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1.  Risk of hematological malignancies among Chernobyl liquidators 
Radiation research  2008;170(6):721-735.
A case-control study of hematological malignancies was conducted among Chernobyl liquidators (accident recovery workers) from Belarus, Russia and Baltic countries in order to assess the effect of low-to-medium dose protracted radiation exposures on the relative risk of these diseases. The study was nested within cohorts of liquidators who had worked in 1986–87 around the Chernobyl plant. 117 cases (69 leukemia, 34 non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) and 14 other malignancies of lymphoid and hematopoietic tissue) and 481 matched controls were included in the study. Individual dose to the bone marrow and uncertainties were estimated for each subject. The main analyses were restricted to 70 cases (40 leukemia, 20 NHL and 10 other) and their 287 matched controls with reliable information on work in the Chernobyl area. Most subjects received very low doses (median 13 mGy). For all diagnoses combined, a significantly elevated OR was seen at doses of 200 mGy and above. The Excess Relative Risk (ERR) per 100 mGy was 0.60 (90% confidence interval (CI): −0.02, 2.35). The corresponding estimate for leukemia excluding chronic lymphoid leukemia (CLL) was 0.50 (90%CI −0.38, 5.7). It is slightly higher than, but statistically compatible with, those estimated from a-bomb survivors and recent low dose-rate studies. Although sensitivity analyses showed generally similar results, we cannot rule out the possibility that biases and uncertainties could have led to over or underestimation of the risk in this study.
PMCID: PMC2904977  PMID: 19138033
2.  Cancer mortality differences among urban and rural residents in Lithuania 
BMC Public Health  2008;8:56.
The aim of this study was to describe and to compare the cancer mortality rates in urban and rural residents in Lithuania.
Cancer mortality has been studied using the materials of the Lithuanian cancer registry. For the period 1993–2004 age-standardized urban and rural population mortality rates (World standard) were calculated for all malignant neoplasm's and for stomach, colorectal, lung, prostate, breast and cervical cancers. The annual percentage change (APC) was calculated using log-linear regression model, two-sided Mantel-Haenzel test was used to evaluate differences in cancer mortality among rural and urban populations.
For males in rural population cancer mortality was higher than in urban (212.2 and 197.0 cases per 100000) and for females cancer mortality was higher in urban population (103.5 and 94.2 cases per 100000, p < 0.05). During the study period the age-standardized mortality rates decreased in both sexes in urban residents. The decreasing mortality trend in urban population was contributed by decline of the rates of lung and stomach cancer in male and breast, stomach and colorectal cancer in female. Mortality rates in both urban and rural population were increasing for prostate and cervical cancers.
This study shows that large rural and urban inequalities in cancer mortality exist in Lithuania. The contrast between the health of residents in urban and rural areas invites researchers for research projects to develop, implement, and enhance cancer prevention and early detection intervention strategies for rural populations.
PMCID: PMC2259339  PMID: 18267035
3.  The value of prognostic factors for uterine cervical cancer patients treated with irradiation alone 
BMC Cancer  2007;7:234.
The aim of our study was to investigate and evaluate the prognostic value of and correlations between preclinical and clinical factors such as the stage of the disease, blood Hb level before treatment, size of cervix and lymph nodes evaluated by CT, age, dose of irradiation and duration of radiotherapy related to overall survival, disease-free survival, local control and metastases-free survival in cervical cancer patients receiving radiotherapy alone.
162 patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage IIA-IIIB cervical carcinoma treated with irradiation were analysed. Univariate and multivariate analyses using the Cox regression model were performed to determine statistical significance of some tumor-related factors.
The Hb level before treatment showed significant influence on overall survival (p = 0.001), desease free survival (p = 0.040) and local control (p = 0.038). The lymph node status (>10 mm) assessed on CT had impact on overall survival (p = 0,030) and local control (p = 0,036). The dose at point A had impact on disease free survival (p = 0,028) and local control (p = 0,021) and the radiotherapy duration had showed significant influence on overall survival (p = 0,045), disease free survival (p = 0,006) and local control (p = 0,033).
Anemia is a significant and independent prognostic factor of overall survival, disease-free survival and local control in cervical cancer patients treated with irradiation. The size of lymph nodes in CT is an independent prognostic factor for overall survival and local control in cervical cancer patients. The size of cervix uteri evaluated by CT has no prognostic significance in cervical cancer patients treated with radiotherapy. The prognostic value of FIGO stage of cervical cancer is influenced by other factors, analyzed in this study and is not an independent prognostic factor.
PMCID: PMC2241630  PMID: 18154683
4.  Increasing thyroid cancer incidence in Lithuania in 1978–2003 
BMC Cancer  2006;6:284.
The aim of this paper is to analyze changes in thyroid cancer incidence trends in Lithuania during the period 1978–2003 using joinpoint regression models, with special attention to the period 1993–2003.
The study was based on all cases of thyroid cancer reported to the Lithuanian Cancer Registry between 1978 and 2003. Age group-specific rates and standardized rates were calculated for each gender, using the direct method (world standard population). The joinpoint regression model was used to provide estimated annual percentage change and to detect points in time where significant changes in the trends occur.
During the study period the age-standardized incidence rates increased in males from 0.7 to 2.5 cases per 100 000 and in females from 1.5 to 11.4 per 100 000. Annual percentage changes during this period in the age-standardized rates were 4.6% and 7.1% for males and females, respectively. Joinpoint analysis showed two time periods with joinpoint in the year 2000. A change in the trend occurred in which a significant increase changed to a dramatic increase in thyroid cancer incidence rates. Papillary carcinoma and stage I thyroid cancer increases over this period were mainly responsible for the pattern of changes in trend in recent years.
A moderate increase in thyroid cancer incidence has been observed in Lithuania between the years 1978 and 2000. An accelerated increase in thyroid cancer incidence rates took place in the period 2000–2003. It seems that the increase in thyroid cancer incidence can be attributed mainly to the changes in the management of non palpable thyroid nodules with growing applications of ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy in clinical practice.
PMCID: PMC1764427  PMID: 17156468
5.  Comparison of adjuvant and neoadjuvant chemotherapy in the management of advanced ovarian cancer: a retrospective study of 574 patients 
BMC Cancer  2006;6:153.
There is a lack of clinical data on the validity of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in the treatment of ovarian cancer. The aim of this study was to compare the impact of the adjuvant and neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimens on the clinical outcomes in patients with advanced ovarian cancer.
We performed a retrospective analysis of 574 patients with advanced ovarian cancer admitted to four Lithuanian oncogynaecology departments during 1993–2000. The conventional combined treatment of cytoreductive surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy was applied to both the group that underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy (n = 213) and to the control group (n = 361). The selection criterion for neoadjuvant chemotherapy was large extent of the disease. Overall and progression-free survival rates and survival medians were calculated using life tables and the Kaplan-Meier method.
There was no difference in median overall survival between stage III patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy and neoadjuvant chemotherapy (25.9 months vs. 29.3 months, p = 0.2508) and stage IV patients (15.4 months vs. 14.9 months, p = 0.6108). Similarly, there was no difference in median progression-free survival between stage III patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy and neoadjuvant chemotherapy (15.7 months vs. 17.5 months, p = 0.1299) and stage IV patients (8.7 months vs. 8.2 months, p = 0.1817). There was no difference in the rate of the optimal cytoreductive surgery between patients who underwent the neoadjuvant chemotherapy and patients primarily treated with surgery (n = 134, 63% vs. n = 242, 67%, respectively).
There was no difference in progression-free or overall survival and in the rate of optimal cytoreductive surgery between the neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy groups despite the fact that patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy had a more extensive disease. Multivariate analysis failed to prove that neoadjuvant chemotherapy could be considered as an independent prognostic factor for survival, and the findings need to be investigated in the future prospective randomised studies.
PMCID: PMC1533845  PMID: 16759398
6.  The impact of age on post-operative outcomes of colorectal cancer patients undergoing surgical treatment 
BMC Cancer  2005;5:153.
the purpose of study was to evaluate the impact of age on outcomes in colorectal cancer surgery.
patients on hospital database treated for colorectal cancer during the period 1995 – 2002 were divided into two groups: Group 1 – patients of 75 years or older (n = 154), and Group 2 – those younger than 75 years (n = 532).
In Group 1, for colon cancers, proximal tumors were significantly more common (23% vs. 13.5%, p < 0.05), complicated cases were more frequent (46 % vs. 33%, p = 0.002), bowel obstruction more common at presentation (40% vs. 26.5%, p = 0.001), and more frequent emergency surgery required (24% vs. 14%, p = 0.003). Postoperative overall morbidity was higher in the elderly group, but with no differences in surgical complications rate. Overall 5 year survival was 39% vs. 55% (p = 0.0006) and cancer related 5 year survival was 44% vs. 62% (p = 0.0006). Multivariate Cox analysis showed that age was not an independent risk factor for postoperative mortality.
Preoperative complications and co-morbidities, more advanced disease, and higher postoperative nonsurgical complication rates adversely affect postoperative outcomes after surgery for colorectal cancer in the elderly.
PMCID: PMC1318482  PMID: 16324216
7.  Clinical Outcome of Hereditary Breast Cancer in the Lithuanian Population 
Breast cancer family history has been known to be one of the main cancer risk factors. Members of high-risk families should be given recommendations which may improve prophylaxis, early diagnosis and treatment. Detection of high-risk families is possible by identification of mutations in cancer susceptibility genes like BRCA1 and BRCA2 as well as by family history showing breast and/or ovary cancer aggregation. In a group of 521 breast cancer patients we identified 26 patients with hereditary breast cancer who fulfilled the following criteria: one more relative with breast cancer, vertical transmission, at least one breast cancer patient affected at the age under 50 years. 8 patients of these developed second primary breast cancer. We also compared the frequency of hereditary cancers in stage I-III with the frequency of respective cancers with negative family history. Hereditary breast cancers were diagnosed less frequently in stage I and more frequently in stage II and III (RR = 0.49, RR = 1.39, RR = 1.62, respectively). Because of importance of family history as well as genetic testing for breast cancer susceptibility genes (BRCA1/2), it is necessary to create a nationwide network of hereditary cancer clinics for proper diagnosis, treatment, and prophylaxis of these patients.
PMCID: PMC2837302  PMID: 20223034
hereditary breast cancer; early hereditary cancer; relative risk (RR)

Results 1-7 (7)