Mental health problems like depression, cognitive impairment, anxiety, sleep disorders, and so on, arising out of senility, neurosis, and living conditions are common in the geriatric population.
To study the psychiatric morbidity among the rural elderly.
Settings and Design:
A community-based, cross-sectional study.
Materials and Methods:
A study was conducted on 800 rural elderly subjects, aged 60 years and more, living in ten randomly selected villages, served by the Rural Health Training Center (RHTC), Valadi, in Tamilnadu state, India. Cognitive functioning was assessed by the Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE), and the depression by the Geriatric Depression Scale — Shorter version.
The data was analyzed with SPSS 16 version statistical software using proportions, and the chi-square.
A majority of the subjects were widows / widowers, illiterates, living with family, and showing economic dependency. The prevalence of cognitive impairment was 43.25%, with a mean MMSE score of 23.32±4.4, and the depression was 47.0% and 6.16±3.4. Cognitive impairment, depression, and a disturbed sleep pattern were associated with female sex, age, illiteracy, poverty, loneliness, and the low socioeconomic status of the family.
The study showed a definite association between the sociodemographic factors and psychiatric morbidity. Encouraging the Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) working for the elderly, running of separate geriatric clinics, and effective implementation of schemes like old age pension are some of the measures to be taken.
Cognitive impairment; depression; geriatric; mini mental status examination
The Arabidopsis Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM)-binding transcription factor SIGNAL RESPONSIVE1 (AtSR1/CAMTA3) was previously identified as a key negative regulator of plant immune responses. Here, we report a new role for AtSR1 as a critical component of plant defense against insect herbivory. Loss of AtSR1 function impairs tolerance to feeding by the generalist herbivore Trichoplusia ni as well as wound-induced jasmonate accumulation. The susceptibility of the atsr1 mutant is associated with decreased total glucosinolate (GS) levels. The two key herbivory deterrents, indol-3-ylmethyl (I3M) and 4-methylsulfinylbutyl (4MSOB), showed the most significant reductions in atsr1 plants. Further, changes in AtSR1 transcript levels led to altered expression of several genes involved in GS metabolism including IQD1, MYB51 and AtST5a. Overall, our results establish AtSR1 as an important component of plant resistance to insect herbivory as well as one of only three described proteins involved in Ca2+/CaM-dependent signaling to function in the regulation of GS metabolism, providing a novel avenue for future investigations of plant–insect interactions.
Arabidopsis; AtSR1; Glucosinolates; Herbivory; Wound responses
Background and Objectives:
Initial research has shown a positive correlation between the severity of periodontal disease (PD) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) concentrations in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). However, there are no enough reports to correlate the PGE2 concentrations in GCF in periodontal health, disease and after treatment. Hence, the present study is aimed to estimate the levels of PGE2 in GCF in periodontal health, disease and after periodontal therapy.
Materials and Methods:
A periodontal examination and collection of GCF by extracrevicular method was performed in 25 subjects selected randomly and categorized into three groups on the basis of plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level. Group I (healthy) consists of 10 subjects, Group II (chronic periodontitis) consists of 15 patients and Group III (after treatment group) consists of 15 patients of Group II. PGE2 levels were estimated in GCF samples by using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.
All clinical parameters improved significantly after therapy (P < 0.001). PGE2 was detected in all the samples. Highest mean PGE2 concentrations in GCF were obtained for Group II while the lowest concentrations were seen in Group I and Group III. Statistically significant difference was found between the levels of PGE2 at Group-II and Group-III (P < 0.05).
There is a substantial increase in the concentrations of PGE2 as PD progresses. Since PGE2 levels in GCF are positively correlated with gingival index, plaque index, probing pocket depths and clinical attachment levels, PGE2 may be considered as a Novel Biomarker in PD progression. However, controlled, longitudinal studies are needed to confirm this possibility.
Gingival crevicular fluid; periodontal disease; prostaglandin E2; root planing; scaling
Considering the role of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) in the pathogenesis of periodontitis, the present study is to estimate the levels of MMP-3 and TIMP-1 in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in periodontal health, disease and to evaluate the effect of periodontal therapy on MMP-3 and TIMP-1 concentrations in GCF.
Materials and Methods:
A periodontal examination and collection of GCF by extra-crevicular method was performed in 30 subjects selected randomly and categorized into 3 groups. Group I consists of 10 subjects Group II consists of 20 patients and Group III consists of 20 patients of Group II. Non surgical periodontal therapy was performed, and GCF was collected after 8 weeks from the same site of 20 chronic periodontitis patients who are considered as Group III. MMP- 3 and TIMP-1 levels were estimated in GCF-samples by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The findings were analyzed using the software and descriptive statistical methods such as Mann- Whitney U-test and Kruskal-Wallis test. P value < 0.001 was considered significant.
MMP-3 and TIMP-1 was detected in all samples. Highest mean MMP-3 concentrations in GCF were obtained for Group II (7.490 ng/ml) while the lowest concentrations were seen in Group I (0.344 ng/ml) and Group III (2.129 ng/ml). This suggests that MMP-3 levels in GCF increases proportionally with the progression of periodontal disease and decreases after treatment. Lowest mean TIMP-1 concentrations in GCF were obtained for Group-II (1.592 ng/ml), while the highest concentrations were seen in Group-I (8.78 ng/ml) and Group-III (6.40 ng/ml). This suggests that TIMP-1 levels in GCF decreases proportionally with progression of periodontal disease and increases after treatment.
There is a substantial increase in the concentrations of MMP-3 and decrease in TIMP-1 as periodontal disease progress. Since MMP-3 and TIMP-1 levels in GCF are positively correlated with gingival index, probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment loss, MMP-3, and TIMP-1 may be considered as a Novel Biomarkers in periodontal disease. However, controlled, longitudinal studies are needed to confirm this possibility.
Gingival crevicular fluid; matrix metalloproteinase-3; periodontal disease; scaling and root planning; tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1
Dental caries is essentially a process of diffusion and dissolution. If the aspect of dissolution can be curtailed some degree of prevention can be achieved.
The present study was carried out to evaluate and compare the effect of Er:YAG laser and Co2 laser irradiation combined with acidulated phosphate fluoride treatment on in vitro acid resistance of human enamel.
An in vitro study was carried out on 30 human premolars to evaluate the enamel's acid resistance using an atomic emission spectrometry analysis.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 60 enamel specimens were prepared from 30 human premolars and were randomly assigned to 6 groups: (1) Untreated (control); (2) 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) gel application alone for 4 min; (3) Er:YAG laser treatment alone; (4) Co2 laser treatment alone; (5) Er:YAG laser + APF gel application; (6) Co2 laser + APF gel application. The specimens were then individually immersed in 5 ml of acetate buffer solution (0.1 mol/L, pH 4.5) and incubated at 37°C for 24 h, and the acid resistance was evaluated by determining the calcium ion concentration using the atomic emission spectrometry.
An ANOVA model was constructed (P value of 0.05), followed by Tukey's test for multiple pair wise comparisons of mean values.
Significant differences were found between the control group and the test groups (P < 0.001).
Combining acidulated phosphate fluoride with either Er:YAG or Co2 laser had a synergistic effect in decreasing the enamel demineralization more than either fluoride treatment or laser treatment alone.
Acidulated phosphate fluoride; acid resistance; Co2 laser; Er:YAG laser
Several techniques have been proposed for clinical crown lengthening procedures. Crown lengthening in esthetic zone can be classified in two basic types: Restorative and non-restorative cases after the crown lengthening is executed.
Atraumatic surgical extrusion using a specially designed instrument called periotome was performed in four cases on isolated teeth in esthetic zone.
The technique presented is an alternative approach to periodontal surgical procedures consisting orthodontic extrusion and osseous recontouring. It does not result in functional or esthetic deformities especially in the anterior esthetic zone.
Biologic width; crown lengthening; extrusion; periotome
Lymphatic Filariasis is a mosquito transmitted disease, caused by parasitic worm Wuchereria bancrofti. Global Programme for Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis was established in early 2000. The strategy recommended by the World Health Organization is annual Mass Drug Administration (MDA) of single-dose of Diethylcarbamazine 6 mg/kg (DEC), distributed to inhabitants of Filariasis endemic areas, excluding children below 2 years of age, pregnant women, and seriously ill persons, and Morbidity Management. The health system distributes the drugs by a door-to-door strategy.
To assess the coverage and compliance of MDA in Bidar district during the campaign in November 2008.
Materials and Methods:
Cross-sectional population-based house-to-house visit. Outcome is assessed as actual coverage and compliance, in Percentage and proportions.
Eight clusters, total eligible population of 1 131 individuals were interviewed. The coverage rate was 78% with variation across different areas. The compliance with drug ingestion was 68%.
The effective coverage was below the target (85%). Side effects of DEC were minimum, the overall coverage was better in rural areas compared with urban areas.
Coverage; DEC; lymphatic filariasis; mass drug administration
Initial research has shown a positive correlation between the severity of periodontal disease and matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) concentrations in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). However, there are no enough reports to correlate the MMP-3 concentrations in GCF in periodontal health, disease and after treatment. Hence, the present study is to estimate the levels of MMP-3 in GCF in periodontal health, disease and to evaluate the effect of periodontal therapy on MMP-3 concentrations in GCF.
Materials and Methods:
Periodontal examination and collection of GCF by extracrevicular method was performed in 30 subjects selected randomly and categorized into three groups. Group I (Healthy, n=10), group II (Chronic periodontitis, n=20) and group III (After treatment group, n=20). Scaling and root planing (SRP) was performed and GCF was collected after 8 weeks of treatment. MMP-3 levels were estimated in GCF samples using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
MMP-3 was detected in all samples. Highest mean MMP-3 concentrations in GCF were obtained for group II (7.490 ng/ml), while the lowest concentrations were seen in group I (0.344 ng/ml) and group III (2.129 ng/ml). This suggests that MMP-3 levels in GCF increases proportionally with the progression of periodontal disease and decreases after treatment.
There is a substantial increase in the concentrations of MMP-3 as periodontal disease progresses. Since MMP-3 levels in GCF are positively correlated with gingival index, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level, MMP-3 may be considered as a “novel biomarker” in periodontal disease progression. However, controlled, longitudinal studies are needed to confirm this possibility.
Gingival crevicular fluid; matrix metalloproteinase-3; periodontal disease; scaling and root planing
Giant cell granuloma (GCG) is an uncommon bony lesion in the head and neck region, most commonly affecting the maxilla and mandible and has a female predilection. The clinical behavior of central GCG ranges from a slowly growing asymptomatic swelling to an aggressive lesion. The clinical, radiological, histological features and management of an aggressive GCG of maxilla in an 18-year-old female patient are described and discussed. It is emphasized that surgery is the traditional and still the most accepted treatment for GCG. Le Fort I osteotomy has been advocated as one of the access osteotomy for the surgical management of aggressive and extensive GCG involving the maxilla. The postoperative morbidity and recurrence have been discussed.
Giant cell granuloma; Le Fort I access osteotomy; maxillary sinus tumor
We report a case of recurrent patellar dislocation with high-grade trochlear dysplasia which persisted despite two previous operations. We did a Dejour's sulcus deepening trochleoplasty, medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction, and lateral retinacular release. Trochleoplasty and medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction is required in patients with high grade trochlear dysplasia.
Medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction; patellar dislocation; trochleoplasty
The aim of the present study was to estimate and compare the microleakage of a pit and fissure sealant after etching and Er:YAG laser treatment.
Materials and Methods:
Twenty non-carious premolars extracted for orthodontic reasons were equally divided into two groups. Samples in Group- I were treated with 37% phosphoric acid. Samples in Group II were irradiated with Er: YAG laser at 400 mJ at 4 Hz. Sealant was placed and light cured. Then, the samples were subjected to thermocycling. The samples were then immersed in 1% methylene blue. The samples were sectioned and examined under stereomicroscope at ×10 magnification.
Acid etched samples showed significantly less microleakage when compared to laser etching and it was statistically significant (P<0.01).
Er:YAG laser; microleakage; sealants
A fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2)-targeted adenoviral system can alter viral tropism and allow for improved transduction and reduced systemic toxicity. This study is to investigate if the FGF2-targeted adenoviral mutant Nijmegen breakage syndrome 1 (FGF2-Ad-NBS1) gene transfer can enhance cisplatin chemosensitisation not only by targeting DNA repair, but also through the induction of antiangiogenesis, whereas at the same time reducing toxicities in treating head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).
The human HNSCC cell line was treated in vitro and in a nude mouse xenograft model. We conducted verification of binding ability of mutant NBS1 and downregulation of MRN complex, evaluation of transduction efficiency and combined antitumour activities. The antiangiogenesis mechanism was also investigated. Finally, we estimated the distribution of adenoviral vector in the liver.
The mutant NBS1 protein retains the binding ability and effectively suppresses the expression level of the MRN in infected cells. Transduction efficiency in vitro and cisplatin chemosensitisation were upregulated. The FGF2-Ad-NBS1 also showed detargeting the viral vectors away from the liver. The downregulation of NF-κB expression was supposed to correlate with increased antiangiogenesis.
FGF2-targeted adenoviral system enhances the cisplatin chemosensitisation of mutant NBS1 and may avoid viral-associated liver toxicities.
chemoresistance; NBS1; adenovirus; targeted gene therapy; DNA double-strand breaks; DNA repair
This article on the dental management of a neonate with Pierre Robin sequence describes the clinical and laboratory procedures for construction of a feeding plate due to the presence of a cleft palate. Emphasis has also been laid on a few literatures to describe medical complications associated with this condition. A 56-day-old neonate had been referred to the outpatient department with the complaint of difficulty in feeding, description, and management of which has been described in the case report.
Cleft palate; feeding obturator; feeding plate; Pierre Robin syndrome; syndromic cleft
To determine whether the frequency and amplitude of vibration and the use of surfactant has any effect on the formation of voids on the cast surface, poured from a polyvinyl siloxane impression material, using a mechanical model vibrator.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 100 impressions of a master die were made using Reprosil, Type 1, Medium Viscosity, Regular body, and Dentsply Caulk. The test group was subdivided into a surfactant and non-surfactant group, 50 impressions each. The impressions were poured in a dental stone with a mechanical model vibrator that was set at a vibration frequency of 3000 cycles / minute (low) and 6000 cycles / minute (high) with the help of a knob. The resultant casts were examined with a Stereomicroscope (LABOMED CZM4) under ×10 magnifications.
For the low and high frequencies, when surfactant and non-surfactant groups were compared, for all the amplitudes and for both the material groups, the surfactant groups resulted in fewer void formations and showed very high statistical significance (P-value = 0.001).
The lowest mean voids were obtained for high frequency surfactant groups. Reprosil: High frequency amplitude 2 being the most prominent, produced the least mean voids (mean = 23.2000, P = 0.001, very highly significant). In comparison, the surfactant groups produced the least voids for both frequencies.
Void-free casts; polyvinyl siloxane impressions; surfactant; mechanical model vibrator
Family–work conflict (FWC) and work–family conflict (WFC) are more likely to exert negative influences in the family
domain, resulting in lower life satisfaction and greater internal conflict within the family. Studies have identified several
variables that influence the level of WFC and FWC. Variables such as the size of family, the age of children, the work
hours and the level of social support impact the experience of WFC and FWC. However, these variables have been
conceptualized as antecedents of WFC and FWC; it is also important to consider the consequences these variables have
on psychological distress and wellbeing of the working women.
to study various factors which could lead to WFC and FWC among married women employees.
Materials and Methods:
The sample consisted of a total of 90 married working women of age between 20 and 50 years. WFC and FWC Scale was administered to measure WFC and FWC of working women. The obtained data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Carl Pearson's Correlation was used to find the relationship between the different variables.
Findings and Conclusion:
The findings of the study emphasized the need to formulate guidelines for the management of WFCs at organizational level as it is related to job satisfaction and performance of the employees.
Married; women; work-life balance; employed
Of all the aneurysmal bone cysts (ABC) occurring in the body, less than 1% are seen in the patella. We report here, a 27-year-old woman with Stage III ABC of patella. Curettage, chemical and thermal cautery of the bed followed by autogenous bone grafting of the defect was done. At two-year follow up, there was a suspicion of lucency in the middle of the patella. However a repeat curettage revealed only fibrous tissue. Now at four years of follow up, the bone graft remained well incorporated. Patient has mild anterior knee pain on stair climbing but regained normal knee function.
Aneurysmal bone cyst; patella; curettage; bone grafting
U1-70K, a U1 snRNP-specific protein, and serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins are components of the spliceosome and play critical roles in both constitutive and alternative pre-mRNA splicing. However, the mobility properties of U1-70K, its in vivo interaction with SR proteins, and the mobility of the U1-70K-SR protein complex have not been studied in any system. Here, we studied the in vivo interaction of U1-70K with an SR protein (SR45) and the mobility of the U1-70K/SR protein complex using bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). Our results show that U1-70K exchanges between speckles and the nucleoplasmic pool very rapidly and that this exchange is sensitive to ongoing transcription and phosphorylation. BiFC analyses showed that U1-70K and SR45 interacted primarily in speckles and that this interaction is mediated by the RS1 or RS2 domain of SR45. FRAP analyses showed considerably slower recovery of the SR45/U1-70K complex than either protein alone indicating that SR45/U1-70K complexes remain in the speckles for a longer duration. Furthermore, FRAP analyses with SR45/U1-70K complex in the presence of inhibitors of phosphorylation did not reveal any significant change compared to control cells, suggesting that the mobility of the complex is not affected by the status of protein phosphorylation. These results indicate that U1-70K, like SR splicing factors, moves rapidly in the nucleus ensuring its availability at various sites of splicing. Furthermore, although it appears that U1-70K moves by diffusion its mobility is regulated by phosphorylation and transcription.
Northeast India, the only region which currently forms a land bridge between the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia, has been proposed as an important corridor for the initial peopling of East Asia. Given that the Austro-Asiatic linguistic family is considered to be the oldest and spoken by certain tribes in India, Northeast India and entire Southeast Asia, we expect that populations of this family from Northeast India should provide the signatures of genetic link between Indian and Southeast Asian populations. In order to test this hypothesis, we analyzed mtDNA and Y-Chromosome SNP and STR data of the eight groups of the Austro-Asiatic Khasi from Northeast India and the neighboring Garo and compared with that of other relevant Asian populations. The results suggest that the Austro-Asiatic Khasi tribes of Northeast India represent a genetic continuity between the populations of South and Southeast Asia, thereby advocating that northeast India could have been a major corridor for the movement of populations from India to East/Southeast Asia.
Osteoporosis is characterized by decreased bone mineral density and mechanistic imbalances of bone tissue that may result in reduced skeletal strength and an enhanced susceptibility to fractures. Osteoporosis in its most common form affects the elderly (both sexes) and all racial groups of human beings. Multiple environmental risk factors like acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) are believed to be one of the causes of osteoporosis. Recently a high incidence of osteoporosis has been observed in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals. The etiology of this occurrence in HIV infections is controversial. This problem seems to be more frequent in patients receiving potent antiretroviral therapy. In AIDS, the main suggested risk factors for the development of osteoporosis are use of protease inhibitors, longer duration of HIV infection, lower body weight before antiretroviral therapy, high viral load. Variations in serum parameters like osteocalcin, c-telopeptide, levels of elements like Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphorus, concentration of vitamin-D metabolites, lactate levels, bicarbonate concentrations, amount of alkaline phosphatase are demonstrated in the course of development of osteoporosis. OPG/RANKL/RANK system is final mediator of bone remodeling. Bone mineral density (BMD) test is of added value to assess the risk of osteoporosis in patients infected with AIDS. The biochemical markers also aid in this assessment. Clinical management mostly follows the lines of treatment of osteoporosis and osteopenia.
Osteoporosis; AIDS; HIV; Bone mineral density; HAART; Protease inhibitor; OPG/RANKL/RANK
Yorkshire pigs were bred selectively for high and low immune responses (H and L pigs, respectively) based on multiple antibody (Ab) and cell-mediated immune response traits. In a previous experiment, generation 4 (G4) pigs of each line were infected with Mycoplasma hyorhinis. High responders had a more rapid and higher Ab response and less polyserositis, but arthritis was more severe in H pigs than in L pigs. To test the hypothesis that line differences were attributable to differential expression of cytokines, M. hyorhinis infection was induced in pigs of G8. Arthritis was more severe clinically (P, ≤0.05) and postmortem (P, ≤0.001) when M. hyorhinis CFU were more numerous in synovial fluid (SF) of H pigs than of L pigs (P, ≤0.03). In H pigs but not L pigs, CFU and lesion scores were correlated positively. In H pigs, infection increased the frequency of expression of mRNAs for interleukin-8 (IL-8), IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in mononuclear cells from synovial membranes (SM). In L pigs, IL-1α, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α mRNAs were increased in frequency of expression. The quantity of the cytokine message for IL-6 was increased in infected H pigs. For L pigs, infection increased the cytokine message for IL-1α, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α. IL-6 in SM and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) in SF were produced at a higher copy number in H pigs than in L pigs after infection. For H pigs, there were no positive rank correlations between lesion or CFU scores and cytokines. For L pigs, IL-1α, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-α in SM correlated with CFU, while IL-6, TNF-β, and IFN-γ in SF correlated with CFU. Lesion score in L pigs correlated with IL-1α in SF. While these results indicate that H and L pigs differ in the cytokine response to M. hyorhinis infection, they do not confirm a characteristic cytokine response in association with the relative susceptibility to infection and arthritis observed in H pigs.
In Bangalore, cancer of the oesophagus is the third most common cancer in males and fourth most common in females with average annual age-adjusted incidence rates of 8.2 and 8.9 per 100,000 respectively. A case-control investigation of cancer of the oesophagus was conducted based on the Population-based cancer registry, Bangalore, India. Three hundred and forty-three cases of cancer of the oesophagus were age and sex matched with twice the number of controls from the same area, but with no evidence of cancer. Chewing with or without tobacco was a significant risk factor. In both sexes chewing was not a risk factor for cancer of the upper third of the oesophagus. Among males, non-tobacco chewing was a significant risk factor for the middle third but not for the other two segments and tobacco chewing was a significant risk factor for the lower third of the oesophagus, but not for the other two segments. Bidi smoking in males was a significant risk factor for all three segments being highest for the upper third, less for the middle third and still less for the lower third. The risk of oesophageal cancer associated with alcohol drinking was significant only for the middle third.
Pressure changes were evaluated in the transverse, descending, and rectosigmoid colon of 30 children with chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction. Twenty two had severe lifelong constipation and eight had symptoms suggesting a motility disorder exclusively of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Based on prior antroduodenal manometry, 24 children were diagnosed as having a neuropathic and six a myopathic form of intestinal pseudo-obstruction. On the day of study, endoscopy was used to place a manometry catheter into the transverse colon and intraluminal pressure was recorded for more than four hours. After a baseline recording, we gave a meal to assess the gastrocolonic response. Colonic contractions were noted in 24 children. The six children with no colonic contractions had a hollow visceral myopathy and constipation. In the children with colonic contractions, fasting motility did not differentiate children with and without constipation. After the meal, in all eight children without constipation there was (1) an increase in motility index (3.2 (SEM 0.3) mm Hg/min basal v 8.4 (SEM 1.1) mm Hg/min postprandial; p < 0.001), and (2) at least one high amplitude propagated contraction (HAPC). In the 16 constipated children with colonic contractions the motility index did not significantly increase after the meal (2.1 (SEM 0.3) mm Hg/min basal v 3.1 (SEM 0.4) mm Hg/min postprandial) and 12 of them had no HAPCs (p < 0.01 v group without constipation). In summary, in children with a clinical diagnosis of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction, constipation is associated with absence of HAPCs, and the gastrocolonic response or with total absence of colonic contractions. It is concluded that studies of colonic manometry are feasible in children and may document discrete abnormalities in those with intestinal pseudo-obstruction with colonic involvement.
Fistula formation between the duodenum and the skin of the anterior abdominal wall is a rare complication of duodenal ulcer disease, most often felt to occur following ulcer surgery. The development of a spontaneous duodenocutaneous fistula in association with duodenal ulcer has not been hitherto reported. A middle aged man with a history of peptic ulcer for more than 10 years, and a vagotomy and pyloroplasty 15 months earlier, presented with an asymptomatic duodenocutaneous fistula, presumably secondary to a perforated duodenal bulb ulcer. Successful healing of the fistula was accomplished by non-surgical therapy consisting of nasogastric suction, intravenous alimentation and parenteral cimetidine over a 4-week period.
The eucaryotic elongation factor Tu (eEF-Tu) is a single polypeptide with an approximate Mr of 53,000. During protein synthesis eEF-Tu promotes the binding of aminoacyl-tRNA to the ribosome. To study the expression of the gene(s) for this factor, a genomic clone was isolated that contains a mouse eEF-Tu gene. We screened a phage genomic library with a synthetic oligonucleotide probe complementary to a region of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Artemia sp. eEF-Tu genes which codes for an area that is highly conserved between both yeast and Artemia sp. eEF-Tu. From approximately 75,000 phage plaques we obtained five isolates with apparently identical inserts. All five clones contained a 3.8-kilobase EcoRI fragment that hybridized to additional oligonucleotide probes corresponding to different conserved regions of eEF-Tu. We sequenced the 5' end of one genomic clone and determined the length of the cloned fragment that was protected by eEF-Tu mRNA in S1 nuclease protection assays. A quantitative S1 nuclease protection assay was used to compare the relative steady-state levels of eEF-Tu mRNA in total mRNA in total RNA isolated from hexamethylene-bisacetamide-induced murine erythroleukemia cells. The results show a dramatic reduction in the steady-state level of eEF-Tu mRNA as differentiation proceeds. A similar reduction in transcription of eEF-Tu mRNA was observed in isolated nuclei. Finally, we examined the in vivo synthesis of eEF-Tu during differentiation and found that it declined in a manner parallel to the decline in the steady-state level of eEF-Tu mRNA. In addition, we have isolated and sequenced a cDNA clone for mouse eEF-Tu. The derived amino acid sequence is compared with sequences from other eucaryotes.
Activity of various glycosidases in the intracellular enzyme fraction of Bacteroides ovatus B4-11 was investigated. During 120 h of incubation at 37 degrees C, ca. 30% of the crude hemicellulose was hydrolyzed by an intracellular enzyme fraction of strain B4-11. Xylose was the major sugar released from crude hemicellulose. Glycosidases (alpha-1,6-glucosidase, alpha-1,4-glucosidase, beta-1,4-glucosidase, and beta-1,4-xylosidase) were induced in B. ovatus B4-11 by crude hemicellulose and heteroxylan. When B. ovatus B4-11 was grown on either crude hemicellulose or heteroxylan, the predominant enzyme in the intracellular enzyme fraction was beta-1,4-xylosidase.