to FcγRIIIa. The afucosylated antibodies also showed comparable complement-dependent cytotoxicity activity but markedly increased ADCC activity. Based on EC50 values derived from dose-response curves, our results indicate that the amount of afucosylated glycan in antibody samples correlate with both FcγRIIIa binding activity and ADCC activity in a linear fashion. Furthermore, the extent of ADCC enhancement due to fucose depletion was not affected by the FcγRIIIa genotype of the effector cells.
PMCID: PMC3355491  PMID: 22531441
afucosylated antibody; antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity; FcγRIIIA; fucosylation; glycoform variants; Glycosylation; monoclonal antibody
2.  Automated detection of genetic abnormalities combined with cytology in sputum is a sensitive predictor of lung cancer 
Modern Pathology  2008;21(8):950-960.
Detection of lung cancer by sputum cytology has low sensitivity but is noninvasive and, if improved, could be a powerful tool for early lung cancer detection. To evaluate whether the accuracy of diagnosing lung cancer by evaluating sputa for cytologic atypia and genetic abnormalities is greater than that of conventional cytology alone, automated scoring of genetic abnormalities for 3p22.1 and 10q22.3 (SP-A) by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and conventional cytology was done on sputa from 35 subjects with lung cancer, 25 high-risk smokers, and 6 healthy control subjects. Multivariate analysis was performed to select variables that most accurately predicted lung cancer. A model of probability for the presence of lung cancer was derived for each subject. Cells exfoliated from patients with lung cancer contained genetic aberrations and cytologic atypias at significantly higher levels than in those from control subjects. When combined with cytologic atypia, a model of risk for lung cancer was derived that had 74% sensitivity and 82% specificity to predict the presence of lung cancer, whereas conventional cytology achieved only 37% sensitivity and 87% specificity. For diagnosing lung cancer in sputum, a combination of molecular and cytologic variables was superior to using conventional cytology alone.
PMCID: PMC3377448  PMID: 18500269
surfactant protein A gene; 3p22.1; FISH; cytology; field cancerization effect; sputum
3.  Abnormal iron metabolism and oxidative stress in mice expressing a mutant form of the ferritin light polypeptide gene 
Journal of neurochemistry  2009;109(4):1067-1078.
Insertional mutations in exon 4 of the ferritin light chain (FTL) gene are associated with hereditary ferritinopathy (HF) or neuroferritinopathy, an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive impairment of motor and cognitive functions. To determine the pathogenic mechanisms by which mutations in FTL lead to neurodegeneration, we investigated iron metabolism and markers of oxidative stress in the brain of transgenic (Tg) mice that express the mutant human FTL498-499InsTC cDNA. Compared with wild-type mice, brain extracts from Tg (FTL-Tg) mice showed an increase in the cytoplasmic levels of both FTL and ferritin heavy chain polypeptides, a decrease in the protein and mRNA levels of transferrin receptor-1, and a significant increase in iron levels. Transgenic mice also showed the presence of markers for lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls, and nitrone–protein adducts in the brain. However, gene expression analysis of iron management proteins in the liver of Tg mice indicates that the FTL-Tg mouse liver is iron deficient. Our data suggest that disruption of iron metabolism in the brain has a primary role in the process of neurodegeneration in HF and that the pathogenesis of HF is likely to result from a combination of reduction in iron storage function and enhanced toxicity associated with iron-induced ferritin aggregates in the brain.
PMCID: PMC2696070  PMID: 19519778
animal model; hereditary ferritinopathy; neuroferritinopathy
4.  Expression of a Mutant Form of the Ferritin Light Chain Gene Induces Neurodegeneration and Iron Overload in Transgenic Mice 
Increased iron levels and iron-mediated oxidative stress play an important role in the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative diseases. The finding that mutations in the ferritin light polypeptide (FTL) gene cause a neurodegenerative disease known as neuroferritinopathy or hereditary ferritinopathy (HF) provided a direct connection between abnormal brain iron storage and neurodegeneration. HF is characterized by a severe movement disorder and by the presence of nuclear and cytoplasmic ferritin inclusion bodies in glia and neurons throughout the CNS and in tissues of multiple organ systems. Here we report that the expression in transgenic mice of a human FTL cDNA carrying a thymidine and cytidine insertion at position 498 (FTL498 – 499InsTC) leads to the formation of nuclear and cytoplasmic ferritin inclusion bodies. As in HF, ferritin inclusions are seen in glia and neurons throughout the CNS as well as in cells of other organ systems. Our studies show histological, immunohistochemical, and biochemical similarities between ferritin inclusion bodies found in transgenic mice and in individuals with HF. Expression of the transgene in mice leads to a significant decrease in motor performance and a shorter life span, formation of ferritin inclusion bodies, misregulation of iron metabolism, accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins, and incorporation of elements of the proteasome into inclusions. This new transgenic mouse represents a relevant model of HF in which to study the pathways that lead to neurodegeneration in HF, to evaluate the role of iron mismanagement in neurodegenerative disorders, and to evaluate potential therapies for HF and related neurodegenerative diseases.
PMCID: PMC2394191  PMID: 18171923
neurodegeneration; hereditary ferritinopathy; nuclear inclusion; CNS; iron; ferritin

Results 1-4 (4)