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1.  Rare variants of large effect in BRCA2 and CHEK2 affect risk of lung cancer 
Wang, Yufei | McKay, James D. | Rafnar, Thorunn | Wang, Zhaoming | Timofeeva, Maria | Broderick, Peter | Zong, Xuchen | Laplana, Marina | Wei, Yongyue | Han, Younghun | Lloyd, Amy | Delahaye-Sourdeix, Manon | Chubb, Daniel | Gaborieau, Valerie | Wheeler, William | Chatterjee, Nilanjan | Thorleifsson, Gudmar | Sulem, Patrick | Liu, Geoffrey | Kaaks, Rudolf | Henrion, Marc | Kinnersley, Ben | Vallée, Maxime | LeCalvez-Kelm, Florence | Stevens, Victoria L. | Gapstur, Susan M. | Chen, Wei V. | Zaridze, David | Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonilia | Lissowska, Jolanta | Rudnai, Peter | Fabianova, Eleonora | Mates, Dana | Bencko, Vladimir | Foretova, Lenka | Janout, Vladimir | Krokan, Hans E. | Gabrielsen, Maiken Elvestad | Skorpen, Frank | Vatten, Lars | Njølstad, Inger | Chen, Chu | Goodman, Gary | Benhamou, Simone | Vooder, Tonu | Valk, Kristjan | Nelis, Mari | Metspalu, Andres | Lener, Marcin | Lubiński, Jan | Johansson, Mattias | Vineis, Paolo | Agudo, Antonio | Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise | Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.Bas | Trichopoulos, Dimitrios | Khaw, Kay-Tee | Johansson, Mikael | Weiderpass, Elisabete | Tjønneland, Anne | Riboli, Elio | Lathrop, Mark | Scelo, Ghislaine | Albanes, Demetrius | Caporaso, Neil E. | Ye, Yuanqing | Gu, Jian | Wu, Xifeng | Spitz, Margaret R. | Dienemann, Hendrik | Rosenberger, Albert | Su, Li | Matakidou, Athena | Eisen, Timothy | Stefansson, Kari | Risch, Angela | Chanock, Stephen J. | Christiani, David C. | Hung, Rayjean J. | Brennan, Paul | Landi, Maria Teresa | Houlston, Richard S. | Amos, Christopher I.
Nature genetics  2014;46(7):736-741.
We conducted imputation to the 1000 Genomes Project of four genome-wide association studies of lung cancer in populations of European ancestry (11,348 cases and 15,861 controls) and genotyped an additional 10,246 cases and 38,295 controls for follow-up. We identified large-effect genome-wide associations for squamous lung cancer with the rare variants of BRCA2-K3326X (rs11571833; odds ratio [OR]=2.47, P=4.74×10−20) and of CHEK2-I157T (rs17879961; OR=0.38 P=1.27×10−13). We also showed an association between common variation at 3q28 (TP63; rs13314271; OR=1.13, P=7.22×10−10) and lung adenocarcinoma previously only reported in Asians. These findings provide further evidence for inherited genetic susceptibility to lung cancer and its biological basis. Additionally, our analysis demonstrates that imputation can identify rare disease-causing variants having substantive effects on cancer risk from pre-existing GWAS data.
PMCID: PMC4074058  PMID: 24880342
2.  Pleiotropic Associations of Risk Variants Identified for Other Cancers With Lung Cancer Risk: The PAGE and TRICL Consortia 
Genome-wide association studies have identified hundreds of genetic variants associated with specific cancers. A few of these risk regions have been associated with more than one cancer site; however, a systematic evaluation of the associations between risk variants for other cancers and lung cancer risk has yet to be performed.
We included 18023 patients with lung cancer and 60543 control subjects from two consortia, Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) and Transdisciplinary Research in Cancer of the Lung (TRICL). We examined 165 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were previously associated with at least one of 16 non–lung cancer sites. Study-specific logistic regression results underwent meta-analysis, and associations were also examined by race/ethnicity, histological cell type, sex, and smoking status. A Bonferroni-corrected P value of 2.5×10–5 was used to assign statistical significance.
The breast cancer SNP LSP1 rs3817198 was associated with an increased risk of lung cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 1.10; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05 to 1.14; P = 2.8×10–6). This association was strongest for women with adenocarcinoma (P = 1.2×10–4) and not statistically significant in men (P = .14) with this cell type (P het by sex = .10). Two glioma risk variants, TERT rs2853676 and CDKN2BAS1 rs4977756, which are located in regions previously associated with lung cancer, were associated with increased risk of adenocarcinoma (OR = 1.16; 95% CI = 1.10 to 1.22; P = 1.1×10–8) and squamous cell carcinoma (OR = 1.13; CI = 1.07 to 1.19; P = 2.5×10–5), respectively.
Our findings demonstrate a novel pleiotropic association between the breast cancer LSP1 risk region marked by variant rs3817198 and lung cancer risk.
PMCID: PMC3982896  PMID: 24681604
3.  Common variation at 2q22.3 (ZEB2) influences the risk of renal cancer 
Human Molecular Genetics  2012;22(4):825-831.
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of renal cell cancer (RCC) have identified four susceptibility loci thus far. To identify an additional RCC common susceptibility locus, we conducted a GWAS and performed a meta-analysis with published GWASs (totalling 2215 cases and 8566 controls of European background) and followed up the most significant association signals [nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in eight genomic regions] in 3739 cases and 8786 controls. A combined analysis identified a novel susceptibility locus mapping to 2q22.3 marked by rs12105918 (P = 1.80 × 10−8; odds ratio 1.29, 95% CI: 1.18–1.41). The signal localizes to intron 2 of the ZEB2 gene (zinc finger E box-binding homeobox 2). Our findings suggest that genetic variation in ZEB2 influences the risk of RCC. This finding provides further insights into the genetic and biological basis of inherited genetic susceptibility to RCC.
PMCID: PMC3554205  PMID: 23184150
4.  Influence of common genetic variation on lung cancer risk: meta-analysis of 14 900 cases and 29 485 controls 
Human Molecular Genetics  2012;21(22):4980-4995.
Recent genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified common genetic variants at 5p15.33, 6p21–6p22 and 15q25.1 associated with lung cancer risk. Several other genetic regions including variants of CHEK2 (22q12), TP53BP1 (15q15) and RAD52 (12p13) have been demonstrated to influence lung cancer risk in candidate- or pathway-based analyses. To identify novel risk variants for lung cancer, we performed a meta-analysis of 16 GWASs, totaling 14 900 cases and 29 485 controls of European descent. Our data provided increased support for previously identified risk loci at 5p15 (P = 7.2 × 10−16), 6p21 (P = 2.3 × 10−14) and 15q25 (P = 2.2 × 10−63). Furthermore, we demonstrated histology-specific effects for 5p15, 6p21 and 12p13 loci but not for the 15q25 region. Subgroup analysis also identified a novel disease locus for squamous cell carcinoma at 9p21 (CDKN2A/p16INK4A/p14ARF/CDKN2B/p15INK4B/ANRIL; rs1333040, P = 3.0 × 10−7) which was replicated in a series of 5415 Han Chinese (P = 0.03; combined analysis, P = 2.3 × 10−8). This large analysis provides additional evidence for the role of inherited genetic susceptibility to lung cancer and insight into biological differences in the development of the different histological types of lung cancer.
PMCID: PMC3607485  PMID: 22899653
5.  Inherited variation at chromosome 12p13.33 including RAD52 influences squamous cell lung carcinoma risk 
Cancer Discovery  2011;2(2):131-139.
While lung cancer is largely caused by tobacco smoking, inherited genetic factors play a role in its etiology. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in Europeans have robustly demonstrated only three polymorphic variations influencing lung cancer risk. Tumor heterogeneity may have hampered the detection of association signal when all lung cancer subtypes were analyzed together. In a GWAS of 5,355 European smoking lung cancer cases and 4,344 smoking controls, we conducted a pathway-based analysis in lung cancer histologic subtypes with 19,082 SNPs mapping to 917 genes in the HuGE-defined “inflammation” pathway. We identified a susceptibility locus for squamous cell lung carcinoma (SQ) at 12p13.33 (RAD52, rs6489769), and replicated the association in three independent samples totaling 3,359 SQ cases and 9,100 controls (odds ratio=1.20, Pcombined=2.3×10−8).
The combination of pathway-based approaches and information on disease specific subtypes can improve the identification of cancer susceptibility loci in heterogeneous diseases.
PMCID: PMC3354721  PMID: 22585858
Lung cancer; histology; squamous cell carcinoma; pathway analysis; RAD52
6.  Chromosome 15q25 (CHRNA3-CHRNA5) Variation Impacts Indirectly on Lung Cancer Risk 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(4):e19085.
Genetic variants at the 15q25 CHRNA5-CHRNA3 locus have been shown to influence lung cancer risk however there is controversy as to whether variants have a direct carcinogenic effect on lung cancer risk or impact indirectly through smoking behavior. We have performed a detailed analysis of the 15q25 risk variants rs12914385 and rs8042374 with smoking behavior and lung cancer risk in 4,343 lung cancer cases and 1,479 controls from the Genetic Lung Cancer Predisposition Study (GELCAPS). A strong association between rs12914385 and rs8042374, and lung cancer risk was shown, odds ratios (OR) were 1.44, (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.29–1.62, P = 3.69×10−10) and 1.35 (95% CI: 1.18–1.55, P = 9.99×10−6) respectively. Each copy of risk alleles at rs12914385 and rs8042374 was associated with increased cigarette consumption of 1.0 and 0.9 cigarettes per day (CPD) (P = 5.18×10−5 and P = 5.65×10−3). These genetically determined modest differences in smoking behavior can be shown to be sufficient to account for the 15q25 association with lung cancer risk. To further verify the indirect effect of 15q25 on the risk, we restricted our analysis of lung cancer risk to never-smokers and conducted a meta-analysis of previously published studies of lung cancer risk in never-smokers. Never-smoker studies published in English were ascertained from PubMed stipulating - lung cancer, risk, genome-wide association, candidate genes. Our study and five previously published studies provided data on 2,405 never-smoker lung cancer cases and 7,622 controls. In the pooled analysis no association has been found between the 15q25 variation and lung cancer risk (OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 0.94–1.28). This study affirms the 15q25 association with smoking and is consistent with an indirect link between genotype and lung cancer risk.
PMCID: PMC3084737  PMID: 21559498
7.  Deciphering the impact of common genetic variation on lung cancer risk: A genome-wide association study 
Cancer research  2009;69(16):6633-6641.
To explore the impact of common variation on the risk of developing lung cancer we conducted a two-phase genome-wide association (GWA) study. In Phase 1, we compared the genotypes of 511,919 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs) in 1,952 cases and 1,438 controls; in Phase 2, 30,568 SNPs were genotyped in 2,465 cases and 3,005 controls. SNP selection was based on best supported P-values from Phase 1 and two other GWA studies of lung cancer. In the combined analysis of Phases 1 and 2, the strongest associations identified were defined by SNPs mapping to 15q25.1 (rs12914385; P = 3.19 × 10−16), 5p15.33 (rs4975616; P = 6.66 × 10−7), and 6p21.33 (rs3117582; P = 9.13 × 10−7). Variation at 15q25.1, but not 5p15.33 or 6p21.33, was strongly associated with smoking behaviour with risk alleles correlated to higher consumption. Variation at 5p15.33 was shown to significantly influence induction of lung cancer histology. Pooling data from the four series provided 21,620 genotypes for 7,560 cases and 8,205 controls. A meta-analysis provided increased support that variation at 15q25.1 (rs8034191; P = 3.24 × 10−26), 5p15.33 (rs4975616; P = 2.99 × 10−9), and 6p21.33 (rs3117582; P = 4.46 × 10−10) influences lung cancer risk. The next best-supported associations were attained at 15q15.2 (rs748404: P = 1.08 × 10−6) and 10q23.31 (rs1926203; P = 1.28 × 10−6). These data indicate few common variants account for 1% of the excess familial risk underscoring the necessity of having additional large sample series for gene discovery.
PMCID: PMC2754318  PMID: 19654303
lung cancer; genome-wide association
8.  Common 5p15.33 and 6p21.33 variants influence lung cancer risk 
Nature genetics  2008;40(12):1407-1409.
We conducted a genome-wide association (GWA) study of lung cancer comparing 511,919 SNP genotypes in 1,952 cases and 1,438 controls. The most significant association was attained at 15q25.1 (rs8042374; P = 7.75 × 10−12), confirming recent observations. Pooling data with two other GWA studies (5,095 cases, 5,200 controls) and with replication in an additional 2,484 cases and 3,036 controls, we identified two newly associated risk loci mapping to 6p21.33 (rs3117582, BAT3-MSH5; Pcombined = 4.97 × 10−10) and 5p15.33 (rs401681, CLPTM1L; Pcombined = 7.90 × 10−9).
PMCID: PMC2695928  PMID: 18978787
9.  Familial Aggregation of Common Sequence Variants on 15q24-25.1 in Lung Cancer 
Three recent genome-wide association studies identified associations between markers in the chromosomal region 15q24-25.1 and the risk of lung cancer. We conducted a genome-wide association analysis to investigate associations between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and the risk of lung cancer, in which we used blood DNA from 194 case patients with familial lung cancer and 219 cancer-free control subjects. We identified associations between common sequence variants at 15q24-25.1 (that spanned LOC123688 [a hypothetical gene], PSMA4, CHRNA3, CHRNA5, and CHRNB4) and lung cancer. The risk of lung cancer was more than fivefold higher among those subjects who had both a family history of lung cancer and two copies of high-risk alleles rs8034191 (odds ratio [OR] = 7.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.21 to 23.37) or rs1051730 (OR = 5.67, CI = 2.21 to 14.60, both of which were located in the 15q24-25.1 locus, than among control subjects. Thus, further research to elucidate causal variants in the 15q24-25.1 locus that are associated with lung cancer is warranted.
PMCID: PMC2538550  PMID: 18780872
10.  Genome-wide association scan of tag SNPs identifies a susceptibility locus for lung cancer at 15q25.1 
Nature genetics  2008;40(5):616-622.
To identify risk variants for lung cancer, we conducted a multistage genome-wide association study. In the discovery phase, we analyzed 315,450 tagging SNPs in 1,154 current and former (ever) smoking cases of European ancestry and 1,137 frequency-matched, ever-smoking controls from Houston, Texas. For replication, we evaluated the ten SNPs most significantly associated with lung cancer in an additional 711 cases and 632 controls from Texas and 2,013 cases and 3,062 controls from the UK. Two SNPs, rs1051730 and rs8034191, mapping to a region of strong linkage disequilibrium within 15q25.1 containing PSMA4 and the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit genes CHRNA3 and CHRNA5, were significantly associated with risk in both replication sets. Combined analysis yielded odds ratios of 1.32 (P < 1 × 10−17) for both SNPs. Haplotype analysis was consistent with there being a single risk variant in this region. We conclude that variation in a region of 15q25.1 containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors genes contributes to lung cancer risk.
PMCID: PMC2713680  PMID: 18385676

Results 1-10 (10)