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1.  Hypothalamic hamartoma 
BMJ Case Reports  2013;2013:bcr2012008273.
doi:10.1136/bcr-2012-008273
PMCID: PMC3604214  PMID: 23396839
2.  A genome-wide association study of marginal zone lymphoma shows association to the HLA region 
Vijai, Joseph | Wang, Zhaoming | Berndt, Sonja I. | Skibola, Christine F. | Slager, Susan L. | de Sanjose, Silvia | Melbye, Mads | Glimelius, Bengt | Bracci, Paige M. | Conde, Lucia | Birmann, Brenda M. | Wang, Sophia S. | Brooks-Wilson, Angela R. | Lan, Qing | de Bakker, Paul I. W. | Vermeulen, Roel C. H. | Portlock, Carol | Ansell, Stephen M. | Link, Brian K. | Riby, Jacques | North, Kari E. | Gu, Jian | Hjalgrim, Henrik | Cozen, Wendy | Becker, Nikolaus | Teras, Lauren R. | Spinelli, John J. | Turner, Jenny | Zhang, Yawei | Purdue, Mark P. | Giles, Graham G. | Kelly, Rachel S. | Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne | Ennas, Maria Grazia | Monnereau, Alain | Bertrand, Kimberly A. | Albanes, Demetrius | Lightfoot, Tracy | Yeager, Meredith | Chung, Charles C. | Burdett, Laurie | Hutchinson, Amy | Lawrence, Charles | Montalvan, Rebecca | Liang, Liming | Huang, Jinyan | Ma, Baoshan | Villano, Danylo J. | Maria, Ann | Corines, Marina | Thomas, Tinu | Novak, Anne J. | Dogan, Ahmet | Liebow, Mark | Thompson, Carrie A. | Witzig, Thomas E. | Habermann, Thomas M. | Weiner, George J. | Smith, Martyn T. | Holly, Elizabeth A. | Jackson, Rebecca D. | Tinker, Lesley F. | Ye, Yuanqing | Adami, Hans-Olov | Smedby, Karin E. | De Roos, Anneclaire J. | Hartge, Patricia | Morton, Lindsay M. | Severson, Richard K. | Benavente, Yolanda | Boffetta, Paolo | Brennan, Paul | Foretova, Lenka | Maynadie, Marc | McKay, James | Staines, Anthony | Diver, W. Ryan | Vajdic, Claire M. | Armstrong, Bruce K. | Kricker, Anne | Zheng, Tongzhang | Holford, Theodore R. | Severi, Gianluca | Vineis, Paolo | Ferri, Giovanni M. | Ricco, Rosalia | Miligi, Lucia | Clavel, Jacqueline | Giovannucci, Edward | Kraft, Peter | Virtamo, Jarmo | Smith, Alex | Kane, Eleanor | Roman, Eve | Chiu, Brian C. H. | Fraumeni, Joseph F. | Wu, Xifeng | Cerhan, James R. | Offit, Kenneth | Chanock, Stephen J. | Rothman, Nathaniel | Nieters, Alexandra
Nature Communications  2015;6:5751.
Marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) is the third most common subtype of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Here we perform a two-stage GWAS of 1,281 MZL cases and 7,127 controls of European ancestry and identify two independent loci near BTNL2 (rs9461741, P=3.95 × 10−15) and HLA-B (rs2922994, P=2.43 × 10−9) in the HLA region significantly associated with MZL risk. This is the first evidence that genetic variation in the major histocompatibility complex influences MZL susceptibility.
Marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) is a common subtype of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Here the authors carry out a two-stage genome-wide association study in over 8,000 Europeans and identify two new MZL risk loci at chromosome 6p, implicating the major histocompatibility complex in the disease for the first time.
doi:10.1038/ncomms6751
PMCID: PMC4287989  PMID: 25569183
3.  Mortality and cancer in relation to ABO blood group phenotypes in the Golestan Cohort Study 
BMC Medicine  2015;13:8.
Background
A few studies have shown an association between blood group alleles and vascular disease, including atherosclerosis, which is thought to be due to the higher level of von Willebrand factor in these individuals and the association of blood group locus variants with plasma lipid levels. No large population-based study has explored this association with overall and cause-specific mortality.
Methods
We aimed to study the association between ABO blood groups and overall and cause-specific mortality in the Golestan Cohort Study. In this cohort, 50,045 people 40- to 70-years old were recruited between 2004 and 2008, and followed annually to capture all incident cancers and deaths due to any cause. We used Cox regression models adjusted for age, sex, smoking, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, place of residence, education and opium use.
Results
During a total of 346,708 person-years of follow-up (mean duration 6.9 years), 3,623 cohort participants died. Non-O blood groups were associated with significantly increased total mortality (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.09; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01 to 1.17) and cardiovascular disease mortality (HR = 1.15; 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.27). Blood group was not significantly associated with overall cancer mortality, but people with group A, group B, and all non-O blood groups combined had increased risk of incident gastric cancer. In a subgroup of cohort participants, we also showed higher plasma total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in those with blood group A.
Conclusions
Non-O blood groups have an increased mortality, particularly due to cardiovascular diseases, which may be due to the effect of blood group alleles on blood biochemistry or their effect on von Willebrand factor and factor VIII levels.
Please see related commentary 10.1186/s12916-014-0250-y.
doi:10.1186/s12916-014-0237-8
PMCID: PMC4295491  PMID: 25592833
Blood group; ABO; Rh; Mortality; Cancer; Cardiovascular disease
4.  Association of marijuana smoking with oropharyngeal and oral tongue cancers: Pooled analysis from the INHANCE Consortium 
Background
The incidence of oropharyngeal and oral tongue cancers have increased over the last twenty years which parallels increased use of marijuana among individuals born after 1950.
Methods
Pooled analysis of individual-level data from nine case-control studies from the U.S. and Latin America in the INHANCE consortium. Self-reported information on marijuana smoking, demographic, and behavioral factors was obtained from 1,921 oropharyngeal cases, 356 oral tongue cases, and 7,639 controls.
Results
Compared with never marijuana smokers, ever marijuana smokers had an elevated risk of oropharyngeal (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.24; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06, 1.47) and a reduced risk of oral tongue cancer (aOR: 0.47; 95% CI: 0.29, 0.75). The risk of oropharyngeal cancer remained elevated among never tobacco and alcohol users. The risk of oral tongue cancer decreased with increasing frequency (ptrend=0.005), duration (ptrend=0.002), and joint-years of marijuana use (ptrend=0.004), and was reduced among never users tobacco and alcohol users. Sensitivity analysis adjusting for potential confounding by HPV exposure attenuated the association of marijuana use with oropharyngeal cancer (aOR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.71, 1.25), but had no effect on the oral tongue cancer association.
Conclusions
These results suggest that the association of marijuana use with Head and Neck Carcinoma may differ by tumor site.
Impact
The associations of marijuana use with oropharyngeal and oral tongue cancer are consistent with both possible pro- and anti-carcinogenic effects of cannabinoids. Additional work is needed to rule out various sources of bias, including residual confounding by HPV infection and misclassification of marijuana exposure.
doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-13-0181
PMCID: PMC3947141  PMID: 24351902
marijuana; oropharynx; oral tongue; INHANCE; human papillomavirus
5.  Rare variants of large effect in BRCA2 and CHEK2 affect risk of lung cancer 
Wang, Yufei | McKay, James D. | Rafnar, Thorunn | Wang, Zhaoming | Timofeeva, Maria | Broderick, Peter | Zong, Xuchen | Laplana, Marina | Wei, Yongyue | Han, Younghun | Lloyd, Amy | Delahaye-Sourdeix, Manon | Chubb, Daniel | Gaborieau, Valerie | Wheeler, William | Chatterjee, Nilanjan | Thorleifsson, Gudmar | Sulem, Patrick | Liu, Geoffrey | Kaaks, Rudolf | Henrion, Marc | Kinnersley, Ben | Vallée, Maxime | LeCalvez-Kelm, Florence | Stevens, Victoria L. | Gapstur, Susan M. | Chen, Wei V. | Zaridze, David | Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonilia | Lissowska, Jolanta | Rudnai, Peter | Fabianova, Eleonora | Mates, Dana | Bencko, Vladimir | Foretova, Lenka | Janout, Vladimir | Krokan, Hans E. | Gabrielsen, Maiken Elvestad | Skorpen, Frank | Vatten, Lars | Njølstad, Inger | Chen, Chu | Goodman, Gary | Benhamou, Simone | Vooder, Tonu | Valk, Kristjan | Nelis, Mari | Metspalu, Andres | Lener, Marcin | Lubiński, Jan | Johansson, Mattias | Vineis, Paolo | Agudo, Antonio | Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise | Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.Bas | Trichopoulos, Dimitrios | Khaw, Kay-Tee | Johansson, Mikael | Weiderpass, Elisabete | Tjønneland, Anne | Riboli, Elio | Lathrop, Mark | Scelo, Ghislaine | Albanes, Demetrius | Caporaso, Neil E. | Ye, Yuanqing | Gu, Jian | Wu, Xifeng | Spitz, Margaret R. | Dienemann, Hendrik | Rosenberger, Albert | Su, Li | Matakidou, Athena | Eisen, Timothy | Stefansson, Kari | Risch, Angela | Chanock, Stephen J. | Christiani, David C. | Hung, Rayjean J. | Brennan, Paul | Landi, Maria Teresa | Houlston, Richard S. | Amos, Christopher I.
Nature genetics  2014;46(7):736-741.
We conducted imputation to the 1000 Genomes Project of four genome-wide association studies of lung cancer in populations of European ancestry (11,348 cases and 15,861 controls) and genotyped an additional 10,246 cases and 38,295 controls for follow-up. We identified large-effect genome-wide associations for squamous lung cancer with the rare variants of BRCA2-K3326X (rs11571833; odds ratio [OR]=2.47, P=4.74×10−20) and of CHEK2-I157T (rs17879961; OR=0.38 P=1.27×10−13). We also showed an association between common variation at 3q28 (TP63; rs13314271; OR=1.13, P=7.22×10−10) and lung adenocarcinoma previously only reported in Asians. These findings provide further evidence for inherited genetic susceptibility to lung cancer and its biological basis. Additionally, our analysis demonstrates that imputation can identify rare disease-causing variants having substantive effects on cancer risk from pre-existing GWAS data.
doi:10.1038/ng.3002
PMCID: PMC4074058  PMID: 24880342
6.  Patterning human neuronal networks on photolithographically engineered silicon dioxide substrates functionalized with glial analogues 
Interfacing neurons with silicon semiconductors is a challenge being tackled through various bioengineering approaches. Such constructs inform our understanding of neuronal coding and learning and ultimately guide us toward creating intelligent neuroprostheses. A fundamental prerequisite is to dictate the spatial organization of neuronal cells. We sought to pattern neurons using photolithographically defined arrays of polymer parylene-C, activated with fetal calf serum. We used a purified human neuronal cell line [Lund human mesencephalic (LUHMES)] to establish whether neurons remain viable when isolated on-chip or whether they require a supporting cell substrate. When cultured in isolation, LUHMES neurons failed to pattern and did not show any morphological signs of differentiation. We therefore sought a cell type with which to prepattern parylene regions, hypothesizing that this cellular template would enable secondary neuronal adhesion and network formation. From a range of cell lines tested, human embryonal kidney (HEK) 293 cells patterned with highest accuracy. LUHMES neurons adhered to pre-established HEK 293 cell clusters and this coculture environment promoted morphological differentiation of neurons. Neurites extended between islands of adherent cell somata, creating an orthogonally arranged neuronal network. HEK 293 cells appear to fulfill a role analogous to glia, dictating cell adhesion, and generating an environment conducive to neuronal survival. We next replaced HEK 293 cells with slower growing glioma-derived precursors. These primary human cells patterned accurately on parylene and provided a similarly effective scaffold for neuronal adhesion. These findings advance the use of this microfabrication-compatible platform for neuronal patterning.
doi:10.1002/jbm.a.34813
PMCID: PMC4243028  PMID: 23733444
parylene; photolithography; cell patterning; neuron; silicon dioxide
7.  Circulating Biomarkers of One-Carbon Metabolism in Relation to Renal Cell Carcinoma Incidence and Survival 
Background
The etiology of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is only partially understood, but a metabolic component appears likely. We investigated biomarkers of one-carbon metabolism and RCC onset and survival.
Methods
The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) recruited 385747 participants with blood samples between 1992 and 2000, and this analysis included 556 RCC case-control pairs. A subsequent replication study included 144 case-control pairs nested within the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study (MCCS). Plasma concentrations of vitamin B2, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12, methionine and homocysteine were measured in prediagnostic samples and evaluated with respect to RCC risk using conditional and unconditional logistic regression models, and to all-cause mortality in RCC cases using Cox regression models. All statistical tests were two-sided.
Results
EPIC participants with higher plasma concentrations of vitamin B6 had lower risk of RCC, the odds ratio comparing the 4th and 1st quartiles (OR4vs1) being 0.40 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.28 to 0.57, P trend < .001. We found similar results after adjusting for potential confounders (adjusted P trend < .001). In survival analysis, the hazard ratio for all-cause mortality in RCC cases when comparing the 4th and 1st quartiles (HR4vs1) of vitamin B6 was 0.57 (95% CI = 0.37 to 0.87, P trend < .001).
Subsequent replication of these associations within the MCCS yielded very similar results for both RCC risk (OR4vs1 = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.23 to 0.99, P trend = .07) and all-cause mortality (HR4vs1 = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.27 to 1.17, P trend = .02). No association was evident for the other measured biomarkers.
Conclusion
Study participants with higher circulating concentrations of vitamin B6 had lower risk of RCC and improved survival following diagnosis in two independent cohorts.
doi:10.1093/jnci/dju327
PMCID: PMC4273895  PMID: 25376861
8.  The association between change in body mass index and upper aerodigestive tract cancers in the ARCAGE project: multicenter case-control study 
Previous studies reported an inverse relationship between body mass index (BMI) and upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancers. Examining change in BMI over time may clarify these previous observations. We used data from 2048 cases and 2173 hospital-and population-based controls from 10 European countries (ARCAGE study) to investigate the relationship with BMI and adult change in BMI on UADT cancer risk. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for associations between BMI at 3 time intervals and BMI change on UADT cancer development, adjusting for center, age, sex, education, fruit and vegetable intake, smoking, and alcohol consumption. We found an inverse relationship between UADT cancer and BMI at time of interview and 2 years prior to interview. No association was found with BMI at 30 years of age. Regarding BMI change between age 30 to 2 years prior to interview, BMI decrease (BMI change< −5%) vs. BMI stability (−5%≤BMI change<5%) showed no overall association with UADT cancer (OR=1.15; 95% CI=0.89, 1.49). An increase in BMI (BMI change ≥ +5%) was inversely associated with UADT cancers (OR=0.75; 95% CI= 0.62, 0.89). BMI gain remained inversely associated across all subsites except for esophageal cancer. When stratified by smoking, or by drinking, association with BMI gain was detected only in drinkers and smokers. In conclusion, BMI gain is inversely associated with UADT cancers. These findings may be influenced by smoking and/or drinking behaviors and/or the development of preclinical UADT cancers and should be corroborated in studies of a prospective nature.
doi:10.1002/ijc.25468
PMCID: PMC4183506  PMID: 20506380
BMI; BMI change; upper aerodigestive tract cancers
9.  Confirmation of 5p12 as a susceptibility locus for progesterone-receptor-positive, lower grade breast cancer 
Milne, Roger L. | Goode, Ellen L. | García-Closas, Montserrat | Couch, Fergus J. | Severi, Gianluca | Hein, Rebecca | Fredericksen, Zachary | Malats, Núria | Zamora, M. Pilar | Pérez, Jose Ignacio Arias | Benítez, Javier | Dörk, Thilo | Schürmann, Peter | Karstens, Johann H. | Hillemanns, Peter | Cox, Angela | Brock, Ian W. | Elliot, Graeme | Cross, Simon S. | Seal, Sheila | Turnbull, Clare | Renwick, Anthony | Rahman, Nazneen | Shen, Chen-Yang | Yu, Jyh-Cherng | Huang, Chiun-Sheng | Hou, Ming-Feng | Nordestgaard, Børge G. | Bojesen, Stig E. | Lanng, Charlotte | Alnæs, Grethe Grenaker | Kristensen, Vessela | Børrensen-Dale, Anne-Lise | Hopper, John L. | Dite, Gillian S. | Apicella, Carmel | Southey, Melissa C. | Lambrechts, Diether | Yesilyurt, Betül T. | Floris, Giuseppe | Leunen, Karin | Sangrajrang, Suleeporn | Gaborieau, Valerie | Brennan, Paul | McKay, James | Chang-Claude, Jenny | Wang-Gohrke, Shan | Radice, Paolo | Peterlongo, Paolo | Manoukian, Siranoush | Barile, Monica | Giles, Graham G. | Baglietto, Laura | John, Esther M. | Miron, Alexander | Chanock, Stephen J. | Lissowska, Jolanta | Sherman, Mark E. | Figueroa, Jonine D. | Bogdanova, Natalia V. | Antonenkova, Natalia N. | Zalutsky, Iosif V. | Rogov, Yuri I. | Fasching, Peter A. | Bayer, Christian M. | Ekici, Arif B. | Beckmann, Matthias W. | Brenner, Hermann | Müller, Heiko | Arndt, Volker | Stegmaier, Christa | Andrulis, Irene L. | Knight, Julia A. | Glendon, Gord | Mulligan, Anna Marie | Mannermaa, Arto | Kataja, Vesa | Kosma, Veli-Matti | Hartikainen, Jaana M. | Meindl, Alfons | Heil, Joerg | Bartram, Claus R. | Schmutzler, Rita K. | Thomas, Gilles D. | Hoover, Robert N. | Fletcher, Olivia | Gibson, Lorna J. | Silva, Isabel dos Santos | Peto, Julian | Nickels, Stefan | Flesch-Janys, Dieter | Anton-Culver, Hoda | Ziogas, Argyrios | Sawyer, Elinor | Tomlinson, Ian | Kerin, Michael | Miller, Nicola | Schmidt, Marjanka K. | Broeks, Annegien | Van ‘t Veer, Laura J. | Tollenaar, Rob A.E.M. | Pharoah, Paul D.P. | Dunning, Alison M. | Pooley, Karen A. | Marme, Frederik | Schneeweiss, Andreas | Sohn, Christof | Burwinkel, Barbara | Jakubowska, Anna | Lubinski, Jan | Jaworska, Katarzyna | Durda, Katarzyna | Kang, Daehee | Yoo, Keun-Young | Noh, Dong-Young | Ahn, Sei-Hyun | Hunter, David J. | Hankinson, Susan E. | Kraft, Peter | Lindstrom, Sara | Chen, Xiaoqing | Beesley, Jonathan | Hamann, Ute | Harth, Volker | Justenhoven, Christina | Winqvist, Robert | Pylkäs, Katri | Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja | Grip, Mervi | Hooning, Maartje | Hollestelle, Antoinette | Oldenburg, Rogier A. | Tilanus-Linthorst, Madeleine | Khusnutdinova, Elza | Bermisheva, Marina | Prokofieva, Darya | Farahtdinova, Albina | Olson, Janet E. | Wang, Xianshu | Humphreys, Manjeet K. | Wang, Qin | Chenevix-Trench, Georgia | Easton, Douglas F.
Background
The single nucleotide polymorphism 5p12-rs10941679has been found to be associated with risk of breast cancer, particularly estrogen receptor (ER)-positive disease. We aimed to further explore this association overall, and by tumor histopathology, in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium.
Methods
Data were combined from 37 studies, including 40,972 invasive cases, 1,398 cases of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and 46,334 controls, all of white European ancestry, as well as 3,007 invasive cases and 2,337 controls of Asian ancestry. Associations overall and by tumor invasiveness and histopathology were assessed using logistic regression.
Results
For white Europeans, the per-allele odds ratio (OR) associated with 5p12-rs10941679 was 1.11 (95% confidence interval [CI] =1.08–1.14, P=7×10−18) for invasive breast cancer and 1.10 (95%CI=1.01–1.21, P=0.03) for DCIS. For Asian women, the estimated OR for invasive disease was similar (OR=1.07, 95%CI=0.99–1.15, P=0.09). Further analyses suggested that the association in white Europeans was largely limited to progesterone receptor (PR)-positive disease (per-allele OR=1.16, 95%CI=1.12–1.20, P=1×10−18 versus OR=1.03, 95%CI=0.99–1.07, P=0.2 for PR-negative disease; P-heterogeneity=2×10−7); heterogeneity by estrogen receptor status was not observed (P=0.2) once PR status was accounted for. The association was also stronger for lower-grade tumors (per-allele OR [95%CI]=1.20 [1.14–1.25], 1.13 [1.09–1.16] and 1.04 [0.99–1.08] for grade 1, 2 and 3/4, respectively; P–trend=5×10−7).
Conclusion
5p12 is a breast cancer susceptibility locus for PR-positive, lower gradebreast cancer.
Impact
Multi-centre fine-mapping studies of this region are needed as a first step to identifying the causal variant or variants.
doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-11-0569
PMCID: PMC4164116  PMID: 21795498
Breast cancer; SNP; susceptibility; disease subtypes
10.  Cigarette, Cigar, and Pipe Smoking and the Risk of Head and Neck Cancers: Pooled Analysis in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium 
American Journal of Epidemiology  2013;178(5):679-690.
Cigar and pipe smoking are considered risk factors for head and neck cancers, but the magnitude of effect estimates for these products has been imprecisely estimated. By using pooled data from the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) Consortium (comprising 13,935 cases and 18,691 controls in 19 studies from 1981 to 2007), we applied hierarchical logistic regression to more precisely estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for cigarette, cigar, and pipe smoking separately, compared with reference groups of those who had never smoked each single product. Odds ratios for cigar and pipe smoking were stratified by ever cigarette smoking. We also considered effect estimates of smoking a single product exclusively versus never having smoked any product (reference group). Among never cigarette smokers, the odds ratio for ever cigar smoking was 2.54 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.93, 3.34), and the odds ratio for ever pipe smoking was 2.08 (95% CI: 1.55, 2.81). These odds ratios increased with increasing frequency and duration of smoking (Ptrend ≤ 0.0001). Odds ratios for cigar and pipe smoking were not elevated among ever cigarette smokers. Head and neck cancer risk was elevated for those who reported exclusive cigar smoking (odds ratio = 3.49, 95% CI: 2.58, 4.73) or exclusive pipe smoking (odds ratio = 3.71, 95% CI: 2.59, 5.33). These results suggest that cigar and pipe smoking are independently associated with increased risk of head and neck cancers.
doi:10.1093/aje/kwt029
PMCID: PMC3755640  PMID: 23817919
head and neck neoplasms; smoking
11.  A Pooled Analysis of Alcohol Consumption and Risk of Multiple Myeloma in the International Multiple Myeloma Consortium 
Background
Recent findings suggest that alcohol consumption may reduce risk of multiple myeloma (MM).
Methods
To better understand this relationship, we conducted an analysis of six case-control studies participating in the International Multiple Myeloma Consortium (1,567 cases, 7,296 controls). Summary odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) relating different measures of alcohol consumption and MM risk were computed by unconditional logistic regression with adjustment for age, race, and study center.
Results
Cases were significantly less likely than controls to report ever drinking alcohol (men: OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.59-0.89, women: OR 0.81, 0.68-0.95). The inverse association with MM was stronger when comparing current to never drinkers (men: OR=0.57, 95% CI 0.45-0.72, women: OR=0.55, 95% CI 0.45-0.68), but null among former drinkers. We did not observe an exposure-response relationship with increasing alcohol frequency, duration or cumulative lifetime consumption. Additional adjustment for body mass index, education, or smoking did not affect our results; and the patterns of association were similar for each type of alcohol beverage examined.
Conclusions
Our study is, to our knowledge, the largest of its kind to date, and our findings suggest that alcohol consumption may be associated with reduced risk of MM.
Impact
Prospective studies, especially those conducted as pooled analyses with large sample sizes, are needed to confirm our findings and further explore whether alcohol consumption provides true biologic protection against this rare, highly fatal malignancy.
doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-13-0334
PMCID: PMC3769449  PMID: 23964064
12.  Can a genotype for lactase persistence be used as a tool to assess the relationship between renal cell carcinoma and milk drinking? Pitfalls in the application of Mendelian randomization 
Background
Increased risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with milk consumption has been reported from observational studies including that involved here. Whether this represents causal association or whether it is the result of confounding or bias is unclear. We aimed to assess the potential for genetic variation in lactase persistence to be used as a tool for the interrogation of these relationships.
Methods
Using a large, hospital based case control study, we use a combination of observational genetic and phenotypic data to determine whether the MCM6 -13910 C/T(rs4988235) variant may be used as an non-confounded and unbiased marker for milk consumption.
Results
Consumption of milk during adulthood was associated with increased risk of RCC (OR=1.35 95% CI 1.03, 1.76 p=0.03). Among controls, consumption of milk was associated with the lactase persistence genotype at rs4988235 (2.39[1.81, 3.15], p=6.9*10−10), however the same genotype was not associated with RCC (OR=1.01 95% CI 0.83, 1.22 p=0.9). In controls, milk consumption was associated with confounding factors including smoking, and educational attainment, while the lactase persistence genotype at rs4988235 genotype showed negligible association with confounding factors.
Conclusions
The absence of an association between the MCM6 genotype and RCC suggests that observational associations between milk consumption and RCC may be due to confounding or bias. However, if the association between genotype and behavioral exposure is weak, then the power of this test may be low. The nature of intermediate risk factor instrumentation is an important consideration in the undertaking and interpretation of this type of causal analysis experiment.
doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-09-1019
PMCID: PMC4141143  PMID: 20447925
Mendelian randomization; lactase persistence; renal carcinoma
13.  Adult height and head and neck cancer: a pooled analysis within the INHANCE Consortium 
Background
Several epidemiological studies have shown a positive association between adult height and cancer incidence. The only study conducted among women on mouth and pharynx cancer risk, however, reported an inverse association. This study aims to investigate the association between height and the risk of head and neck cancer (HNC) within a large international consortium of HNC.
Methods
We analyzed pooled individual-level data from 24 case-control studies participating in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium. Odds Ratios (ORs) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CIs) were estimated separately for men and women for associations between height and HNC risk. Educational level, tobacco smoking, and alcohol consumption were included in all regression models. Stratified analyses by HNC subsites were performed.
Results
This project included 17,666 cases and 28,198 controls. We found an inverse association between height and HNC (adjusted OR per 10 cm height =0.91, 95% CI 0.86–0.95 for men; adjusted OR=0.86, 95% CI 0.79–0.93 for women). In men, the estimated OR did vary by educational level, smoking status, geographic area, and control source. No differences by subsites were detected.
Conclusions
Adult height is inversely associated with HNC risk. As height can be considered a marker of childhood illness and low energy intake, the inverse association is consistent with prior studies showing that HNC occur more frequently among deprived individuals. Further studies designed to elucidate the mechanism of such association would be warranted.
doi:10.1007/s10654-013-9863-2
PMCID: PMC4122122  PMID: 24271556
14.  Evaluation of Human Papillomavirus Antibodies and Risk of Subsequent Head and Neck Cancer 
Journal of Clinical Oncology  2013;31(21):2708-2715.
Purpose
Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) infection is causing an increasing number of oropharyngeal cancers in the United States and Europe. The aim of our study was to investigate whether HPV antibodies are associated with head and neck cancer risk when measured in prediagnostic sera.
Methods
We identified 638 participants with incident head and neck cancers (patients; 180 oral cancers, 135 oropharynx cancers, and 247 hypopharynx/larynx cancers) and 300 patients with esophageal cancers as well as 1,599 comparable controls from within the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Prediagnostic plasma samples from patients (collected, on average, 6 years before diagnosis) and control participants were analyzed for antibodies against multiple proteins of HPV16 as well as HPV6, HPV11, HPV18, HPV31, HPV33, HPV45, and HPV52. Odds ratios (ORs) of cancer and 95% CIs were calculated, adjusting for potential confounders. All-cause mortality was evaluated among patients using Cox proportional hazards regression.
Results
HPV16 E6 seropositivity was present in prediagnostic samples for 34.8% of patients with oropharyngeal cancer and 0.6% of controls (OR, 274; 95% CI, 110 to 681) but was not associated with other cancer sites. The increased risk of oropharyngeal cancer among HPV16 E6 seropositive participants was independent of time between blood collection and diagnosis and was observed more than 10 years before diagnosis. The all-cause mortality ratio among patients with oropharyngeal cancer was 0.30 (95% CI, 0.13 to 0.67), for patients who were HPV16 E6 seropositive compared with seronegative.
Conclusion
HPV16 E6 seropositivity was present more than 10 years before diagnosis of oropharyngeal cancers.
doi:10.1200/JCO.2012.47.2738
PMCID: PMC3709056  PMID: 23775966
15.  Active and involuntary tobacco smoking and upper-aerodigestive-tract cancer risks in a multicenter case-control study 
Introduction
Several important issues for the established association between tobacco smoking and upper-aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer risks include the associations with smoking by cancer subsite, by type of tobacco, and among never alcohol drinkers, and the associations with involuntary smoking among nonsmokers. Our aim was to examine these specific issues in a large scale case-control study in Europe.
Methods
Analysis was performed on 2,103 UADT squamous cell carcinoma cases and 2,221 controls in the Alcohol-Related Cancers and Genetic Susceptibility in Europe (ARCAGE) project, a multicenter case-control study in 10 European countries. Unconditional logistic regression was performed to obtain odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI).
Results
Compared to never tobacco smoking, current smoking was associated with UADT cancer risks (OR=6.72, 95% CI 5.45–8.30 for overall; 5.83, 4.50–7.54 for oral cavity and oropharynx; 12.19, 8.29–17.92 for hypopharynx and larynx; 4.17, 2.45–7.10 for esophagus). Among never drinkers, dose-response relationships with tobacco smoking packyears were observed for hypopharyngeal and laryngeal cancers (ptrend = 0.01), but not for oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers (ptrend = 0.282). Among never smokers, ever exposure to involuntary smoking was associated with an increased risk of UADT cancers (OR=1.60, 95% CI 1.04–2.46).
Conclusion
Our results corroborate that tobacco smoking may play a stronger role in the development of hypopharyngeal and laryngeal cancers than that of oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers among never drinkers and that involuntary smoking is an important risk factor for UADT cancers. Public health interventions to reduce involuntary smoking exposure could help reduce UADT cancer incidence.
doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-09-0910
PMCID: PMC4085143  PMID: 19959682
Active tobacco smoking; involuntary smoking; upper-aerodigestive-tract cancer
16.  Empirical Hierarchical Bayes Approach to Gene-Environment Interactions: Development and Application to Genome-Wide Association Studies of Lung Cancer in TRICL 
Genetic epidemiology  2013;37(6):551-559.
The analysis of gene-environment (GxE) interactions remains one of the greatest challenges in the post-genome-wide-association-studies (GWAS) era. Recent methods constitute a compromise between the robust but underpowered case-control and powerful case-only methods. Inferences of the latter are biased when the assumption of gene-environment (G-E) independence fails. We propose a novel empirical hierarchical Bayes approach to GxE interaction (EHB-GE), which benefits from greater power while accounting for population-based G-E dependence. Building on Lewinger et al.'s ([2007] Genet Epidemiol 31:871-882) hierarchical Bayes prioritization approach, the method utilizes posterior G-E association estimates in controls based on G-E information across the genome to adjust for it in resulting test statistics. These posteriori estimates are subtracted from the corresponding G-E association coefficients within cases.
We compared EHB-GE with rival methods using simulation. EHB-GE has similar or greater rank power to detect GxE interactions in the presence of large numbers of G-E associations with weak to strong effects or only a low number of such associations with large effect. When there are no or only a few weak G-E associations, Murcray et al.'s method ([2009] Am J Epidemiol 169:219-226) identifies markers with low GxE interaction effects better. We applied EHB-GE and competing methods to four lung cancer case-control GWAS from the TRICL/ILCCO consortium with smoking as environmental factor. Genes identified by the EHB-GE approach are reasonable candidates, suggesting usefulness of the method.
doi:10.1002/gepi.21741
PMCID: PMC4082246  PMID: 23893921
population G-E association; GWAS; rank power; lung cancer
17.  Lifetime alcohol use and overall and cause-specific mortality in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC) study 
BMJ Open  2014;4(7):e005245.
Objectives
To investigate the role of factors that modulate the association between alcohol and mortality, and to provide estimates of absolute risk of death.
Design
The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC).
Setting
23 centres in 10 countries.
Participants
380 395 men and women, free of cancer, diabetes, heart attack or stroke at enrolment, followed up for 12.6 years on average.
Main outcome measures
20 453 fatal events, of which 2053 alcohol-related cancers (ARC, including cancers of upper aerodigestive tract, liver, colorectal and female breast), 4187 cardiovascular diseases/coronary heart disease (CVD/CHD), 856 violent deaths and injuries. Lifetime alcohol use was assessed at recruitment.
Results
HRs comparing extreme drinkers (≥30 g/day in women and ≥60 g/day in men) to moderate drinkers (0.1–4.9 g/day) were 1.27 (95% CI 1.13 to 1.43) in women and 1.53 (1.39 to 1.68) in men. Strong associations were observed for ARC mortality, in men particularly, and for violent deaths and injuries, in men only. No associations were observed for CVD/CHD mortality among drinkers, whereby HRs were higher in never compared to moderate drinkers. Overall mortality seemed to be more strongly related to beer than wine use, particularly in men. The 10-year risks of overall death for women aged 60 years, drinking more than 30 g/day was 5% and 7%, for never and current smokers, respectively. Corresponding figures in men consuming more than 60 g/day were 11% and 18%, in never and current smokers, respectively. In competing risks analyses, mortality due to CVD/CHD was more pronounced than ARC in men, while CVD/CHD and ARC mortality were of similar magnitude in women.
Conclusions
In this large European cohort, alcohol use was positively associated with overall mortality, ARC and violent death and injuries, but marginally to CVD/CHD. Absolute risks of death observed in EPIC suggest that alcohol is an important determinant of total mortality.
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2014-005245
PMCID: PMC4091394  PMID: 24993766
Nutrition & Dietetics; Cardiology
18.  An investigation of risk factors for renal cell carcinoma by histologic subtype in two case-control studies 
To investigate whether renal cell carcinoma (RCC) histologic subtypes possess different etiologies, we conducted analyses of established RCC risk factors by subtype (clear cell, papillary, chromophobe) in two case-control studies conducted in the United States (1,217 cases, 1,235 controls) and Europe (1,097 cases, 1,476 controls). Histology was ascertained for 706 U.S. cases (58% of total) and 917 European cases (84%) through a central slide review conducted by a single pathologist. For the remaining cases, histology was abstracted from the original diagnostic pathology report. Case-only analyses were performed to compute odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) summarizing subtype differences by age, sex, and race. Case-control analyses were performed to compute subtype-specific ORs for other risk factors using polytomous regression. In case-only analyses, papillary cases (N=237) were older (OR=1.2, 95% CI=1.1–1.4 per 10-year increase), less likely to be female (OR=0.5, 95 % CI=0.4- 0.8) and more likely to be black (OR=2.6, 95% CI=1.8–3.9) compared to clear cell cases (N=1,524). In case-control analyses, BMI was associated with clear cell (OR=1.2, 95% CI=1.1–1.3 per 5kg/m2 increase) and chromophobe RCC (N=80; OR=1.2, 95% CI=1.1- 1.4), but not papillary RCC (OR=1.1, 95% CI=1.0–1.2; test vs. clear cell, P=0.006). No subtype differences were observed for associations with smoking, hypertension or family history of kidney cancer. Our findings support the existence of distinct age, sex and racial distributions for RCC subtypes, and suggest that the obesity-RCC association differs by histology.
doi:10.1002/ijc.27934
PMCID: PMC3717609  PMID: 23150424
Renal cell carcinoma; histology; case-control studies; body mass index
19.  Personal Use of Hair Dye and the Risk of Certain Subtypes of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma 
American journal of epidemiology  2008;167(11):1321-1331.
Personal use of hair dye has been inconsistently linked to risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), perhaps because of small samples or a lack of detailed information on personal hair-dye use in previous studies. This study included 4,461 NHL cases and 5,799 controls from the International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium 1988–2003. Increased risk of NHL (odds ratio (OR) = 1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1, 1.4) associated with hair-dye use was observed among women who began using hair dye before 1980. Analyses by NHL subtype showed increased risk for follicular lymphoma (FL) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL) but not for other NHL subtypes. The increased risks of FL (OR = 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.9) and CLL/SLL (OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.0) were mainly observed among women who started using hair dyes before 1980. For women who began using hair dye in 1980 or afterward, increased FL risk was limited to users of dark-colored dyes (OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.0). These results indicate that personal hair-dye use may play a role in risks of FL and CLL/SLL in women who started use before 1980 and that increased risk of FL among women who started use during or after 1980 cannot be excluded.
doi:10.1093/aje/kwn058
PMCID: PMC4025953  PMID: 18408225
case-control studies; hair dyes; lymphoma; non-Hodgkin
20.  Hierarchical modeling identifies novel lung cancer susceptibility variants in inflammation pathways among 10,140 cases and 11,012 controls 
Human genetics  2013;132(5):579-589.
Recent evidence suggests that inflammation plays a pivotal role in the development of lung cancer. In this study, we used a two-stage approach to investigate associations between genetic variants in inflammation pathways and lung cancer risk based on genome-wide association study (GWAS) data. A total of 7,650 sequence variants from 720 genes relevant to inflammation pathways were identified using keyword and pathway searches from Gene Cards and Gene Ontology databases. In Stage 1, six GWAS datasets from the International Lung Cancer Consortium were pooled (4,441 cases and 5,094 controls of European ancestry), and a hierarchical modeling (HM) approach was used to incorporate prior information for each of the variants into the analysis. The prior matrix was constructed using (1) role of genes in the inflammation and immune pathways; (2) physical properties of the variants including the location of the variants, their conservation scores and amino acid coding; (3) LD with other functional variants and (4) measures of heterogeneity across the studies. HM affected the priority ranking of variants particularly among those having low prior weights, imprecise estimates and/or heterogeneity across studies. In Stage 2, we used an independent NCI lung cancer GWAS study (5,699 cases and 5,818 controls) for in silico replication. We identified one novel variant at the level corrected for multiple comparisons (rs2741354 in EPHX2 at 8q21.1 with p value = 7.4 × 10−6), and confirmed the associations between TERT (rs2736100) and the HLA region and lung cancer risk. HM allows for prior knowledge such as from bioinformatic sources to be incorporated into the analysis systematically, and it represents a complementary analytical approach to the conventional GWAS analysis.
doi:10.1007/s00439-013-1270-y
PMCID: PMC3628758  PMID: 23370545
21.  Imaging of Adult Ocular and Orbital Pathology - a Pictorial Review 
Orbital pathology often presents a diagnostic challenge to the reporting radiologist. The aetiology is protean, and clinical input is therefore often necessary to narrow the differential diagnosis. With this manuscript, we provide a pictorial review of adult ocular and orbital pathology.
doi:10.3941/jrcr.v8i2.1525
PMCID: PMC4037250  PMID: 24967016
Orbit; globe; adult; pathology; vascular; inflammatory; infectious; endocrine; neoplastic; paranasal sinuses; bone lesions; trauma; iatrogenic
22.  Alcohol and mortality in Russia: prospective observational study of 151 000 adults 
Lancet  2014;383(9927):1465-1473.
Summary
Background
Russian adults have extraordinarily high rates of premature death. Retrospective enquiries to the families of about 50 000 deceased Russians had found excess vodka use among those dying from external causes (accident, suicide, violence) and eight particular disease groupings. We now seek prospective evidence of these associations.
Methods
In three Russian cities (Barnaul, Byisk, and Tomsk), we interviewed 200 000 adults during 1999–2008 (with 12 000 re-interviewed some years later) and followed them until 2010 for cause-specific mortality. In 151 000 with no previous disease and some follow-up at ages 35–74 years, Poisson regression (adjusted for age at risk, amount smoked, education, and city) was used to calculate the relative risks associating vodka consumption with mortality. We have combined these relative risks with age-specific death rates to get 20-year absolute risks.
Findings
Among 57 361 male smokers with no previous disease, the estimated 20-year risks of death at ages 35–54 years were 16% (95% CI 15–17) for those who reported consuming less than a bottle of vodka per week at baseline, 20% (18–22) for those consuming 1–2·9 bottles per week, and 35% (31–39) for those consuming three or more bottles per week; trend p<0·0001. The corresponding risks of death at ages 55–74 years were 50% (48–52) for those who reported consuming less than a bottle of vodka per week at baseline, 54% (51–57) for those consuming 1–2·9 bottles per week, and 64% (59–69) for those consuming three or more bottles per week; trend p<0·0001. In both age ranges most of the excess mortality in heavier drinkers was from external causes or the eight disease groupings strongly associated with alcohol in the retrospective enquiries. Self-reported drinking fluctuated; of the men who reported drinking three or more bottles of vodka per week who were reinterviewed a few years later, about half (185 of 321) then reported drinking less than one bottle per week. Such fluctuations must have substantially attenuated the apparent hazards of heavy drinking in this study, yet self-reported vodka use at baseline still strongly predicted risk. Among male non-smokers and among females, self-reported heavy drinking was uncommon, but seemed to involve similar absolute excess risks.
Interpretation
This large prospective study strongly reinforces other evidence that vodka is a major cause of the high risk of premature death in Russian adults.
Funding
UK Medical Research Council, British Heart Foundation, Cancer Research UK, European Union, WHO International Agency for Research on Cancer.
doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(13)62247-3
PMCID: PMC4007591  PMID: 24486187
23.  Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease and overall and Cause-specific Mortality: A Prospective Study of 50000 Individuals 
BACKGROUND
Only a few studies in Western countries have investigated the association between gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and mortality at the general population level and they have shown mixed results. This study investigated the association between GERD symptoms and overall and cause-specific mortality in a large prospective population-based study in Golestan Province, Iran.
METHODS
Baseline data on frequency, onset time, and patient-perceived severity of GERD symptoms were available for 50001 participants in the Golestan Cohort Study (GCS). We identified 3107 deaths (including 1146 circulatory and 470 cancer-related) with an average follow-up of 6.4 years and calculated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for multiple potential confounders.
RESULTS
Severe daily symptoms (defined as symptoms interfering with daily work or causing nighttime awakenings on a daily bases, reported by 4.3% of participants) were associated with cancer mortality (HR 1.48, 95% CI: 1.04-2.05). This increase was too small to noticeably affect overall mortality. Mortality was not associated with onset time or frequency of GERD and was not increased with mild to moderate symptoms.
CONCLUSION
We have observed an association with GERD and increased cancer mortality in a small group of individuals that had severe symptoms. Most patients with mild to moderate GERD can be re-assured that their symptoms are not associated with increased mortality.
PMCID: PMC4034667  PMID: 24872865
Cardiovascular disease; Esophageal cancer; Gastroesophageal reflux disease; Mortality
24.  A U-shaped relationship between haematocrit and mortality in a large prospective cohort study 
Background Only a limited number of studies have investigated the correlation between haematocrit (HCT) and mortality in the general population, and few of those studies have had data on a wide range of low and high levels of HCT. We investigated the association between baseline HCT and mortality in a prospective cohort study of 49 983 adult subjects in Iran with a broad spectrum of HCT values.
Methods Data on socio-demographic and life-style factors, past medical history, and levels of HCT were collected at enrollment. During a mean follow-up of 5 years (follow-up success rate ∼99%), 2262 deaths were reported. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals.
Results There was a U-shaped relationship between categories of HCT and mortality in both sexes: both low and high levels of HCT were associated with increased overall mortality and mortality from cardiovascular disease. The U-shaped relationship persisted after several sensitivity analyses were done, including analyses restricted to non-smokers and non-users of opium; analyses excluding deaths from accidents and other external causes as well as deaths of persons with self-reported ischemic heart disease at the baseline interview for the study; and analyses excluding the first 2 years of follow-up. Self-reported past medical history and lack of data about lipids and other cellular blood components were the major limitations of the study.
Conclusions Low and high levels of HCT are associated with increased mortality in the general population. The findings in the present study can be of particular importance for low- and middle-income countries in which a substantial proportion of the population lives with suboptimal levels of HCT.
doi:10.1093/ije/dyt013
PMCID: PMC3619954  PMID: 23569195
Anaemia; cancer; cardiovascular disease; erythrocytosis; haematocrit; mortality
25.  Large-scale genotyping identifies 41 new loci associated with breast cancer risk 
Michailidou, Kyriaki | Hall, Per | Gonzalez-Neira, Anna | Ghoussaini, Maya | Dennis, Joe | Milne, Roger L | Schmidt, Marjanka K | Chang-Claude, Jenny | Bojesen, Stig E | Bolla, Manjeet K | Wang, Qin | Dicks, Ed | Lee, Andrew | Turnbull, Clare | Rahman, Nazneen | Fletcher, Olivia | Peto, Julian | Gibson, Lorna | Silva, Isabel dos Santos | Nevanlinna, Heli | Muranen, Taru A | Aittomäki, Kristiina | Blomqvist, Carl | Czene, Kamila | Irwanto, Astrid | Liu, Jianjun | Waisfisz, Quinten | Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne | Adank, Muriel | van der Luijt, Rob B | Hein, Rebecca | Dahmen, Norbert | Beckman, Lars | Meindl, Alfons | Schmutzler, Rita K | Müller-Myhsok, Bertram | Lichtner, Peter | Hopper, John L | Southey, Melissa C | Makalic, Enes | Schmidt, Daniel F | Uitterlinden, Andre G | Hofman, Albert | Hunter, David J | Chanock, Stephen J | Vincent, Daniel | Bacot, François | Tessier, Daniel C | Canisius, Sander | Wessels, Lodewyk F A | Haiman, Christopher A | Shah, Mitul | Luben, Robert | Brown, Judith | Luccarini, Craig | Schoof, Nils | Humphreys, Keith | Li, Jingmei | Nordestgaard, Børge G | Nielsen, Sune F | Flyger, Henrik | Couch, Fergus J | Wang, Xianshu | Vachon, Celine | Stevens, Kristen N | Lambrechts, Diether | Moisse, Matthieu | Paridaens, Robert | Christiaens, Marie-Rose | Rudolph, Anja | Nickels, Stefan | Flesch-Janys, Dieter | Johnson, Nichola | Aitken, Zoe | Aaltonen, Kirsimari | Heikkinen, Tuomas | Broeks, Annegien | Van’t Veer, Laura J | van der Schoot, C Ellen | Guénel, Pascal | Truong, Thérèse | Laurent-Puig, Pierre | Menegaux, Florence | Marme, Frederik | Schneeweiss, Andreas | Sohn, Christof | Burwinkel, Barbara | Zamora, M Pilar | Perez, Jose Ignacio Arias | Pita, Guillermo | Alonso, M Rosario | Cox, Angela | Brock, Ian W | Cross, Simon S | Reed, Malcolm W R | Sawyer, Elinor J | Tomlinson, Ian | Kerin, Michael J | Miller, Nicola | Henderson, Brian E | Schumacher, Fredrick | Le Marchand, Loic | Andrulis, Irene L | Knight, Julia A | Glendon, Gord | Mulligan, Anna Marie | Lindblom, Annika | Margolin, Sara | Hooning, Maartje J | Hollestelle, Antoinette | van den Ouweland, Ans M W | Jager, Agnes | Bui, Quang M | Stone, Jennifer | Dite, Gillian S | Apicella, Carmel | Tsimiklis, Helen | Giles, Graham G | Severi, Gianluca | Baglietto, Laura | Fasching, Peter A | Haeberle, Lothar | Ekici, Arif B | Beckmann, Matthias W | Brenner, Hermann | Müller, Heiko | Arndt, Volker | Stegmaier, Christa | Swerdlow, Anthony | Ashworth, Alan | Orr, Nick | Jones, Michael | Figueroa, Jonine | Lissowska, Jolanta | Brinton, Louise | Goldberg, Mark S | Labrèche, France | Dumont, Martine | Winqvist, Robert | Pylkäs, Katri | Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja | Grip, Mervi | Brauch, Hiltrud | Hamann, Ute | Brüning, Thomas | Radice, Paolo | Peterlongo, Paolo | Manoukian, Siranoush | Bonanni, Bernardo | Devilee, Peter | Tollenaar, Rob A E M | Seynaeve, Caroline | van Asperen, Christi J | Jakubowska, Anna | Lubinski, Jan | Jaworska, Katarzyna | Durda, Katarzyna | Mannermaa, Arto | Kataja, Vesa | Kosma, Veli-Matti | Hartikainen, Jaana M | Bogdanova, Natalia V | Antonenkova, Natalia N | Dörk, Thilo | Kristensen, Vessela N | Anton-Culver, Hoda | Slager, Susan | Toland, Amanda E | Edge, Stephen | Fostira, Florentia | Kang, Daehee | Yoo, Keun-Young | Noh, Dong-Young | Matsuo, Keitaro | Ito, Hidemi | Iwata, Hiroji | Sueta, Aiko | Wu, Anna H | Tseng, Chiu-Chen | Van Den Berg, David | Stram, Daniel O | Shu, Xiao-Ou | Lu, Wei | Gao, Yu-Tang | Cai, Hui | Teo, Soo Hwang | Yip, Cheng Har | Phuah, Sze Yee | Cornes, Belinda K | Hartman, Mikael | Miao, Hui | Lim, Wei Yen | Sng, Jen-Hwei | Muir, Kenneth | Lophatananon, Artitaya | Stewart-Brown, Sarah | Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep | Shen, Chen-Yang | Hsiung, Chia-Ni | Wu, Pei-Ei | Ding, Shian-Ling | Sangrajrang, Suleeporn | Gaborieau, Valerie | Brennan, Paul | McKay, James | Blot, William J | Signorello, Lisa B | Cai, Qiuyin | Zheng, Wei | Deming-Halverson, Sandra | Shrubsole, Martha | Long, Jirong | Simard, Jacques | Garcia-Closas, Montse | Pharoah, Paul D P | Chenevix-Trench, Georgia | Dunning, Alison M | Benitez, Javier | Easton, Douglas F
Nature genetics  2013;45(4):353-361e2.
Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. Common variants at 27 loci have been identified as associated with susceptibility to breast cancer, and these account for ~9% of the familial risk of the disease. We report here a meta-analysis of 9 genome-wide association studies, including 10,052 breast cancer cases and 12,575 controls of European ancestry, from which we selected 29,807 SNPs for further genotyping. These SNPs were genotyped in 45,290 cases and 41,880 controls of European ancestry from 41 studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). The SNPs were genotyped as part of a collaborative genotyping experiment involving four consortia (Collaborative Oncological Gene-environment Study, COGS) and used a custom Illumina iSelect genotyping array, iCOGS, comprising more than 200,000 SNPs. We identified SNPs at 41 new breast cancer susceptibility loci at genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10−8). Further analyses suggest that more than 1,000 additional loci are involved in breast cancer susceptibility.
doi:10.1038/ng.2563
PMCID: PMC3771688  PMID: 23535729

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