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1.  “Meaningful Use” Provides a Meaningful Opportunity 
Cancer  2013;120(4):464-468.
doi:10.1002/cncr.28436
PMCID: PMC4054930  PMID: 24496865
2.  The Effects of Varenicline and Bupropion-SR plus Intensive Counseling on Prolonged Abstinence from Smoking, Depression, Negative Affect and Other Symptoms of Nicotine Withdrawal 
JAMA psychiatry  2013;70(5):522-533.
Context
Smoking cessation clinical trial
Objective
Assess the relative efficacy of bupropion and varenicline on smoking cessation and emotional functioning.
Design
Placebo controlled randomized clinical trial
Setting
University Medical Center
Patients
294 community volunteers who wanted to quit smoking
Interventions
12 weeks of Varenicline, Bupropion-SR, or Placebo plus intensive smoking cessation counseling (10 sessions ~240 minutes).
Main Outcome Measures
Prolonged abstinence from smoking, and weekly measures of depression, negative affect and other symptoms of nicotine withdrawal
Results
Significant differences were found in abstinence at the end of treatment and through the 3-month post-quit follow-up favoring both active medications vs. placebo At the 6 month follow-up only the varenicline vs. placebo comparison remained significant. Varenicline was also associated with a generalized suppression of depression and reduced smoking reward compared to the other treatments, while both medications improved concentration, reduced craving, and decreased negative affect and sadness compared to placebo, while having little impact (increase or decrease) on anxiety and anger. No differences were noted in self-reported rates of neuropsychiatric adverse events.
Conclusions
Varenicline exerts a robust and favorable impact on smoking cessation relative to placebo and may have a favorable (suppressive effect) on symptoms of depression and other affective measures with no clear unfavorable impact on neuropsychiatric adverse events in a community sample
doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.678
PMCID: PMC4128024  PMID: 23536105
3.  The Relationship of Childhood Trauma to Nicotine Dependence in Pregnant Smokers 
Pregnant women with high levels of nicotine dependence are the least likely to quit smoking spontaneously during pregnancy or to benefit from smoking cessation interventions. In the general population, there is increasing evidence of a relationship between smoking, nicotine dependence, and exposure to childhood trauma. We examined the relationship of childhood trauma to several measures of nicotine dependence and evaluated whether this relationship was mediated by major depressive disorder or depressive symptom severity in pregnant smokers. Moderate to extreme levels of childhood trauma were significantly related to smoking within 5 minutes or less of waking, and to the Behavioral Choice-Melioration, Negative Reinforcement and Tolerance subscales of the Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM-68) scale. The relationships between childhood emotional abuse and the WISDM-68 Total and Negative Reinforcement subscale were partially mediated by depressive symptoms. Results suggest that childhood trauma may be a risk factor underlying nicotine dependence in pregnant smokers. Increased understanding of the relationship of affect regulation to smoking in individuals with childhood trauma histories may aid in the development of more effective treatments of nicotine dependence for this population of smokers.
doi:10.1037/a0025529
PMCID: PMC4093831  PMID: 21928869
pregnant smokers; nicotine dependence; childhood trauma
4.  Affective Trajectories Before and After a Quit Attempt Among Smokers With Current Depressive Disorders 
Nicotine & Tobacco Research  2013;15(11):1807-1815.
Background:
Smoking cessation for individuals with depressive disorders represents an important clinical issue. It often has been hypothesized that smoking cessation worsens negative affect as part of the withdrawal process in this population. However, studies examining the impact of smoking cessation on changes in affect in smokers with depression are limited and equivocal.
Methods:
This study examines affective processes in smokers with depression undergoing a 12-week smoking cessation intervention (N = 49). We used the Positive and Negative Affect Scale to measure participants’ positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) trajectories over the course of a quit attempt. We examined whether affective treatment response across the trial differed by prolonged smoking abstinence status and whether postquit affect differed by prequit affective treatment response, as well as the interaction of prequit affective response and abstinence status.
Results:
Prolonged abstainers showed significant increases in PA over the course of a quit attempt compared with nonabstainers. Prequit affective trajectories significantly predicted postquit affect for measures of both PA and NA. Lastly, the interaction of prequit affective trajectory and abstinence significantly predicted postquit levels of NA but not PA.
Conclusions:
This study adds to a burgeoning body of research demonstrating that significant improvements in psychological functioning can be observed among those who successfully quit smoking even in the most severe psychiatric group.
doi:10.1093/ntr/ntt036
PMCID: PMC3790623  PMID: 23509093
5.  Alpha Oscillations in Response to Affective and Cigarette-Related Stimuli in Smokers 
Nicotine & Tobacco Research  2012;15(5):917-924.
Introduction:
The presence of cigarette-related cues has been associated with smoking relapse. These cues are believed to activate brain mechanisms underlying emotion, attention, and memory. Electroencephalography (EEG) alpha desynchronization (i.e., reduction in alpha power) has been suggested to index the engagement of these mechanisms. Analyzing EEG alpha desynchronization in response to affective and smoking cues might improve our understanding of how smokers process these cues, and the potential impact of this processing on relapse.
Methods:
Before the start of a medication-assisted cessation attempt, we recorded EEG from 179 smokers during the presentation of neutral, pleasant, unpleasant, and cigarette-related pictures. Wavelet analysis was used to extract EEG alpha oscillations (8–12 Hz) in response to these pictures. Alpha oscillations were analyzed as a function of picture valence and arousal dimensions.
Results:
Emotional and cigarette-related stimuli induced a higher level of alpha desynchronization (i.e., less power in the alpha frequency band) than neutral stimuli. In addition, the level of alpha desynchronization induced by cigarette-related stimuli was similar to that induced by highly arousing stimuli (i.e., erotica and mutilations).
Conclusions:
These results suggest that, for smokers, cigarette-related cues are motivationally significant stimuli that may engage emotional, attentional, and memory-related neural mechanisms at a level comparable to that seen in response to highly arousing stimuli. This finding suggests that activation of emotional, attentional, and memory-related brain mechanisms may be an important contributor to cue-induced smoking relapse.
doi:10.1093/ntr/nts209
PMCID: PMC3621581  PMID: 23060019
6.  Relationship of Childhood Trauma to Depression and Smoking Outcomes in Pregnant Smokers 
Objective
We evaluated whether childhood trauma moderated the treatment effect on depression and smoking outcomes in pregnant smokers.
Method
The sample included pregnant smokers participating in a randomized trial evaluating the efficacy of a 10-session interpersonally focused therapy—cognitive behavioral analysis system of psychotherapy (CBASP), versus a time-matched health and wellness control (HW) for smoking cessation and depression reduction. Women (N = 248) who completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) were included. On average, women were 25 years old (SD = 5.91) and smoked 10 (SD = 6.9) cigarettes per day. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) and women had an average score of 21 (SD = 11.03). Seventy-six percent of women had experienced some form of moderate to severe childhood trauma as assessed by the CTQ.
Results
In women with a history of moderate to severe childhood trauma, there was a dose-response association of treatment on depression outcome through 6 months postpartum; those with increasing amounts of childhood trauma benefitted more from CBASP, while those in the HW condition did not. Childhood trauma did not moderate the treatment effect on abstinence, although increasing amounts of trauma were associated with reduced likelihood of abstinence at 6 months post treatment.
Conclusions
An interpersonally-focused therapy may be beneficial for the treatment of depression during the prenatal period in pregnant smokers with childhood trauma histories and such treatment becomes increasingly more important with cumulative trauma experience. Childhood trauma increases risk for cessation failure in pregnant smokers.
doi:10.1037/a0033381
PMCID: PMC3905676  PMID: 23750463
childhood trauma; pregnant smokers; depression
7.  Mechanisms Linking Socioeconomic Disadvantage and BMI in Smokers 
Objectives
To evaluate a conceptual model of the psychosocial pathways linking socioeconomic status and body mass index (BMI) among smokers.
Methods
A latent variable modeling approach was used to evaluate the interrelationships among socioeconomic status, perceived neighborhood disadvantage, social support, negative affect, and BMI among smokers recruited from the Houston metropolitan area (N = 424).
Results
A total of 42.4% of participants were obese, with the highest prevalence of obesity among Latinos followed by African Americans. Across all racial/ethnic groups, perceived neighborhood disadvantage, social support, and negative affect functioned as pathways linking socioeconomic status and BMI.
Conclusions
Findings indicate the need for interventions that target obesity among socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers and provide potential intervention targets for the prevention and treatment of obesity.
doi:10.5993/AJHB.37.5.2
PMCID: PMC3903428  PMID: 23985281
socioeconomic status; African American; Latino; race; smoking; BMI
8.  Cue Reactivity in Virtual Reality: The Role of Context 
Addictive behaviors  2011;36(7):696-699.
Cigarette smokers in laboratory experiments readily respond to smoking stimuli with increased craving. An alternative to traditional cue-reactivity methods (e.g., exposure to cigarette photos), virtual reality (VR) has been shown to be a viable cue presentation method to elicit and assess cigarette craving within complex virtual environments. However, it remains poorly understood whether contextual cues from the environment contribute to craving increases in addition to specific cues, like cigarettes. This study examined the role of contextual cues in a VR environment to evoke craving. Smokers were exposed to a virtual convenience store devoid of any specific cigarette cues followed by exposure to the same convenience store with specific cigarette cues added. Smokers reported increased craving following exposure to the virtual convenience store without specific cues, and significantly greater craving following the convenience store with cigarette cues added. However, increased craving recorded after the second convenience store may have been due to the pre-exposure to the first convenience store. This study offers evidence that an environmental context where cigarette cues are normally present (but are not), elicits significant craving in the absence of specific cigarette cues. This finding suggests that VR may have stronger ecological validity over traditional cue reactivity exposure methods by exposing smokers to the full range of cigarette-related environmental stimuli, in addition to specific cigarette cues, that smokers typically experience in their daily lives.
doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2011.01.029
PMCID: PMC4104934  PMID: 21349649
Smoking; Virtual Reality; Cue Reactivity; Craving; Gestalt Theory
9.  The Late Positive Potential (LPP) in Response to Varying Types of Emotional and Cigarette Stimuli in Smokers: A Content Comparison 
Identifying neural mechanisms associated with addiction has substantially improved the overall understanding of addictive processes. Indeed, research suggests that drug-associated cues may take advantage of neural mechanisms originally intended for emotional processing of stimuli relevant to survival. In this study, we investigated cortical responses to several categories of emotional cues (erotic, romance, pleasant objects, mutilation, sadness, unpleasant objects) as well as two types of smoking-related cues (people smoking and cigarette-related objects). We recorded ERPs from 180 smokers prior to their participation in a smoking cessation clinical trial and assessed emotional salience by measuring the amplitude of the late positive potential (LPP; 400 to 600 ms after picture onset). As expected, emotional and cigarette-related pictures prompted a significantly larger LPP than neutral pictures. The amplitude of the LPP increased as a function of picture arousal level, with high-arousing erotic and mutilation pictures showing the largest response in contrast to low-arousing pleasant and unpleasant objects, which showed the smallest response (other than neutral). Compared to females, male participants showed larger LPPs for high-arousing erotic and mutilation pictures. However, unlike emotional pictures, no difference was noted for the LPP between cigarette stimuli containing people versus those containing only objects, suggesting that in contrast to emotional objects, cigarette-related objects are highly relevant for smokers. We also compared the smokers to a small (N=40), convenience sample of never-smokers. We found that never-smokers had significantly smaller LPPs in response to erotic and cigarette stimuli containing only objects compared to smokers.
doi:10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2013.04.019
PMCID: PMC3771859  PMID: 23643564
Event related potentials; ERP; emotion; nicotine dependence; smoking; LPP
10.  Cigarette cues capture smokers’ attention: Evidence from event-related potentials 
Psychophysiology  2010;47(3):435-441.
Before starting a smoking cessation treatment, 51 smokers took part in a study aimed at investigating brain mechanisms associated with attention allocation. ERPs to acoustic startle probes were recorded from 129 sensors during the presentation of neutral, pleasant, unpleasant, and cigarette-related pictures. Results indicated that the amplitude of the startle probe P3 component was reduced for pleasant, unpleasant, and cigarette-related conditions relative to neutral. Surface Laplacian estimates showed that sources of electrocortical activity under frontal and parietal sensors contributed to the modulation of this effect. For smokers, cigarette-related stimuli, like intrinsically motivating ones, capture attentional resources and therefore reduce the ability to process competing stimuli. The depletion of attentional resources in the presence of cigarette-related cues may contribute to the high relapse rate observed during smoking quit attempts.
doi:10.1111/j.1469-8986.2009.00946.x
PMCID: PMC4037813  PMID: 20070579
Smoking; Attention; ERP; P3; Startle; Emotion
11.  Differential cigarette-related startle cue reactivity among light, moderate, and heavy smokers 
Addictive Behaviors  2012;37(8):885-889.
In this study, we examined the relationship between the level of daily cigarette consumption and the startle response to affective and cigarette-related cues among treatment-seeking smokers. Before receiving any behavioral or pharmacological treatment, 136 smokers attended a baseline laboratory session, during which we recorded their reflexive eyeblink responses to acoustic startle probes while they were viewing pleasant, unpleasant, neutral, and cigarette-related pictures. We found that 1) cigarette-related and pleasant pictures similarly reduced the startle magnitude compared to neutral pictures; 2) the magnitude of startle modulation rendered by pleasant or unpleasant pictures did not differ among light, moderate, and heavy smokers; and 3) startle attenuation by cigarette-related pictures was greater in heavy smokers than in light smokers. These results suggest that similar to pleasant stimuli, cigarette-related cues are motivationally salient for smokers, and that this salience increases with nicotine dependence.
doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2012.02.003
PMCID: PMC3358408  PMID: 22571920
Cue reactivity; Affect; Nicotine addiction; Startle response
12.  The Relation between Social Cohesion and Smoking Cessation among Black Smokers, and the Potential Role of Psychosocial Mediators 
Background
Social cohesion, the self-reported trust and connectedness between neighbors, may affect health behaviors via psychosocial mechanisms.
Purpose
Relations between individual perceptions of social cohesion and smoking cessation were examined among 397 Black treatment-seeking smokers.
Methods
Continuation ratio logit models examined the relation of social cohesion and biochemically-verified continuous smoking abstinence through 6 months post-quit. Indirect effects were examined in single mediator models using a nonparametric bootstrapping procedure. All analyses controlled for sociodemographics, tobacco dependence, and treatment.
Results
The total effect of social cohesion on continuous abstinence was non-significant (β=.05, p=.10). However, social cohesion was associated with social support, positive affect negative affect, and stress, which, in turn, were each associated with abstinence in adjusted models (ps<.05).
Conclusions
Results suggest that social cohesion may facilitate smoking cessation among Black smokers through desirable effects on psychosocial mechanisms that can result from living in a community with strong interpersonal connections.
doi:10.1007/s12160-012-9438-6
PMCID: PMC3587036  PMID: 23135831
social cohesion; neighborhood trust; smoking cessation; mediation
13.  Pathways Linking Socioeconomic Status and Postpartum Smoking Relapse 
Background
Low socioeconomic status (SES) exacerbates the high rate of smoking relapse in women following childbirth.
Purpose
This study examined multiple models of potential mechanisms linking SES and postpartum smoking relapse among women who quit smoking due to pregnancy.
Methods
Participants were 251 women enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of a new postpartum smoking relapse prevention intervention. Four models of the prepartum mechanisms linking SES and postpartum smoking relapse were evaluated using a latent variable modeling approach.
Results
Each of the hypothesized models were a good fit for the data. As hypothesized, SES indirectly influenced postpartum smoking relapse through increased prepartum negative affect/stress, reduced sense of agency, and increased craving for cigarettes. However, the model that included craving as the sole final pathway between SES and relapse demonstrated superior fit when compared with all other models.
Conclusions
Findings have implications for future interventions that aim to reduce postpartum relapse.
doi:10.1007/s12160-012-9434-x
PMCID: PMC3854787  PMID: 23086590
Smoking; Postpartum; Structural Equation Modeling; Relapse; Socioeconomic Status
14.  Alcohol Consumption and Urges to Smoke among Women during a Smoking Cessation Attempt 
Experimental and clinical psychopharmacology  2013;21(1):10.1037/a0031009.
Laboratory and ad libitum smoking studies have indicated that alcohol consumption increases the frequency and intensity of smoking urges. However, few studies have examined the relation between smoking urges and alcohol use in natural settings during a quit attempt. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between smoking urge and alcohol use in women who reported drinking on at least one occasion during the first 7 days of a smoking quit attempt (N = 134). Participants were asked to use a palmtop computer to complete assessments that recorded smoking urges and recent alcohol use. Multilevel analyses examined the relation between smoking urge parameters and alcohol use. Smoking urges were higher during assessments where alcohol had been recently consumed compared to assessments where no alcohol had been consumed. Interestingly, the first urge rating of the day was higher and urges were more volatile on days where alcohol would eventually be consumed as compared to days where no alcohol was consumed. A closer examination of urge parameters on drinking days indicated that smoking urge trajectory was significantly flatter and urge volatility was significantly higher following alcohol consumption. However, smoking urge trajectory also flattened later in the day on nondrinking days. The findings suggest that there may be reciprocal relations between smoking urge and alcohol use (e.g., higher initial urges and more volatile urges may increase the likelihood of alcohol use; and, alcohol use may impact within day smoking urge parameters), and these relations could potentially impact smoking cessation and relapse.
doi:10.1037/a0031009
PMCID: PMC3854865  PMID: 23379613
Smoking; Smoking urge; Alcohol; Ecological Momentary Assessment; Multilevel Analysis
15.  Beyond cue reactivity: Blunted brain responses to pleasant stimuli predict long-term smoking abstinence 
Addiction biology  2011;17(6):991-1000.
Identifying addicts with higher risk of relapse would provide the opportunity to implement individualized interventions and increase cessation success rates. Unfortunately, the ability to predict the long-term success of drug-cessation treatments continues to elude researchers. We tested whether brain responses to emotional and cigarette-related pictures were predictive of the ability to abstain from smoking. Smokers interested in quitting (n=180) participated in a smoking cessation clinical trial. Before the initiation of any treatment we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) evoked by emotional (both pleasant and unpleasant), neutral, and cigarette-related images. Cluster analysis was used to assign smokers to two groups based on the amplitude of the late positive potential (LPP) to the experimental stimuli. While both groups showed enhanced responses to cigarette-related cues, one group (n=81) also showed blunted brain responses to intrinsically pleasant stimuli. Smokers in the latter group were significantly less likely to be abstinent at 10, 12, and 24 weeks after their quit date. In conclusion, using event-related potentials, a direct measure of brain activity, we found that smokers with blunted brain responses to intrinsically pleasant stimuli had lower rates of long-term smoking abstinence. This response offers a new biomarker for identifying smokers at higher risk of relapse and for testing the efficacy of new interventions aimed at normalizing brain reward systems’ responses to intrinsically pleasant stimuli.
doi:10.1111/j.1369-1600.2011.00372.x
PMCID: PMC3252422  PMID: 21967530
Emotions; ERPs; LPP; nicotine addiction; reward sensitivity; smoking cessation
16.  The CHRNA3 rs578776 Variant is Associated with an Intrinsic Reward Sensitivity Deficit in Smokers 
A compromised brain reward system has been postulated as a key feature of drug dependence. We examined whether several polymorphisms of genes found to regulate nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) and dopamine expression were related to an intrinsic reward sensitivity (IRS) deficit we previously identified among a subgroup of smokers using event-related potentials (ERPs). We examined genetic polymorphisms within the CHRNA5-A3-B4 gene cluster (CHRNA3 rs578776, CHRNA5 rs16969968, LOC123688 rs8034191, and CHRNA3 rs1051730), the ANKK1 gene (rs1800497), and the D2 dopamine receptor gene (DRD2 rs1079597, DRD2 rs1799732) from 104 smokers of European ancestry in a smoking cessation trial. Prior to treatment, we recorded ERPs evoked by emotional (both pleasant and unpleasant), neutral, and cigarette-related pictures. Smokers were assigned to two groups (IRS+/IRS−) based on the amplitude of the late positive potential (LPP) component to the pictures, a neural marker of motivational salience. Smokers (n = 42) with blunted brain responses to intrinsically rewarding (pleasant) pictures and enhanced responses to cigarette pictures were assigned to the IRS− group, while smokers (n = 62) with the opposite pattern of LPP responding were assigned to the IRS+ group. Carriers of the protective minor T allele (T/T, C/T) of the CHRNA3 rs578776 were less likely to be members of the IRS− group than those homozygous for the at-risk C allele (C/C). The CHRNA3 rs578776 polymorphism did not differ on questionnaires of nicotine dependence, depressed mood, or trait affective disposition and did not predict abstinence at 6 months after the quit date. These results suggest that polymorphisms of genes influencing nAChR expression are related to an endophenotype of reward sensitivity in smokers.
doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2013.00114
PMCID: PMC3779859  PMID: 24065931
nAChR; DRD2; nicotine; reward sensitivity; ERP; LPP; smoking cessation; genetics
17.  Differential Effects of Depression on Smoking Cessation in a Diverse Sample of Smokers in Treatment 
Background
Recent cross-sectional evidence suggests that the effect of depression on smoking prevalence and quit ratios differs by race/ethnicity.
Purpose
This study prospectively examined the main and interactive effects of race/ethnicity and depressive symptoms on smoking cessation during a specific quit attempt among smokers receiving cessation treatment.
Methods
Data from a longitudinal study of smokers in treatment were examined using continuation ratio logit modeling. Continuous abstinence across Weeks 1, 2, and 4 post-quit was the outcome variable. Data were collected between March 2005 and November 2007, and the current study analyses were conducted in April 2010.
Results
Depressive symptoms predicted significantly lower cessation rates for whites and African Americans. In contrast, among Latinos there was no relationship between depression and cessation.
Conclusions
This research is the first to prospectively demonstrate a racially/ethnically differentiated effect of depressive symptoms on smoking cessation, and it has implications for targeted smoking-cessation treatments as it indicates that depression may not be a key treatment target for Latinos.
doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2011.03.003
PMCID: PMC3733472  PMID: 21665068
18.  Mediators of the Association of Major Depressive Syndrome and Anxiety Syndrome with Postpartum Smoking Relapse 
Objective
Based on conceptual models of addiction and affect regulation, this study examined the mechanisms linking current major depressive syndrome (MDS) and anxiety syndrome (AS) to postpartum smoking relapse.
Method
Data were collected in a randomized clinical trial from 251 women who quit smoking during pregnancy. Simple and multiple mediation models of the relations of MDS and AS with postpartum relapse were examined using linear regression, continuation ratio logit models, and a Bootstrapping procedure to test the indirect effects.
Results
Both MDS and AS significantly predicted postpartum smoking relapse. After adjusting for MDS, AS significantly predicted relapse. However, after adjusting for AS, MDS no longer predicted relapse. Situationally-based self-efficacy, expectancies of controlling negative affect by means other than smoking, and various dimensions of primary and secondary tobacco dependence individually mediated the effect of both MDS and AS on relapse. In multiple mediation models, self-efficacy in negative/affective situations significantly mediated the effect of MDS and AS on relapse.
Conclusion
The findings underscore the negative impact of depression and anxiety on postpartum smoking relapse, and suggest that the effects of MDS on postpartum relapse may be largely explained by comorbid AS. The current investigation provided mixed support for affect regulation models of addiction. Cognitive and tobacco dependence-related aspects of negative and positive reinforcement significantly mediated the relationship of depression and anxiety with relapse, while affect and stress did not. The findings emphasize the unique role of low agency with respect to abstaining from smoking in negative affective situations as a key predictor of postpartum smoking relapse.
doi:10.1037/a0027532
PMCID: PMC3378794  PMID: 22390410
postpartum smoking relapse; mediators; depression; anxiety
19.  Neighborhood Perceptions Are Associated With Tobacco Dependence Among African American Smokers 
Nicotine & Tobacco Research  2011;14(7):786-793.
Introduction:
The animal and human research literatures suggest that deprived environmental conditions may be associated with drug dependence, but the relation of neighborhood perceptions with a multidimensional measure of tobacco dependence has not been previously studied. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between neighborhood perceptions (neighborhood problems and neighborhood vigilance) and tobacco dependence among smokers as measured by the Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives-68 (WISDM).
Methods:
Participants were 384 African American smokers (49% men, 80% <$30,000 annual household income) enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of a smoking cessation intervention. A series of regression models were conducted to examine the associations between neighborhood perceptions and tobacco dependence using a generalized estimating equation approach, which accounted for potential correlation in tobacco dependence between participants from the same neighborhood.
Results:
Results indicated that more self-reported neighborhood problems and greater neighborhood vigilance were significantly associated with tobacco dependence as measured by the WISDM total score in analyses adjusted for age, gender, income, education, employment status, and partner status (p ≤ .002). Neighborhood perceptions were related to both primary and secondary dependence motives (p ≤ .005).
Conclusions:
Results suggest that the neighborhood context is associated with dependence on tobacco among African American smokers but longitudinal studies are needed to assess causation. Future research should also explore the mechanisms that account for the associations between neighborhood perceptions and tobacco dependence to better inform intervention development.
doi:10.1093/ntr/ntr285
PMCID: PMC3390547  PMID: 22180596
20.  Individual- and Area-level Unemployment Influence Smoking Cessation Among African Americans Participating in a Randomized Clinical Trial 
Social science & medicine (1982)  2012;74(9):1394-1401.
African Americans suffer disproportionately from the adverse health consequences of smoking, and also report substantially lower socioeconomic status than Whites and other racial/ethnic groups in the U.S. Although socioeconomic disadvantage is known to have a negative influence on smoking cessation rates and overall health, little is known about the influence of socioeconomic status on smoking cessation specifically among African Americans. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to characterize the impact of several individual- and area-level indicators of socioeconomic status on smoking cessation among African Americans. Data were collected as part of a smoking cessation intervention study for African American smokers (N = 379) recruited from the Houston, Texas, metropolitan area, who participated in the study between 2005 and 2007. The separate and combined influences of individual-level (insurance status, unemployment, education, and income) and area-level (neighborhood unemployment, education, income, and poverty) indicators of socioeconomic status on continuous smoking abstinence were examined across time intervals using continuation ratio logit modeling. Individual-level analyses indicated that unemployment was significantly associated with reduced odds of smoking abstinence, while higher income was associated with greater odds of abstinence. However, only unemployment remained a significant predictor of abstinence when unemployment and income were included in the model together. Area-level analyses indicated that greater neighborhood unemployment and poverty were associated with reduced odds of smoking abstinence, while greater neighborhood education was associated with higher odds of abstinence. However, only neighborhood unemployment remained significantly associated with abstinence status when individual-level income and unemployment were included in the model. Overall, findings suggest that individual- and area-level unemployment have a negative impact on smoking cessation among African Americans. Addressing unemployment through public policy and within smoking cessation interventions, and providing smoking cessation treatment for the unemployed may have a beneficial impact on tobacco-related health disparities.
doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2012.01.013
PMCID: PMC3321106  PMID: 22405506
USA; African American; Smoking Cessation; Unemployment; Socioeconomic Status; Tobacco; Neighborhood
21.  Generalized craving, self-report of arousal, and cue reactivity after brief abstinence 
Nicotine & Tobacco Research  2009;11(7):823-826.
Introduction:
Numerous studies report smokers’ increased craving and physiological arousal when exposed to cigarette stimuli. These responses are attributed to learning processes (e.g., classical conditioning) and are associated with motivational factors that maintain nicotine dependence. However, much less is known about the degree to which these responses are maintained or diminished during quitting.
Methods:
Treatment-seeking smokers (N = 104) were randomly assigned to continue smoking or to enter a 2-week treatment program. Abstainers (n = 25) were continuously abstinent for 14–17 days at the time of testing. Control subjects (n = 38) continued to smoke at their usual rate. Participants who were assigned to treatment but resumed smoking during the study (n = 41) were considered to be relapsers. Approximately 2 weeks after baseline measurements, abstainers and controls viewed a series of neutral (n = 12) and cigarette (n = 12) pictures, rating them for craving and arousal (feelings of calm vs. excitement).
Results:
Non-cued craving (measured during exposure to neutral cues) was diminished in abstaining smokers. However, cigarette cues produced craving increases of the same magnitude in both abstainers and controls, showing that these cues still had evocative power for both groups. Abstaining smokers, who were not physiologically monitored, had lower self-reports of arousal to cigarette pictures than did controls, but the groups did not differ in arousal to neutral pictures.
Discussion:
These findings suggest that the foundations of cue-induced craving, generalized craving, and physiological arousal associated with craving may arise from separate processes.
doi:10.1093/ntr/ntp068
PMCID: PMC2699928  PMID: 19477914
22.  Neural substrates of smoking cue reactivity: A meta-analysis of fMRI studies 
Neuroimage  2011;60(1):252-262.
Reactivity to smoking-related cues may be an important factor that precipitates relapse in smokers who are trying to quit. The neurobiology of smoking cue reactivity has been investigated in several fMRI studies. We combined the results of these studies using activation likelihood estimation, a meta-analytic technique for fMRI data. Results of the meta-analysis indicated that smoking cues reliably evoke larger fMRI responses than neutral cues in the extended visual system, precuneus, posterior cingulate gyrus, anterior cingulate gyrus, dorsal and medial prefrontal cortex, insula, and dorsal striatum. Subtraction meta-analyses revealed that parts of the extended visual system and dorsal prefrontal cortex are more reliably responsive to smoking cues in deprived smokers than in non-deprived smokers, and that short-duration cues presented in event-related designs produce larger responses in the extended visual system than long-duration cues presented in blocked designs. The areas that were found to be responsive to smoking cues agree with theories of the neurobiology of cue reactivity, with two exceptions. First, there was a reliable cue reactivity effect in the precuneus, which is not typically considered a brain region important to addiction. Second, we found no significant effect in the nucleus accumbens, an area that plays a critical role in addiction, but this effect may have been due to technical difficulties associated with measuring fMRI data in that region. The results of this meta-analysis suggest that the extended visual system should receive more attention in future studies of smoking cue reactivity.
doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.12.024
PMCID: PMC3288122  PMID: 22206965
smoking; cue reactivity; fMRI; meta-analysis; tobacco; addiction
23.  Nicotine Differentially Inhibits the Acoustic Startle Reflex in African American and Caucasian American Smokers 
Addictive behaviors  2008;33(12):1521-1528.
Research suggests that there are racial disparities in smoking behaviors, cessation rates, mortality, and morbidity. However, little is known regarding racial differences in affect regulation by smoking. The purpose of this study was to examine racial differences in the effects of nicotine deprivation and administration on smokers’ startle responding to smoking and affective cues. 104 African American (AA) and Caucasian American (CA) smokers completed 4 laboratory sessions crossing nicotine deprivation (12-hour deprived vs. nondeprived) with nicotine nasal spray (active vs. placebo). Participants viewed affective (positive, neutral, and negative) and smoking slides while startle probes were administered. The results showed that relative to placebo, AA smokers given nicotine spray exhibited significantly lower startle responses when they were exposed to smoking cues and CA smokers given nicotine spray exhibited significantly lower startle responses when they were exposed to negative and neutral cues. Although nicotine suppresses startle responding in both AA and CA smokers, the effect is modulated by different cue conditions, suggesting that there may be racial differences in components of smoking motivation.
doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2008.07.006
PMCID: PMC2612003  PMID: 18771859
African Americans; Caucasian Americans; nicotine; startle reflex
24.  Negative reinforcement smoking outcome expectancies are associated with affective response to acute nicotine administration and abstinence 
Drug and alcohol dependence  2011;120(1-3):196-201.
Background
Negative affect is an important predictor of smoking behavior, and many smokers believe that smoking reduces negative affect. However, it is unclear whether such beliefs, known as negative reinforcement smoking outcome expectancies (NRSOE), are associated with changes in negative affect in response to nicotine deprivation and administration.
Methods
Smokers (N = 114) participated in 4 sessions that balanced overnight smoking deprivation (12-hr deprived vs. ad lib) and nasal spray administration (nicotine vs. placebo). Corrugator supercilii (COR) EMG, skin conductance (SCR), and in-session ratings were collected while the participants viewed affective, cigarette-related, and neutral slides. Retrospective questionnaire data were collected prior to slide viewing. NRSOE were determined using the Smoking Consequences Questionnaire-Adult Nicotine Affect Reduction scale (SCQ-NAR).
Results
High scores on the SCQ-NAR were associated with smaller COR EMG to unpleasant slides following nicotine nasal spray administration compared to placebo spray, regardless of overnight deprivation. Smokers who had high scores on the SCQ-NAR had smaller SCR, following nicotine nasal spray administration compared to placebo spray, but only after overnight deprivation. The in-session ratings and retrospective questionnaire measures indicated that smokers who had high scores on the SCQ-NAR experienced greater negative affect and craving, and less positive affect, than smokers with low scores on the SCQ-NAR, regardless of nicotine exposure.
Conclusions
Our questionnaire results suggest that while smokers who have high NRSOE self-report greater overall levels of negative affect and craving, while the psychophysiological data suggest that such smokers may experience negative affect reduction when blindly administered a dose of nicotine.
doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2011.07.023
PMCID: PMC3242897  PMID: 21868175
smoking; expectancy; negative affect; reinforcement; corrugator EMG; skin conductance
25.  Race/Ethnicity Moderates the Effect of Prepartum Menthol Cigarette Use on Postpartum Smoking Abstinence 
Nicotine & Tobacco Research  2011;13(12):1305-1310.
Introduction:
Little is known about the influence of prepartum menthol cigarette use on postpartum smoking abstinence or how race/ethnicity might moderate this relationship. The current study addressed that gap by testing these relationships among racially/ethnically diverse women who quit smoking during pregnancy (N = 244; 33% African American, 31% Latina, 36% White).
Methods:
Continuation ratio logit models were used to examine the effects of prepartum menthol cigarette use on biochemically confirmed, continuous abstinence through 26 weeks postpartum using an intent-to-treat approach. Analyses controlled for age, race/ethnicity, partner status, income, education, treatment, number of prequit cigarettes smoked per day, time to the first cigarette of the day, and time (Week 8 or 26 data collection timepoint). An additional model tested the moderating effects of race/ethnicity by including an interaction term.
Results:
Prepartum menthol cigarette use was not significantly associated with postpartum smoking abstinence in the overall sample. However, the interaction between menthol use and race/ethnicity was significant (p = .02). Among White women, menthol use was associated with significantly lower odds of maintaining postpartum smoking abstinence (p = .03; odds ratio = .19 [.04–.89]), and the effect approached significance among African American women (p = .08).
Conclusions:
This study provides the first evidence that prepartum menthol cigarette use may increase the risk of postpartum smoking relapse among White, and possibly African American, women who quit smoking during or immediately before pregnancy. Results suggest that White and African American prepartum menthol users may require different or more intensive cessation services to aid in the maintenance of postpartum smoking abstinence. Replication with larger samples, and a focus on understanding the mechanisms that underlie these relationships, are warranted.
doi:10.1093/ntr/ntr095
PMCID: PMC3223573  PMID: 21622498

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