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author:("Shukla, parus")
1.  Complications as indicators of quality assurance after 401 consecutive colorectal cancer resections: the importance of surgeon volume in developing colorectal cancer units in India 
The low incidence of colorectal cancer in India, coupled with absence of specialized units, contribute to lack of relevant data arising from the subcontinent. We evaluated the data of the senior author to better define the requirements that would enable development of specialized units in a country where colorectal cancer burden is increasing.
We retrospectively analyzed data of 401 consecutive colorectal resections from a prospective database of the senior author. In addition to patient demographics and types of resections, perioperative data like intraoperative blood loss, duration of surgery, complications, re-operation rates and hospital stay were recorded and analyzed.
The median age was 52 years (10-86 years). 279 were males and 122 were females. The average duration of surgery was 220.32 minutes (range 50 - 480 min). The overall complication rate was 12.2% (49/401) with a 1.2% (5/401) mortality rate. The patients having complications had an increase in their median hospital stay (from 10.5 days to 23.4 days) and the re-operation rate in them was 51%. The major complications were anastomotic leaks (2.5%) and stoma related complications (2.7%).
This largest ever series from India compares favorably with global standards. In a nation where colorectal cancer is on the rise, it is imperative that high volume centers develop specialized units to train future specialist colorectal surgeons. This would ensure improved quality assurance and delivery of health care even to outreach, low volume centers.
PMCID: PMC3269979  PMID: 22257531
Colorectal cancer; Rectal Cancer; Complications; Surgery; Low anterior resection; Abdominoperineal resection; Hemicolectomy; Colectomy
2.  Open common bile duct exploration without T-tube insertion- two decade experience from a limited resource setting in the Caribbean 
The Indian Journal of Surgery  2010;72(3):185-188.
Despite advancements in gallbladder surgery with the introduction of endoscopic and laparoscopic techniques, many surgeons, especially in the developing world, still perform open cholecystectomy with common bile duct (CBD) exploration for choledocholithiasis. The purpose of the study is to report the outcomes of a case series of open CBD exploration without the use of T-tubes.
Materials and methods
A retrospective chart review of all consecutive open CBD exploration done by the first author over a period of 23 years was conducted. Demographic data, preoperative investigations, the surgical techniques and perioperative outcomes were recorded.
Of 690 open cholecystectomies performed during the study period, 108 had common bile duct exploration. In 94 cases this was done via a supraduodenal choledochotomy, in 10 cases via a transduodenal sphincteroplasty and in 4 cases via the cystic duct. In 90 cases, a simple choledochotomy and primary closure was done while in 4 cases choledocho-duodenostomy was required. Eighty-seven percent of surgeries were done on elective basis and 13% on an emergency basis and no T-tubes were used in any patients. The mean hospital length of stay was 3.2 days and the perioperative morbidity was negligible.
In a limited resource setting, there is still a role for open CBD exploration and primary closure without the necessity of T-tubes and stents as evidenced by a good perioperative patient outcome.
PMCID: PMC3452659  PMID: 23133244
Common bile duct exploration; Open surgery; Limited resources setting; T-tubes
3.  Systematic Review: Should Routine Resection of the Extrahepatic Bile Duct Be Performed in Gallbladder Cancer? 
Background /Aim:
Complete surgical resection is associated with improved outcomes in gallbladder cancer. Whether the extra-hepatic bile duct (EHBD) should be routinely excised for gallbladder cancer is unclear. Objective: To analyze literature concerning EHBD excision to determine if it is associated with survival advantage and hence can be routinely recommended.
Materials and Methods:
A systematic search using Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for the years 1988-2008.
EHBD excision was reported to be performed routinely for T1-4 in some studies, while others reported resection to facilitate lymph node clearance or if the EHBD was grossly involved by disease that remained otherwise resectable. While one study demonstrated 100% survival in T1 disease, other reports do not demonstrate any survival benefit of EHBD excision in T1 disease. Four studies (level IV-V) demonstrated 60% to 90% five-year survival for routine excision in T2 disease, while three other studies demonstrated no survival advantage but increased morbidity due to the procedure. In T3/4 disease, one study (level IV-V) demonstrated a benefit in T4 disease only, and another study (level IV-V) reported a survival advantage in patients in whom the bile duct was not involved; five other studies showed no impact of routine EHBD excision on survival but reported morbidity following anastomotic leaks.
Available evidence does not support routine resection of EHBD in gallbladder cancer. EHBD excision should be performed in the presence of specific indications, viz., to achieve an R0 resection of the primary tumor and/ or to aid complete lymph node dissection that would compromise the EHBD by devascularization.
PMCID: PMC3003211  PMID: 20616410
Aggressive surgery; gallbladder; hepatoduodenal ligament; metastasis
4.  Extended pancreatectomy for pancreatic cancers 
Pancreatic cancer carries a poor prognosis. A minority of patients are considered for surgical excision. Local extension, lymph node metastasis, poor prognosis with distal spread and the lack of effectiveness of chemo and radiotherapy, have led to a nihilistic approach to this disease. This review outlines the rationale for and technique of extended resections in pancreatic cancer.
PMCID: PMC3452571  PMID: 23133099
Pancreatic cancer; Extended resections; Local extension
5.  Current status of laparoscopic surgery in gastrointestinal malignancies 
The Indian Journal of Surgery  2008;70(6):261-264.
Laparoscopy has become a significant tool in a surgeon’s armamentarium since the first laparoscopic cholecystectomy in 1989. Oncological surgeons have been slow in adopting laparoscopy for fear of inadequate cancer operation and occurrence of port site metastasis. Neither of these concerns have stood the test of time. Laparoscopy is being used increasingly in oncological surgery both for staging and respective surgery. This article outlines the present use of laparoscopy in GI cancer surgery.
PMCID: PMC3452348  PMID: 23133081
GI malignancy; Laparoscopic resections; Diagnostic laparoscopy
6.  Gallbladder Cancer: We Need to Do Better! 
Annals of Surgical Oncology  2009;16(8):2084-2085.
PMCID: PMC2711909  PMID: 19506960
7.  Phylogeography of mtDNA haplogroup R7 in the Indian peninsula 
Human genetic diversity observed in Indian subcontinent is second only to that of Africa. This implies an early settlement and demographic growth soon after the first 'Out-of-Africa' dispersal of anatomically modern humans in Late Pleistocene. In contrast to this perspective, linguistic diversity in India has been thought to derive from more recent population movements and episodes of contact. With the exception of Dravidian, which origin and relatedness to other language phyla is obscure, all the language families in India can be linked to language families spoken in different regions of Eurasia. Mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosome evidence has supported largely local evolution of the genetic lineages of the majority of Dravidian and Indo-European speaking populations, but there is no consensus yet on the question of whether the Munda (Austro-Asiatic) speaking populations originated in India or derive from a relatively recent migration from further East.
Here, we report the analysis of 35 novel complete mtDNA sequences from India which refine the structure of Indian-specific varieties of haplogroup R. Detailed analysis of haplogroup R7, coupled with a survey of ~12,000 mtDNAs from caste and tribal groups over the entire Indian subcontinent, reveals that one of its more recently derived branches (R7a1), is particularly frequent among Munda-speaking tribal groups. This branch is nested within diverse R7 lineages found among Dravidian and Indo-European speakers of India. We have inferred from this that a subset of Munda-speaking groups have acquired R7 relatively recently. Furthermore, we find that the distribution of R7a1 within the Munda-speakers is largely restricted to one of the sub-branches (Kherwari) of northern Munda languages. This evidence does not support the hypothesis that the Austro-Asiatic speakers are the primary source of the R7 variation. Statistical analyses suggest a significant correlation between genetic variation and geography, rather than between genes and languages.
Our high-resolution phylogeographic study, involving diverse linguistic groups in India, suggests that the high frequency of mtDNA haplogroup R7 among Munda speaking populations of India can be explained best by gene flow from linguistically different populations of Indian subcontinent. The conclusion is based on the observation that among Indo-Europeans, and particularly in Dravidians, the haplogroup is, despite its lower frequency, phylogenetically more divergent, while among the Munda speakers only one sub-clade of R7, i.e. R7a1, can be observed. It is noteworthy that though R7 is autochthonous to India, and arises from the root of hg R, its distribution and phylogeography in India is not uniform. This suggests the more ancient establishment of an autochthonous matrilineal genetic structure, and that isolation in the Pleistocene, lineage loss through drift, and endogamy of prehistoric and historic groups have greatly inhibited genetic homogenization and geographical uniformity.
PMCID: PMC2529308  PMID: 18680585
8.  Outcomes of resection for rectal cancer in India: The impact of the double stapling technique 
The introduction of circular staplers into colorectal surgery has revolutionized anastomotic techniques stretching the limits of sphincter preservation. Data on the double-stapling technique (DST) has been widely published in the West where the incidence of colorectal cancer is high. However studies using this technique and their results, in the Indian scenario, as well as the rest of Asia, have been few and far between.
To evaluate the feasibility of the DST in Indian patients with low rectal cancers and assess its impact on anastomotic leak rates, covering colostomy rates, level of resection and morbidity in patients undergoing low anterior resection (LAR).
A comparative analysis was performed between retrospectively acquired data on 78 patients (mean age 53.2 ± 13.5 years) undergoing LAR with the single-stapling technique (SST) (between January 1999 and December 2001) and prospective data acquired on 138 LARs (mean age 50.3 ± 13.9 years) performed using the DST (between January 2003 – December 2005).
A total of 77 out of 78 patients in the SST group had Astler Coller B and C disease while the number was 132/138 in the DST group. The mean distance of the tumor from anal verge was 7.6 cm (2.5–15 cm) and 8.0 cm (4–15 cm) in the DST and SST groups, respectively. In the DST group, there were 5 (3.6%) anastomotic failures and 62 (45%) covering stomas compared to 7 (8.9%) anastomotic failures and 51 (65.4%) covering stomas in the SST group. The anastomotic leak rate, though objectively lower in the DST group, did not attain statistical significance (p = 0.12). Covering stoma rates were significantly lower in DST group (p = 0.006). There was 1 death in the DST group due to cardiac causes (unrelated to the anastomosis) and no mortality in the SST group. The LAR and abdominoperineal resection (APR) rates were 40% and 60%, respectively, during 1999–2001. In 2005, these rates were 55% and 45%, respectively.
This study, perhaps the first from India, demonstrates the feasibility of the DST in a country where the incidence of colorectal cancer is increasing. Since the age at presentation is at least a decade younger than the Western world, consideration of sphincter preservation assumes greater significance. The observed improvement of surgical outcomes with DST needs further studies to significantly prove these findings in a population where the tumors at presentation are predominantly Astler Coller Stage B and C.
PMCID: PMC1839092  PMID: 17374176
9.  Laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancers: Current status 
Laparoscopy was introduced more than 15 years ago into clinical practice. However, its role in colorectal surgery was not well established for want of better skills and technology. This coupled with high incidences of port site recurrences, prevented laparoscopic surgery from being incorporated into mainstream colorectal cancer surgery. A recent increase in the number of reports, retrospective analyses, randomized trials and multicentric trials has now provided sufficient data to support the role of laparoscopy in colorectal cancer surgery. We, thus, present a review of the published data on the feasibility, safety, short - and long-term outcomes following laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancers. While the data available strongly favors the use of laparoscopic surgery in colonic cancer, larger well powered studies are required to prove or disprove its role in rectal cancer.
PMCID: PMC3016481  PMID: 21234147
Colorectal cancer; colorectal surgery; laparoscopic surgery
10.  Linkage mapping in the oilseed crop Jatropha curcas L. reveals a locus controlling the biosynthesis of phorbol esters which cause seed toxicity 
Plant Biotechnology Journal  2013;11(8):986-996.
Current efforts to grow the tropical oilseed crop Jatropha curcas L. economically are hampered by the lack of cultivars and the presence of toxic phorbol esters (PE) within the seeds of most provenances. These PE restrict the conversion of seed cake into animal feed, although naturally occurring ‘nontoxic’ provenances exist which produce seed lacking PE. As an important step towards the development of genetically improved varieties of J. curcas, we constructed a linkage map from four F2 mapping populations. The consensus linkage map contains 502 codominant markers, distributed over 11 linkage groups, with a mean marker density of 1.8 cM per unique locus. Analysis of the inheritance of PE biosynthesis indicated that this is a maternally controlled dominant monogenic trait. This maternal control is due to biosynthesis of the PE occurring only within maternal tissues. The trait segregated 3 : 1 within seeds collected from F2 plants, and QTL analysis revealed that a locus on linkage group 8 was responsible for phorbol ester biosynthesis. By taking advantage of the draft genome assemblies of J. curcas and Ricinus communis (castor), a comparative mapping approach was used to develop additional markers to fine map this mutation within 2.3 cM. The linkage map provides a framework for the dissection of agronomic traits in J. curcas, and the development of improved varieties by marker-assisted breeding. The identification of the locus responsible for PE biosynthesis means that it is now possible to rapidly breed new nontoxic varieties.
PMCID: PMC4274016  PMID: 23898859
Jatropha curcas; linkage mapping; oilseed; phorbol esters; plant breeding

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