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1.  Effects of Melatonin and Epiphyseal Proteins on Fluoride-Induced Adverse Changes in Antioxidant Status of Heart, Liver, and Kidney of Rats 
Several experimental and clinical reports indicated the oxidative stress-mediated adverse changes in vital organs of human and animal in fluoride (F) toxicity. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic effect of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) epiphyseal (pineal) proteins (BEP) and melatonin (MEL) against F-induced oxidative stress in heart, liver, and kidney of experimental adult female rats. To accomplish this experimental objective, twenty-four adult female Wistar rats (123–143 g body weights) were divided into four groups, namely, control, F, F + BEP, and F + MEL and were administered sodium fluoride (NaF, 150 ppm elemental F in drinking water), MEL (10 mg/kg BW, i.p.), and BEP (100 µg/kg BW, i.p.) for 28 days. There were significantly (P < 0.05) high levels of lipid peroxidation and catalase and low levels of reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase in cardiac, hepatic, and renal tissues of F-treated rats. Administration of BEP and MEL in F-treated rats, however, significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated these adverse changes in all the target components of antioxidant defense system of cardiac, hepatic, and renal tissues. The present data suggest that F can induce oxidative stress in liver, heart, and kidney of female rats which may be a mechanism in F toxicity and these adverse effects can be ameliorated by buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) epiphyseal proteins and melatonin by upregulation of antioxidant defense system of heart, liver, and kidney of rats.
doi:10.1155/2014/532969
PMCID: PMC3984810  PMID: 24790596
2.  Cerebral Epiphyseal Proteins and Melatonin Modulate the Hepatic and Renal Antioxidant Defense of Rats 
The cerebral epiphysis (pineal gland) secrets melatonin and number of other proteins and peptides. It was thus hypothesized that antioxidant properties of epiphyseal proteins and melatonin could potentially benefit from exogenous therapies. In view of the therapeutic potential of these proteins, the present experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of buffalo epiphyseal proteins (BEP, at 100 μg/kg BW, i.p.) and melatonin (MEL, at 10 mg/kg BW, i.p) on changes in hepatic and renal antioxidant enzymes of adult female Wistar rats. Buffalo epiphyseal proteins significantly (P < .05) increased hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), reduced glutathione (GSH), and renal LPO, catalase (CAT), GR, GSH, GPx levels as compared to control animals. Similarly, MEL treatment significantly (P < .05) up-regulated hepatic SOD and GPx activity, whereas CAT, GR, GPx, and GSH levels in renal tissues were increased while SOD and LPO remained unaffected. Buffalo epiphyseal protein treatment produced greater effects on hepatic GPx and renal CAT and GSH levels than did MEL. These findings support the conclusion that buffalo epiphyseal proteins and melatonin activate a number of antioxidant mechanisms in hepatic and renal tissues.
doi:10.4061/2011/142896
PMCID: PMC3106360  PMID: 21660111
3.  Measurement of melatonin in body fluids: Standards, protocols and procedures 
Child's Nervous System  2010;27(6):879-891.
Background and Purpose
The circadian rhythm of melatonin in saliva or plasma, or of the melatonin metabolite 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (a6MTs) in urine, is a defining feature of suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) function, the body’s endogenous oscillatory pacemaker. The primary objective of this review is to ascertain the clinical benefits and limitations of current methodologies employed for detection and quantification of melatonin in biological fluids and tissues.
Data Identification
A search of the English-language literature (Medline) and a systematic review of published articles were carried out.
Study Selection
Articles that specified both the methodology for quantifying melatonin and indicated the clinical purpose were chosen for inclusion in the review.
Data Extraction
The authors critically evaluated the methodological issues associated with various tools and techniques (e.g. standards, protocols, and procedures).
Results of Data Synthesis
Melatonin measurements are useful for evaluating problems related to the onset or offset of sleep and for assessing phase delays or advances of rhythms in entrained individuals. They have also become an important tool for psychiatric diagnosis, their use being recommended for phase typing in patients suffering from sleep and mood disorders. Additionally, there has been a continuous interest in the use of melatonin as a marker for neoplasms of the pineal region. Melatonin decreases such as found with aging are or post pinealectomy can cause alterations in the sleep/wake cycle. The development of sensitive and selective methods for the precise detection of melatonin in tissues and fluids has increasingly been shown to have direct relevance for clinical decision making.
Conclusions
Due to melatonin’s low concentration, as well as the coexistence of numerous other compounds in the blood, the routine determination of melatonin has been an analytical challenge. The available evidence indicates however that these challenges can be overcome and consequently that evaluation of melatonin's presence and activity can be an accessible and useful tool for clinical diagnosis.
doi:10.1007/s00381-010-1278-8
PMCID: PMC3128751  PMID: 21104186
Melatonin; Circadian rhythms; Radioimmunoassay; Enzyme-linked immunoassay; High-performance liquid chromatography; Mass spectrometry; Capillary electrophoresis
4.  Interfacing Sleep and Aging 
doi:10.3389/fneur.2010.000132
PMCID: PMC2995619  PMID: 21173896

Results 1-5 (5)