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1.  Status and future of Quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessment in China 
Since the implementation of the Food Safety Law of the People's Republic of China in 2009 use of Quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessment (QMRA) has increased. QMRA is used to assess the risk posed to consumers by pathogenic bacteria which cause the majority of foodborne outbreaks in China. This review analyses the progress of QMRA research in China from 2000 to 2013 and discusses 3 possible improvements for the future. These improvements include planning and scoping to initiate QMRA, effectiveness of microbial risk assessment utility for risk management decision making, and application of QMRA to establish appropriate Food Safety Objectives.
Highlights
•The current picture of food safety in China is reviewed.•Current QMRA research in China is reviewed.•The effect of data collection on risk assessments in China is highlighted.•The role of the FSO in Chinese food safety is discussed.•The progression and organization of food safety research and QMRA based decision making in China is outlined.
doi:10.1016/j.tifs.2014.12.003
PMCID: PMC4460287  PMID: 26089594
2.  Knockdown of VEGFR2 Inhibits Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis in Hemangioma-Derived Endothelial Cells 
Angiogenesis is a process of development and growth of new capillary blood vessels from pre-existing vessels. Angiogenic growth factors play important roles in the development and maintenance of some malignancies, of which vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/VEGFR2 interactions are involved in proliferation, migration, and survival of many cancer cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the function of VEGFR2 in human hemangiomas (HAs). Using immunohistochemistry assay, we examined the expression levels of VEGF, VEGFR2, Ki-67, glucose transporter-1 (Glut-1), phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-AKT) and p-ERK in different phases of human HAs. Positive expression of VEGF, VEGFR2, Ki-67, Glut-1, p-AKT and p-ERK was significantly increased in proliferating phase HAs, while decreased in involuting phase HAs (P=0.001; P=0.003). In contrast, cell apoptotic indexes were decreased in proliferating phase HAs, but increased in involuting phase HAs (P<0.01). Furthermore, we used small hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated VEGFR2 knockdown in primary HA-derived endothelial cells (HemECs) to understand the role of VEGF/VEGFR2 signaling. Knockdown of VEGFR2 by Lv-shVEGFR2 inhibited cell viability and induced apoptosis in primary HemECs companied with decreased expression of p-AKT, p-ERK, p-p38MAPK and Ki-67 and increased expression of caspase-3 (CAS-3); Overexpression of VEGFR2 promoted cell viability and blocked apoptosis in Lv-VEGFR2-transfected HemECs. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that, increased expression of VEGFR2 is involved in the development of primary HemECs possibly through regulation of the AKT and ERK pathways, suggesting that VEGFR2 may be a potential therapeutic target for HAs.
doi:10.4081/ejh.2014.2263
PMCID: PMC3980207  PMID: 24704994
vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2; hemangioma; proliferation; apoptosis
3.  Dp44mT targets the AKT, TGF-β and ERK pathways via the metastasis suppressor NDRG1 in normal prostate epithelial cells and prostate cancer cells 
British Journal of Cancer  2013;108(2):409-419.
Background:
Effective treatment of prostate cancer should be based on targeting interactions between tumour cell signalling pathways and key converging downstream effectors. Here, we determined how the tumourigenic phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT), tumour-suppressive phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) pathways are integrated via the metastasis suppressor, N-myc downstream-regulated gene-1 (NDRG1). Moreover, we assessed how the novel anti-tumour agent, Dp44mT, may target these integrated pathways by increasing NDRG1 expression.
Methods:
Protein expression in Dp44mT-treated normal human prostate epithelial cells and prostate cancer cells (PC-3, DU145) was assessed by western blotting. The role of NDRG1 was examined by transfection using an NDRG1 overexpression vector or shRNA.
Results:
Dp44mT increased levels of tumour-suppressive PTEN, and decreased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and SMAD2L, which are regulated by oncogenic Ras/MAPK signalling. Importantly, the effects of Dp44mT on NDRG1 and p-SMAD2L expression were more marked in prostate cancer cells than normal prostate epithelial cells. This may partly explain the anti-tumour selectivity of these agents. Silencing NDRG1 expression increased phosphorylation of tumourigenic AKT, ERK1/2 and SMAD2L and decreased PTEN levels, whereas NDRG1 overexpression induced the opposite effect. Furthermore, NDRG1 silencing significantly reduced the ability of Dp44mT to suppress p-SMAD2L and p-ERK1/2 levels.
Conclusion:
NDRG1 has an important role in mediating the tumour-suppressive effects of Dp44mT in prostate cancer via selective targeting of the PI3K/AKT, TGF-β and ERK pathways.
doi:10.1038/bjc.2012.582
PMCID: PMC3566801  PMID: 23287991
prostate cancer; iron chelators; NDRG1; PTEN; AKT; SMAD2
4.  Ox-LDL increases OX40L in endothelial cells through a LOX-1-dependent mechanism 
Oxidative low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) is a key risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis, and it can stimulate the expression of a variety of inflammatory signals. As a new and highly sensitive inflammation index, OX40L may be a key to understanding the mechanisms that regulate interactions between cells within the vessel wall and inflammatory mediators during the development of atherosclerosis. To investigate whether Ox-LDL regulates OX40L expression through an oxidized LDL-1 receptor (LOX-1)-mediated mechanism, we investigated the effect of different concentrations of Ox-LDL (50, 100, 150 µg/mL) on endothelial cell proliferation and apoptosis. Stimulation with Ox-LDL increased OX40L protein 1.44-fold and mRNA 4.0-fold in endothelial cells, and these effects were inhibited by blocking LOX-1. These results indicate that LOX-1 plays an important role in the chronic inflammatory process in blood vessel walls. Inhibiting LOX-1 may reduce blood vessel inflammation and provide a therapeutic option to limit atherosclerosis progression.
doi:10.1590/1414-431X20132733
PMCID: PMC3854425  PMID: 24068192
Atherosclerosis; Ox-LDL; LOX-1; OX40/OX40L; Polyinosinic acid
5.  Bisphosphonates Induce Senescence in Normal Human Oral Keratinocytes 
Journal of Dental Research  2011;90(6):810-816.
Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) commonly occurs in individuals receiving bisphosphonates (BPs) with clinical manifestations of the exposed necrotic bone. Although defective wound healing of soft tissue is frequently, if not always, observed in BRONJ, the effects of BPs on oral soft tissue or cells remain unknown. To investigate the effects of BPs on cells of oral mucosal tissue, we studied the effect of pamidronate (PAM), one of the BPs most commonly administered to cancer patients, on the phenotypes of normal human oral keratinocytes (NHOK) and fibroblasts (NHOF). When exposed to PAM at 10 µM, NHOK, not NHOF, underwent senescence: NHOK overexpressed senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-Gal), p16INK4A, IL-6, and IL-8. When exposed to a higher level (50 µM) of PAM, NHOK maintained senescent phenotypes, but NHOF underwent apoptosis. PAM-induced senescence in NHOK is mediated, in part, via geranylgeranylation of the mevalonate pathway. Our in vitro 3D oral mucosal tissue construction studies further demonstrated that PAM induced senescence and impaired re-epithelialization of oral mucosa. Analysis of these data indicates that premature senescence of oral mucosal cells and subsequent defective soft-tissue wound healing might be partly responsible for the development of BRONJ in individuals receiving PAM or other BPs.
doi:10.1177/0022034511402995
PMCID: PMC3144120  PMID: 21427353
bisphosphonates; apoptosis; senescence; oral fibroblasts; oral keratinocytes
6.  Over-expression of SOCS-3 Gene Promotes IL-10 Production by JEG-3 Trophoblast Cells☆ 
Placenta  2008;30(1):11-14.
Suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS-3) plays an important role in negative regulation of inflammatory response. Evidence has shown that SOCS-3 and IL-10 expressions were significantly reduced in placental trophoblasts from preeclampsia. IL-10 is an anti-inflammatory cytokine. In this study, we sought to determine if enhance SOCS-3 expression could affect IL-10 production in placental trophoblasts. Placental JEG-3 cells were used. Over-expression of SOCS-3 was generated by transfection of JEG-3 cells with a green fluorescent protein (GFP) tagged SOCS-3 gene, SOCS-3/ZsGreen1, by siPORT lipid transfection. Cells transfected with ZsGreen1 vector only was used as control. Our results showed that IL-6 production was reduced in cells over-expressed with SOCS-3. Moreover, SOCS-3 transfected cells produced more IL-10 when stimulated with IL-6. The increased IL-10 production by JEG-3 cells was in a dose-dependent manner, p < 0.05. Our data suggested that enhanced SOCS-3 gene expression could promote IL-10 production by placental trophoblast cells, suggesting that SOCS-3 may play an important role in regulation of cytokine induced anti-inflammatory response in placental trophoblasts.
doi:10.1016/j.placenta.2008.10.008
PMCID: PMC3066079  PMID: 19036437
SOCS-3; IL-6; IL-10; Trophoblasts
8.  Extent of white matter lesions is related to acute subcortical infarcts and predicts further stroke risk in patients with first ever ischaemic stroke 
Fu, J | Lu, C | Hong, Z | Dong, Q | Luo, Y | Wong, K
Objective: To investigate whether the extent of white matter lesions (WML) on fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MRI sequences is an independent risk factor for recurrent stroke, and to document the pattern of acute cerebral infarcts using diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in patients with different severities of WML.
Methods: In a prospective cohort study, 228 consecutive stroke patients were studied between 1999 and 2001 in a community hospital. The severity of WML was graded as 0 (no WML), 1 (mild), 2 (moderate), or 3 (severe) according to the FLAIR appearances. DWI was used to document the location and size of the infarct.
Results: 31 patients had grade 0 WML, 69 had grade 1, 59 had grade 2, and 69 had grade 3. Age was independently associated with WML on logistic regression analysis (p = 0.0001). Acute cerebral infarcts in deep white matter were correlated with increasing severity of WML. On a median follow up of 23.0 months, life table analysis showed that recurrent stroke was related to the severity of WML (recurrence rate 7.8% in grade 0, 9.3% in grade 1, 17.7% in grade 2, 43.7% in grade 3; p = 0.0001). Survival was reduced in patients with severe WML (p = 0.0068). A Cox proportional hazards model showed WML to be predictive of recurrent stroke (p = 0.000, hazard ratio = 4.177 (95% confidence interval, 2.038 to 8.564)) and also for survival (p = 0.040, hazard ratio = 2.021 (1.032 to 3.960)).
Conclusions: Patients with severe leukoaraiosis have increased risk of deep subcortical stroke and a higher risk of recurrent stroke.
doi:10.1136/jnnp.2003.032771
PMCID: PMC1739660  PMID: 15897500
9.  Cloning and sequencing of IS1086, an Alcaligenes eutrophus insertion element related to IS30 and IS4351. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1992;174(24):8133-8138.
A new insertion sequence (IS), designated IS1086, was isolated from Alcaligenes eutrophus CH34 by being trapped in plasmid pJV240, which contains the Bacillus subtilis sacB and sacR genes. The 1,106-bp IS1086 element contains partially matched (22 of 28 bp) terminal-inverted repeats and a long open reading frame. Hybridization data suggest the presence of one copy of IS1086 in the strain CH34 heavy-metal resistance plasmid pMOL28 and at least two copies in its chromosome. Analysis of the IS1086 nucleotide sequence revealed striking homology with two other IS elements, IS30 and IS4351, suggesting that they are three close members in a family of phylogenetically related insertion sequences. One open reading frame of the Spiroplasma citri phage SpV1-R8A2 B was also found to be related to this IS family but to a lesser extent. Comparison of the G+C contents of IS30 and IS1086 revealed that they conform to their respective hosts (46 versus 50% for IS30 and Escherichia coli and 64.5% for IS1086 and A. eutrophus). The pressure on the AT/GC ratio led to a very different codon usage in these two closely related IS elements. Results suggesting that IS1086 transposition might be activated by some forms of stress are discussed.
Images
PMCID: PMC207552  PMID: 1334071
10.  DNA binding specificity and sequence of Xanthomonas campestris catabolite gene activator protein-like protein. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1992;174(16):5457-5461.
The Xanthomonas campestris catabolite gene activator protein-like protein (CLP) can substitute for the Escherichia coli catabolite gene activator protein (CAP) in transcription activation at the lac promoter (V. de Crecy-Lagard, P. Glaser, P. Lejeune, O. Sismeiro, C. Barber, M. Daniels, and A. Danchin, J. Bacteriol. 172:5877-5883, 1990). We show that CLP has the same DNA binding specificity as CAP at positions 5, 6, and 7 of the DNA half site. In addition, we show that the amino acids at positions 1 and 2 of the recognition helix of CLP are identical to the amino acids at positions 1 and 2 of the recognition helix of CAP:i.e., Arg at position 1 and Glu at position 2.
PMCID: PMC206387  PMID: 1322886

Results 1-10 (10)