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1.  Gracilis muscle interposition with primary rectal without urethral repair for moderate sized rectourethral fistula caused by brachytherapy for prostate cancer: a case report 
Introduction
There is a 0.16% chance of a rectourethral fistula after prostate brachytherapy monotherapy using Palladium-103 or Iodine-125 implants. We present an unusual case report of a rectourethral fistula following brachyradiotherapy monotherapy for prostate adenocarcinoma. It was also associated with unusual management of the fistula.
Case presentation
A 58-year-old Caucasian man underwent brachyradiotherapy monotherapy as definitive treatment for verified intracapsular prostate adenocarcinoma receiving 56 Iodine-125 implants using a transrectal ultrasound-guided technique. The patient started to complain of severe perineal pain and mild rectal bleeding 15Â months after brachyradiotherapy. A biopsy of mucosa of his anterior rectal wall was performed. A moderate sized rectourethral fistula was confirmed 23Â months after implantation of Iodine-125 seeds. Laparoscopic sigmoidostomy and suprapubic cystostomy were then performed. Long-term cortisone applications in combination with 30 sessions of hyperbaric oxygen therapy, and antibacterial therapies were initiated due to necrotic infection. A gracilis muscle interposition to create a partition between the patient's rectum and urethra in conjunction with primary rectal repair but without urethral repair were performed 6 months later. The 3cm rectal defect was repaired via a 3cm-long horizontal perineal incision. The 1.5cm urethral defect just below the prostate was not repaired. The patient underwent an optic internal urethrotomy 3Â months later for a 1.5cm-long urethral stricture. Several planned preventive urethral buginages were performed to avoid urethral stricture recurrence. At 12Â months postoperatively, there were no signs of a fistula and cancer recurrence. He now has a normal voiding and anal continence.
Conclusion
Severe rectal pain, bleeding, and local anterior necrotic proctitis are predictors of a rectourethral fistula. Urinary and fecal diversion is the first-step operation. Gracilis muscle interposition in conjunction with primary rectal repair but without urethral reconstruction is one of the reconstructive surgery options for moderate 2cm to 3cm rectourethral fistulas. Internal urethrotomy is a procedure for postoperative urethral strictures of 1.5cm in length.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-6-323
PMCID: PMC3485089  PMID: 23009550
Brachytherapy; Gracilis interposition; Prostate cancer; Radiotherapy; Rectal repair; Rectourethral fistula
2.  Incidentally Found Prostate Cancer and Influence on Overall Survival after Radical Cystoprostatectomy 
Prostate Cancer  2012;2012:690210.
Objectives. To determine incidentally found prostate cancer frequency and impact on overall survival after RCP. Patients and Methods. The records of 81 men who underwent cystoprostatectomy from January 2000 to December 2009 were reviewed. The vital status of the study group was assessed as on September 1, 2009, by passive followup, using data from the population registry. Results. The 81 men underwent RCP. The incidental prostate cancer was found in the specimens of 27 (33.3%) patients. 13 (48.1%) of 27 prostate cancer cases were clinically significant. For 3 patients (11.1%) an extraprostatic extension was found. For 2 patients (7.4%)—positive margins, for 1 patient (3.7%)—Gleason sum 8, and for the rest 7 patients bigger than 0.5 cm3 volume tumor, and Gleason sum 7 was found. The mean follow-up time was 39.2 ± 33.8 months (varies from 0.8 to 131.2 months). The patients with bladder cancer and incidentally found prostate cancer lived shorter (28.1 ± 27.5 and 45.5 ± 35.40 months). Higher overall survival (P = 0.03) was found in the patient group with bladder cancer without incidentally diagnosed prostate cancer. Conclusion. There are indications that in this small study prostate cancer has influenced on patients' survival with bladder cancer after radical cystoprostatectomy.
doi:10.1155/2012/690210
PMCID: PMC3372048  PMID: 22701798
3.  Extralobar pulmonary sequestration 
Prevalence of pulmonary sequestration accounts for up to 6.4% of all congenital pulmonary malformations. We report on a 40-year-old woman who underwent excision of an aberrant solid retroperitoneal mass in the left subdiaphragmatic area. The mass was identified to be an extralobar pulmonary sequestration. The diagnosis could be made without surgery by percutaneous tissue biopsy and imaging. We encourage keeping in mind pulmonary sequestration anomaly presenting as an aberrant retroperitoneal mass. The aim of this case report is to increase awareness about the condition and review the criteria for its definitive diagnosis and treatment.
doi:10.2147/IMCRJ.S15261
PMCID: PMC3658232  PMID: 23754900
retroperitoneal aberrant mass; extralobar pulmonary sequestration

Results 1-3 (3)