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1.  Toward a classification of medications for sleep and circadian rhythm disorders 
Nature and Science of Sleep  2013;5:143-145.
While some systems classify medications according to therapeutic class, others are based on the mechanism of action of the drugs. The two main classifications of medications used to treat patients in the United States are those of the United States Pharmacopeia and US Food and Drug Administration, and they vary in their organization of the medication categories. Here we propose a taxonomy for medications used to treat sleep and circadian rhythm disorders based on symptoms and disorders.
PMCID: PMC3862774  PMID: 24363563
circadian; sleep; taxonomy; classification; diagnosis
2.  Classification of Sleep Disorders 
Neurotherapeutics  2012;9(4):687-701.
The classification of sleep disorders is necessary to discriminate between disorders and to facilitate an understanding of symptoms, etiology, and pathophysiology that allows for appropriate treatment. The earliest classification systems, largely organized according to major symptoms (insomnia, excessive sleepiness, and abnormal events that occur during sleep), were unable to be based on pathophysiology because the cause of most sleep disorders was unknown. These 3 symptom-based categories are easily understood by physicians and are therefore useful for developing a differential diagnosis. The International Classification of Sleep Disorders, version 2, published in 2005 and currently undergoing revision, combines a symptomatic presentation (e.g., insomnia) with 1 organized in part on pathophysiology (e.g., circadian rhythms) and in part on body systems (e.g., breathing disorders). This organization of sleep disorders is necessary because of the varied nature and because the pathophysiology for many of the disorders is still unknown. The International Classification of Sleep Disorders, version 2 provides relevant diagnostic and epidemiological information on sleep disorders to more easily differentiate between the disorders.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s13311-012-0145-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC3480567  PMID: 22976557
Classification; ICSD-2; Sleep disorders; Parasomnias; Insomnia; Hypersomnia

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