Endophytes are microbes and fungi that live inside plant tissues without damaging the host. Herein we examine the dynamic changes in the endophytic bacterial community in potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber in response to pathogenic infection by Pectobacterium atrosepticum, which causes soft rot in numerous economically important crops. We quantified community changes using both cultivation and next-generation sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and found that, despite observing significant variability in both the mass of macerated tissue and structure of the endophytic community between individual potato tubers, P. atrosepticum is always taken over by the endophytes during maceration. 16S rDNA sequencing revealed bacteria from the phyla Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Acidobacteria, TM7, and Deinococcus-Thermus. Prior to infection, Propionibacterium acnes is frequently among the dominant taxa, yet is out competed by relatively few dominant taxa as the infection proceeds. Two days post-infection, the most abundant sequences in macerated potato tissue are Gammaproteobacteria. The most dominant genera are Enterobacter and Pseudomonas. Eight days post-infection, the number of anaerobic pectolytic Clostridia increases, probably due to oxygen depletion. These results demonstrate that the pathogenesis is strictly initiated by the pathogen (sensu stricto) and proceeds with a major contribution from the endophytic community.
DNA copy number variants (CNVs) that alter the copy number of a particular DNA segment in the genome play an important role in human phenotypic variability and disease susceptibility. A number of CNVs overlapping with genes have been shown to confer risk to a variety of human diseases thus highlighting the relevance of addressing the variability of CNVs at a higher resolution. So far, it has not been possible to deterministically infer the allelic composition of different haplotypes present within the CNV regions. We have developed a novel computational method, called PiCNV, which enables to resolve the haplotype sequence composition within CNV regions in nuclear families based on SNP genotyping microarray data. The algorithm allows to i) phase normal and CNV-carrying haplotypes in the copy number variable regions, ii) resolve the allelic copies of rearranged DNA sequence within the haplotypes and iii) infer the heritability of identified haplotypes in trios or larger nuclear families. To our knowledge this is the first program available that can deterministically phase null, mono-, di-, tri- and tetraploid genotypes in CNV loci. We applied our method to study the composition and inheritance of haplotypes in CNV regions of 30 HapMap Yoruban trios and 34 Estonian families. For 93.6% of the CNV loci, PiCNV enabled to unambiguously phase normal and CNV-carrying haplotypes and follow their transmission in the corresponding families. Furthermore, allelic composition analysis identified the co-occurrence of alternative allelic copies within 66.7% of haplotypes carrying copy number gains. We also observed less frequent transmission of CNV-carrying haplotypes from parents to children compared to normal haplotypes and identified an emergence of several de novo deletions and duplications in the offspring.
Recurrent miscarriage (RM) is a multifactorial disorder with acknowledged genetic heritability that affects ∼3% of couples aiming at childbirth. As copy number variants (CNVs) have been shown to contribute to reproductive disease susceptibility, we aimed to describe genome-wide profile of CNVs and identify common rearrangements modulating risk to RM. Genome-wide screening of Estonian RM patients and fertile controls identified excessive cumulative burden of CNVs (5.4 and 6.1 Mb per genome) in two RM cases possibly increasing their individual disease risk. Functional profiling of all rearranged genes within RM study group revealed significant enrichment of loci related to innate immunity and immunoregulatory pathways essential for immune tolerance at fetomaternal interface. As a major finding, we report a multicopy duplication (61.6 kb) at 5p13.3 conferring increased maternal risk to RM in Estonia and Denmark (meta-analysis, n = 309/205, odds ratio = 4.82, P = 0.012). Comparison to Estonian population-based cohort (total, n = 1000) confirmed the risk for Estonian female cases (P = 7.9 × 10−4). Datasets of four cohorts from the Database of Genomic Variants (total, n = 5,846 subjects) exhibited similar low duplication prevalence worldwide (0.7%–1.2%) compared to RM cases of this study (6.6%–7.5%). The CNV disrupts PDZD2 and GOLPH3 genes predominantly expressed in placenta and it may represent a novel risk factor for pregnancy complications.
recurrent miscarriage; fetomaternal interface; immune dysfunction; placenta; GOLPH3; PDZD2
Cone snails are venomous predatory marine neogastropods that belong to the species-rich superfamily of the Conoidea. So far, the mitochondrial genomes of two cone snail species (Conus textile and Conus borgesi) have been described, and these feed on snails and worms, respectively. Here, we report the mitochondrial genome sequence of the fish-hunting cone snail Conus consors and describe a novel putative control region (CR) which seems to be absent in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of other cone snail species. This possible CR spans about 700 base pairs (bp) and is located between the genes encoding the transfer RNA for phenylalanine (tRNA-Phe, trnF) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit III (cox3). The novel putative CR contains several sequence motifs that suggest a role in mitochondrial replication and transcription.
Papillomavirus E2 protein is required for the replication and maintenance of viral genomes and transcriptional regulation of viral genes. E2 functions through sequence-specific binding to 12-bp DNA motifs—E2 binding sites (E2BS)—in the virus genome. Papillomaviruses are able to establish persistent infection in their host and have developed a long-term relationship with the host cell in order to guarantee the propagation of the virus. In this study, we have analyzed the occurrence and functionality of E2BSs in the human genome. Our computational analysis indicates that most E2BSs in the human genome are found in repetitive DNA regions and have G/C-rich spacer sequences. Using a chromatin immunoprecipitation approach, we show that human papillomavirus type 11 (HPV11) E2 interacts with a subset of cellular E2BSs located in active chromatin regions. Two E2 activities, sequence-specific DNA binding and interaction with cellular Brd4 protein, are important for E2 binding to consensus sites. E2 binding to cellular E2BSs has a moderate or no effect on cellular transcription. We suggest that the preference of HPV E2 proteins for E2BSs with A/T-rich spacers, which are present in the viral genomes and underrepresented in the human genome, ensures E2 binding to specific binding sites in the virus genome and may help to prevent extensive and possibly detrimental changes in cellular transcription in response to the viral protein.
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a basic molecular biology technique with a multiplicity of uses, including deoxyribonucleic acid cloning and sequencing, functional analysis of genes, diagnosis of diseases, genotyping and discovery of genetic variants. Reliable primer design is crucial for successful PCR, and for over a decade, the open-source Primer3 software has been widely used for primer design, often in high-throughput genomics applications. It has also been incorporated into numerous publicly available software packages and web services. During this period, we have greatly expanded Primer3’s functionality. In this article, we describe Primer3’s current capabilities, emphasizing recent improvements. The most notable enhancements incorporate more accurate thermodynamic models in the primer design process, both to improve melting temperature prediction and to reduce the likelihood that primers will form hairpins or dimers. Additional enhancements include more precise control of primer placement—a change motivated partly by opportunities to use whole-genome sequences to improve primer specificity. We also added features to increase ease of use, including the ability to save and re-use parameter settings and the ability to require that individual primers not be used in more than one primer pair. We have made the core code more modular and provided cleaner programming interfaces to further ease integration with other software. These improvements position Primer3 for continued use with genome-scale data in the decade ahead.
ConoDictor is a tool that enables fast and accurate classification of conopeptides into superfamilies based on their amino acid sequence. ConoDictor combines predictions from two complementary approaches—profile hidden Markov models and generalized profiles. Results appear in a browser as tables that can be downloaded in various formats. This application is particularly valuable in view of the exponentially increasing number of conopeptides that are being identified. ConoDictor was written in Perl using the common gateway interface module with a php submission page. Sequence matching is performed with hmmsearch from HMMER 3 and ps_scan.pl from the pftools 2.3 package. ConoDictor is freely accessible at http://conco.ebc.ee.
The geographic origin and time of dispersal of Austroasiatic (AA) speakers, presently settled in south and southeast Asia, remains disputed. Two rival hypotheses, both assuming a demic component to the language dispersal, have been proposed. The first of these places the origin of Austroasiatic speakers in southeast Asia with a later dispersal to south Asia during the Neolithic, whereas the second hypothesis advocates pre-Neolithic origins and dispersal of this language family from south Asia. To test the two alternative models, this study combines the analysis of uniparentally inherited markers with 610,000 common single nucleotide polymorphism loci from the nuclear genome. Indian AA speakers have high frequencies of Y chromosome haplogroup O2a; our results show that this haplogroup has significantly higher diversity and coalescent time (17–28 thousand years ago) in southeast Asia, strongly supporting the first of the two hypotheses. Nevertheless, the results of principal component and “structure-like” analyses on autosomal loci also show that the population history of AA speakers in India is more complex, being characterized by two ancestral components—one represented in the pattern of Y chromosomal and EDAR results and the other by mitochondrial DNA diversity and genomic structure. We propose that AA speakers in India today are derived from dispersal from southeast Asia, followed by extensive sex-specific admixture with local Indian populations.
Austroasiatic; mtDNA; Y chromosome; autosomes; admixture
Prokaryotes are in general believed to possess small, compactly organized genomes, with repetitive sequences forming only a small part of them. Nonetheless, many prokaryotic genomes in fact contain species-specific repeats (>85 bp long genomic sequences with less than 60% identity to other species) as we have previously demonstrated. However, it is not known at present how frequent such species-specific repeats are and what their functional roles in bacterial genomes may be. Therefore, we have conducted a comprehensive survey of prokaryotic species-specific repeats and characterized them to examine as to whether there are functional classes among different repeats or not and how they are mutually related to each other. Of the 613 distinct prokaryotic species analyzed, 97% were found to contain at least one species-specific repeats. It seems interesting to note that the species-specific repeats thus identified appear to be functionally variable in different genomes: in some genomes, they are mostly associated with duplicated protein-coding genes, whereas in some other genomes with rRNA and tRNA genes. Contrary to what may be expected, only one-fourth of the species-specific repeats were found to be associated with mobile genetic elements.
species-specific; repeat; identification; prokaryote; pathogen
Elongation factor G (EFG) is a core translational protein that catalyzes the elongation and recycling phases of translation. A more complex picture of EFG's evolution and function than previously accepted is emerging from analyzes of heterogeneous EFG family members. Whereas the gene duplication is postulated to be a prominent factor creating functional novelty, the striking divergence between EFG paralogs can be interpreted in terms of innovation in gene function.
We present a computational study of the EFG protein family to cover the role of gene duplication in the evolution of protein function. Using phylogenetic methods, genome context conservation and insertion/deletion (indel) analysis we demonstrate that the EFG gene copies form four subfamilies: EFG I, spdEFG1, spdEFG2, and EFG II. These ancient gene families differ by their indispensability, degree of divergence and number of indels. We show the distribution of EFG subfamilies and describe evidences for lateral gene transfer and recent duplications. Extended studies of the EFG II subfamily concern its diverged nature. Remarkably, EFG II appears to be a widely distributed and a much-diversified subfamily whose subdivisions correlate with phylum or class borders. The EFG II subfamily specific characteristics are low conservation of the GTPase domain, domains II and III; absence of the trGTPase specific G2 consensus motif “RGITI”; and twelve conserved positions common to the whole subfamily. The EFG II specific functional changes could be related to changes in the properties of nucleotide binding and hydrolysis and strengthened ionic interactions between EFG II and the ribosome, particularly between parts of the decoding site and loop I of domain IV.
Our work, for the first time, comprehensively identifies and describes EFG subfamilies and improves our understanding of the function and evolution of EFG duplicated genes.
We present a comprehensive technological solution for bacterial diagnostics using tmRNA as a marker molecule. A robust probe design algorithm for microbial detection microarray is implemented. The probes were evaluated for specificity and, combined with NASBA (Nucleic Acid Sequence Based Amplification) amplification, for sensitivity.
We developed a new web-based program SLICSel for the design of hybridization probes, based on nearest-neighbor thermodynamic modeling. A SLICSel minimum binding energy difference criterion of 4 kcal/mol was sufficient to design of Streptococcus pneumoniae tmRNA specific microarray probes. With lower binding energy difference criteria, additional hybridization specificity tests on the microarray were needed to eliminate non-specific probes. Using SLICSel designed microarray probes and NASBA we were able to detect S. pneumoniae tmRNA from a series of total RNA dilutions equivalent to the RNA content of 0.1-10 CFU.
The described technological solution and both its separate components SLICSel and NASBA-microarray technology independently are applicative for many different areas of microbial diagnostics.
The hybridization of synthetic Streptococcus pneumoniae tmRNA on a detection microarray is slow at 34°C resulting in low signal intensities.
We demonstrate that adding specific DNA helper oligonucleotides (chaperones) to the hybridization buffer increases the signal strength at a given temperature and thus makes the specific detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae tmRNA more sensitive. No loss of specificity was observed at low temperatures compared to hybridization at 46°C. The effect of the chaperones can be explained by disruption of the strong secondary and tertiary structure of the target RNA by the selective hybridization of helper molecules. The amplification of the hybridization signal strength by chaperones is not necessarily local; we observed increased signal intensities in both local and distant regions of the target molecule.
The sensitivity of the detection of tmRNA at low temperature can be increased by chaperone oligonucleotides. Due to the complexity of RNA secondary and tertiary structures the effect of any individual chaperone is currently not predictable.
Here we present a novel promising microbial diagnostic method that combines the sensitivity of Nucleic Acid Sequence Based Amplification (NASBA) with the high information content of microarray technology for the detection of bacterial tmRNA molecules. The NASBA protocol was modified to include aminoallyl-UTP (aaUTP) molecules that were incorporated into nascent RNA during the NASBA reaction. Post-amplification labeling with fluorescent dye was carried out subsequently and tmRNA hybridization signal intensities were measured using microarray technology. Significant optimization of the labeled NASBA protocol was required to maintain the required sensitivity of the reactions.
Two different aaUTP salts were evaluated and optimum final concentrations were identified for both. The final 2 mM concentration of aaUTP Li-salt in NASBA reaction resulted in highest microarray signals overall, being twice as high as the strongest signals with 1 mM aaUTP Na-salt.
We have successfully demonstrated efficient combination of NASBA amplification technology with microarray based hybridization detection. The method is applicative for many different areas of microbial diagnostics including environmental monitoring, bio threat detection, industrial process monitoring and clinical microbiology.
Using principal component (PC) analysis, we studied the genetic constitution of 3,112 individuals from Europe as portrayed by more than 270,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped with the Illumina Infinium platform. In cohorts where the sample size was >100, one hundred randomly chosen samples were used for analysis to minimize the sample size effect, resulting in a total of 1,564 samples. This analysis revealed that the genetic structure of the European population correlates closely with geography. The first two PCs highlight the genetic diversity corresponding to the northwest to southeast gradient and position the populations according to their approximate geographic origin. The resulting genetic map forms a triangular structure with a) Finland, b) the Baltic region, Poland and Western Russia, and c) Italy as its vertexes, and with d) Central- and Western Europe in its centre. Inter- and intra- population genetic differences were quantified by the inflation factor lambda (λ) (ranging from 1.00 to 4.21), fixation index (Fst) (ranging from 0.000 to 0.023), and by the number of markers exhibiting significant allele frequency differences in pair-wise population comparisons. The estimated lambda was used to assess the real diminishing impact to association statistics when two distinct populations are merged directly in an analysis. When the PC analysis was confined to the 1,019 Estonian individuals (0.1% of the Estonian population), a fine structure emerged that correlated with the geography of individual counties. With at least two cohorts available from several countries, genetic substructures were investigated in Czech, Finnish, German, Estonian and Italian populations. Together with previously published data, our results allow the creation of a comprehensive European genetic map that will greatly facilitate inter-population genetic studies including genome wide association studies (GWAS).
Motivation: The concentration of pathogen DNA in biological samples is often very low. Therefore, the sensitivity of diagnostic tests is always a critical factor.
Results: We have developed a novel computational method that identifies species-specific repeats from microbial organisms and automatically designs species-specific PCR primers for these repeats. We tested the methodology on 30 randomly chosen microbial species and we demonstrate that species-specific repeats longer than 300 bp exist in all these genomes. We also used our methodology to design species-specific PCR primers for 86 repeats from five medically relevant microbial species. These PCR primers were tested experimentally. We demonstrate that using species-specific repeats as a PCR template region can increase the sensitivity of PCR in diagnostic tests.
Availability and Implementation: A web version of the method called MultiMPrimer3 was implemented and is freely available at http://bioinfo.ut.ee/multimprimer3/.
Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
Alternative synonymous codons are not used with equal frequencies. In addition, the contexts of codons – neighboring nucleotides and neighboring codons – can have certain patterns. The codon context can influence both translational accuracy and elongation rates. However, it is not known how strong or conserved the codon context preferences in different organisms are. We analyzed 138 organisms (bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes) to find conserved patterns of codon pairs.
After removing the effects of single codon usage and dipeptide biases we discovered a set of neighboring codons for which avoidances or preferences were conserved in all three domains of life. Such biased codon pairs could be divided into subtypes on the basis of the nucleotide patterns that influence the bias. The most frequently avoided type of codon pair was nnUAnn. We discovered that 95.7% of avoided nnUAnn type patterns contain out-frame UAA or UAG triplets on the sense and/or antisense strand. On average, nnUAnn codon pairs are more frequently avoided in ORFeomes than in genomes. Thus we assume that translational selection plays a major role in the avoidance of these codon pairs. Among the preferred codon pairs, nnGCnn was the major type.
Translational selection shapes codon pair usage in protein coding sequences by rules that are common to all three domains of life. The most frequently avoided codon pairs contain the patterns nnUAnn, nnGGnn, nnGnnC, nnCGCn, GUCCnn, CUCCnn, nnCnnA or UUCGnn. The most frequently preferred codon pairs contain the patterns nnGCnn, nnCAnn or nnUnCn.
Detection of DNA sequence variation is critical to biomedical applications, including disease genetic identification, diagnosis and treatment, drug discovery and forensic analysis. Here, we describe an arrayed primer extension-based genotyping method (APEX-2) that allows multiplex (640-plex) DNA amplification and detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and mutations on microarrays via four-color single-base primer extension. The founding principle of APEX-2 multiplex PCR requires two oligonucleotides per SNP/mutation to generate amplicons containing the position of interest. The same oligonucleotides are then subsequently used as immobilized single-base extension primers on a microarray. The method described here is ideal for SNP or mutation detection analysis, molecular diagnostics and forensic analysis. This robust genetic test has minimal requirements: two primers, two spots on the microarray and a low cost four-color detection system for the targeted site; and provides an advantageous alternative to high-density platforms and low-density detection systems.
We have developed statistical models for estimating the failure rate of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers using 236 primer sequence-related factors. The model involved 1314 primer pairs and is based on more than 80 000 PCR experiments. We found that the most important factor in determining PCR failure is the number of predicted primer-binding sites in the genomic DNA. We also compared different ways of defining primer-binding sites (fixed length word versus thermodynamic model; exact match versus matches including 1–2 mismatches). We found that the most efficient prediction of PCR failure rates can be achieved using a combination of four factors (number of primer-binding sites counted in different ways plus GC% of the primer) combined into single statistical model GM1. According to our estimations from experimental data, the GM1 model can reduce the average failure rate of PCR primers nearly 3-fold (from 17% to 6%). The GM1 model can easily be implemented in software to premask genome sequences for potentially failing PCR primers, thus improving large-scale PCR-primer design.
The mRNA translation initiation region (TIR) comprises the initiator codon, Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequence and translational enhancers. Probably the most abundant class of enhancers contains A/U-rich sequences. We have tested the influence of SD sequence length and the presence of enhancers on the efficiency of translation initiation.
We found that during bacterial growth at 37°C, a six-nucleotide SD (AGGAGG) is more efficient than shorter or longer sequences. The A/U-rich enhancer contributes strongly to the efficiency of initiation, having the greatest stimulatory effect in the exponential growth phase of the bacteria. The SD sequences and the A/U-rich enhancer stimulate translation co-operatively: strong SDs are stimulated by the enhancer much more than weak SDs. The bacterial growth rate does not have a major influence on the TIR selection pattern. On the other hand, temperature affects the TIR preference pattern: shorter SD sequences are preferred at lower growth temperatures. We also performed an in silico analysis of the TIRs in all E. coli mRNAs. The base pairing potential of the SD sequences does not correlate with the codon adaptation index, which is used as an estimate of gene expression level.
In E. coli the SD selection preferences are influenced by the growth temperature and not influenced by the growth rate. The A/U rich enhancers stimulate translation considerably by acting co-operatively with the SD sequences.
New technologies have enabled genome-wide association studies to be conducted with hundreds of thousands of genotyped SNPs. Several different first-generation genome-wide panels of SNPs have been commercialized. The total amount of common genetic variation is still unknown; however, the coverage of commercial panels can be evaluated against reference population samples genotyped by the International HapMap project. Less information is available about coverage in samples from other populations.
In this study we compare four commercial panels: the HumanHap 300 and HumanHap 550 Array Sets from the Illumina Infinium series and the Mapping 100 K and Mapping 500 K Array Sets from the Affymetrix GeneChip series. Tagging performance is compared among HapMap CEPH (CEU), Asian (JPT, CHB) and Yoruba (YRI) population samples. It is also evaluated in an Estonian population sample with more than 1000 individuals genotyped in two 500-kbp ENCODE regions of chromosome 2: ENr112 on 2p16.3 and ENr131 on 2p37.1.
We found that in a non-reference Caucasian population, commercial SNP panels provide levels of coverage similar to those in the HapMap CEPH population sample. We present the proportions of universal and population-specific SNPs in all the commercial platforms studied.
Translational GTPases are a family of proteins in which GTPase activity is stimulated by the large ribosomal subunit. Conserved sequence features allow members of this family to be identified.
To achieve accurate protein identification and grouping we have developed a method combining searches with Hidden Markov Model profiles and tree based grouping. We found all the genes for translational GTPases in 191 fully sequenced bacterial genomes. The protein sequences were grouped into nine subfamilies.
Analysis of the results shows that three translational GTPases, the translation factors EF-Tu, EF-G and IF2, are present in all organisms examined. In addition, several copies of the genes encoding EF-Tu and EF-G are present in some genomes. In the case of multiple genes for EF-Tu, the gene copies are nearly identical; in the case of multiple EF-G genes, the gene copies have been considerably diverged. The fourth translational GTPase, LepA, the function of which is currently unknown, is also nearly universally conserved in bacteria, being absent from only one organism out of the 191 analyzed. The translation regulator, TypA, is also present in most of the organisms examined, being absent only from bacteria with small genomes.
Surprisingly, some of the well studied translational GTPases are present only in a very small number of bacteria. The translation termination factor RF3 is absent from many groups of bacteria with both small and large genomes. The specialized translation factor for selenocysteine incorporation – SelB – was found in only 39 organisms. Similarly, the tetracycline resistance proteins (Tet) are present only in a small number of species.
Proteins of the CysN/NodQ subfamily have acquired functions in sulfur metabolism and production of signaling molecules. The genes coding for CysN/NodQ proteins were found in 74 genomes. This protein subfamily is not confined to Proteobacteria, as suggested previously but present also in many other groups of bacteria.
Four of the translational GTPase subfamilies (IF2, EF-Tu, EF-G and LepA) are represented by at least one member in each bacterium studied, with one exception in LepA. This defines the set of translational GTPases essential for basic cell functions.
SNPmasker is a comprehensive web interface for masking large eukaryotic genomes. The program is designed to mask SNPs from recent dbSNP database and to mask the repeats with two alternative programs. In addition to the SNP masking, we also offer population-specific substitution of SNP alleles in genomic sequence according to SNP frequencies in HapMap Phase II data. The input to SNPmasker can be defined in chromosomal coordinates or inserted as a sequence. The sequences masked by our web server are most useful as a preliminary step for different primer and probe design tasks. The service is available at and is free for all users.
Linkage disequilibrium structure is still unpredictable because the interplay of regional recombination rate and demographic history is poorly understood. We have compared the distribution of LD across two genomic regions differing in crossing-over activity – Xq13 (0.166 cM/Mb) and Xp22 (1.3 cM/Mb) – in 15 Eurasian populations. Demographic events predicted to increase the LD level – genetic drift, bottleneck and admixture – had a very strong impact on extent and patterns of regional LD across Xq13 compared to Xp22. The haplotype distribution of the DXS1225-DXS8082 microsatellites from Xq13 exhibiting strong association in all populations was remarkably influenced by population history. European populations shared one common haplotype with a frequency of 25-40%. The Volga-Ural populations studied, living at the geographic borderline of Europe, showed elevated LD as well as harboring a significant fraction of haplotypes originating from East Asia, thus reflecting their past migrations and admixture. In the young Kuusamo isolate from Finland, a bottleneck has led to allelic associations between loci and shifted the haplotype distribution, but has much less affected single microsatellite allele frequencies compared to the main Finnish population. The data show that the footprint of a demographic event is longer preserved in haplotype distribution within a region of low crossing-over rate, than in the information content of a single marker, or between actively recombining markers. As the knowledge of LD patterns is often chosen to assist association mapping of common disease, our conclusions emphasise the importance of understanding the history, structure and variation of a study population.
linkage disequilibrium; X chromosome; isolated populations; admixture populations; population structure; haplotype distribution; microsatellite markers
The design of oligonucleotides and PCR primers for studying large genomes is complicated by the redundancy of sequences. The eukaryotic genomes are particularly difficult to study due to abundant repeats. The speed of most existing primer evaluation programs is not sufficient for large-scale experiments.
In order to improve the efficiency and success rate of automatic primer/oligo design, we created a novel method which allows rapid masking of repeats in large sequence files, for example in eukaryotic genomes. It also allows the detection of all alternative binding sites of PCR primers and the prediction of PCR products. The new method was implemented in a collection of efficient programs, the GENOMEMASKER package. The performance of the programs was compared to other similar programs. We also modified the PRIMER3 program, to be able to design primers from lowercase-masked sequences.
The GENOMEMASKER package is able to mask the entire human genome for non-unique primers within 6 hours and find locations of all binding sites for 10 000 designed primer pairs within 10 minutes. Additionally, it predicts all alternative PCR products from large genomes for given primer pairs.