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1.  Psychological Morbidity Status Among the Rural Geriatric Population of Tamil Nadu, India: A Cross-sectional Study 
Background:
Mental health problems like depression, cognitive impairment, anxiety, sleep disorders, and so on, arising out of senility, neurosis, and living conditions are common in the geriatric population.
Aims:
To study the psychiatric morbidity among the rural elderly.
Settings and Design:
A community-based, cross-sectional study.
Materials and Methods:
A study was conducted on 800 rural elderly subjects, aged 60 years and more, living in ten randomly selected villages, served by the Rural Health Training Center (RHTC), Valadi, in Tamilnadu state, India. Cognitive functioning was assessed by the Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE), and the depression by the Geriatric Depression Scale — Shorter version.
Statistical Analysis:
The data was analyzed with SPSS 16 version statistical software using proportions, and the chi-square.
Results:
A majority of the subjects were widows / widowers, illiterates, living with family, and showing economic dependency. The prevalence of cognitive impairment was 43.25%, with a mean MMSE score of 23.32±4.4, and the depression was 47.0% and 6.16±3.4. Cognitive impairment, depression, and a disturbed sleep pattern were associated with female sex, age, illiteracy, poverty, loneliness, and the low socioeconomic status of the family.
Conclusions:
The study showed a definite association between the sociodemographic factors and psychiatric morbidity. Encouraging the Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) working for the elderly, running of separate geriatric clinics, and effective implementation of schemes like old age pension are some of the measures to be taken.
doi:10.4103/0253-7176.106016
PMCID: PMC3573572  PMID: 23441084
Cognitive impairment; depression; geriatric; mini mental status examination
2.  Gaint Epidermoid Cyst of External Ear– A Rare Case Report 
Epidermoid cysts are developmental, benign, cutaneous cysts which are commonly found on face followed by trunk and neck. They account for approximately 80% of follicular cysts of the skin. They are slow growing lesions and remain asymptomatic until or unless secondarily infected. They occasionally have tendency to develop into a malignancy. We describe a case of giant epidermoid cyst of posterior part of external ear, a location where very few cases have been reported in the literature. Since cyst was attached to the external ear, esthetics was also one of the important concern apart from the cyst getting infected, as they cause disfigurement of the face. The cyst was excised surgically. Histopathology confirmed the presumptive diagnosis of Epidermoid cyst. Two-years after the resection there was no recurrence. Due to the possibility of the cyst to transform into a malignancy and for appropriate diagnosis, histopathological examination remains a gold standard for confirmatory diagnosis.
doi:10.7860/JCDR/2014/8099.4046
PMCID: PMC3972548
Epidermoid cyst; External ear; Retroauricular Cyst
3.  Prevalence of recurrent aphthous ulceration in the Indian Population 
Objective: Patients with an oral ulcer may present initially to a general physician or a dental practitioner. Majority of the ulcers are benign and resolve spontaneously but small proportions are malignant. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of recurrent aphthous ulcerations in the Indian population. Material and Methods: 3244 patients attending the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology during the period from November, 2010 to December, 2012 with various complaints were examined. Of the patients examined 1669 were females and 1575 were males. Results: 705 patients presented with recurrent aphthous ulceration (21.7%). Females (56.3%) were more commonly affected than males (43.7%). Patients in the third and fourth decade were most commonly affected. Stress was the most common factor associated with recurrent aphthous stomatitis (386 patients). 54.5% patients did not take any medications and 72.9% patients opined that the condition needed no dental consultation. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate that recurrent aphthous ulceration is a common mucosal disorder in the Indian population. The early and proper diagnosis of the ulcers will help the dental practitioner in providing information to the patient regarding awareness and management of the condition.
Key words:Recurrent aphthous ulcers, prevalence, Indian population.
doi:10.4317/jced.51227
PMCID: PMC3935903  PMID: 24596633
4.  Design and Synthesis of Metal Complexes of (2E)-2-[(2E)-3-Phenylprop-2-en-1-ylidene]hydrazinecarbothioamide and Their Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue 
The Scientific World Journal  2013;2013:828313.
The photocatalytic degradation has been considered to be an efficient process for the degradation of organic pollutants, which are present in the effluents released by industries. The photocatalytic bleaching of cationic dye methylene blue was carried out spectrometrically on irradiation of UV light using Cu(II), Ni(II), and Co(II) complexes of (2E)-2-[(2E)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-ylidene]hydrazinecarbothioamide (HL). The effects of pH and metal ion were studied on the efficiency of the reaction. Cu(II) complex shows better catalytic activity and the highest percentage degradation (~88.8%) of methylene blue was observed at pH 12. A tentative mechanism has also been proposed for the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue.
doi:10.1155/2013/828313
PMCID: PMC3865733  PMID: 24363623
5.  The Calmodulin-Binding Transcription Factor SIGNAL RESPONSIVE1 is a Novel Regulator of Glucosinolate Metabolism and Herbivory Tolerance in Arabidopsis 
Plant and Cell Physiology  2012;53(12):2008-2015.
The Arabidopsis Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM)-binding transcription factor SIGNAL RESPONSIVE1 (AtSR1/CAMTA3) was previously identified as a key negative regulator of plant immune responses. Here, we report a new role for AtSR1 as a critical component of plant defense against insect herbivory. Loss of AtSR1 function impairs tolerance to feeding by the generalist herbivore Trichoplusia ni as well as wound-induced jasmonate accumulation. The susceptibility of the atsr1 mutant is associated with decreased total glucosinolate (GS) levels. The two key herbivory deterrents, indol-3-ylmethyl (I3M) and 4-methylsulfinylbutyl (4MSOB), showed the most significant reductions in atsr1 plants. Further, changes in AtSR1 transcript levels led to altered expression of several genes involved in GS metabolism including IQD1, MYB51 and AtST5a. Overall, our results establish AtSR1 as an important component of plant resistance to insect herbivory as well as one of only three described proteins involved in Ca2+/CaM-dependent signaling to function in the regulation of GS metabolism, providing a novel avenue for future investigations of plant–insect interactions.
doi:10.1093/pcp/pcs143
PMCID: PMC3516851  PMID: 23072934
Arabidopsis; AtSR1; Glucosinolates; Herbivory; Wound responses
6.  Schedule of Factors Influencing Access to Psychiatric Treatment in Persons with Schizophrenia: Validity and Pilot Testing 
Background:
A substantial proportion of patients with severe mental disorders remain untreated in India. Qualitative research has highlighted the complex interplay of multiple factors that preclude schizophrenia patients in rural Indian settings from accessing treatment.
Aims:
(a) To establish the face and content validities of an interview schedule titled “Schedule of Factors Influencing Access (SOFIAc) to Psychiatric Treatment in Persons with Schizophrenia”, which comprehensively assesses the factors that prevent schizophrenia patients from accessing psychiatric treatment. (b) To assess the feasibility of its administration.
Materials and Methods:
SOFIAc contains 15 items. This schedule involves three phases of interviewing patients and family members. This was given to 12 experts. They used Likert scales (1=not at all satisfactory to 5=very much satisfactory) to rate each item of the schedule. In addition, the experts rated (the same way as above) the following five dimensions of the schedule (as a whole) separately: A (comprehensiveness of the factors), B (scoring system), C (interviewing method), D (general instructions given to the raters), E (overall schedule). Later on, 10 persons with schizophrenia were interviewed with SOFIAc to test the feasibility of administration.
Results:
Thirteen items were rated as either satisfactory (score=4) or very much satisfactory (score=5) by all 12 experts; remaining two were rated as 4 or 5 by 11 experts. Regarding comprehensiveness of the factors, scoring methods and general instructions given to the interviewers, all provided scores >4; regarding the method of interviewing, 11 provided the score of >4; with regard to overall interview schedule, all experts provided scores >4. Pilot testing revealed that it took 60 min to administer SOFIAc.
Conclusion:
SOFIAc has satisfactory face and content validities. It is also feasible to administer SOFIAc.
doi:10.4103/0253-7176.122226
PMCID: PMC3868087  PMID: 24379496
Access to psychiatric care; content validity; face validity; interview schedule; rural community
7.  Associated oral lesions in human immunodefeciency virus infected children of age 1 to 14 years in anti retroviral therapy centers in Tamil Nadu 
Contemporary Clinical Dentistry  2013;4(4):467-471.
Aim:
To evaluate the prevalence of oral lesions status in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected children of age 1 to 14 years in Anti Retro viral therapy (ART) centres in Tamil Nadu.
Materials and Methods:
A of total 326 HIV infected children, age 1 to 14 years of which 174 male children and 152 female children were examined for Oral lesions in the Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Rajah Muthiah Dental College and Hospital, Annamalai University in association with the ART centers in Villupuram, Vellore and HIV Homes in Thiruvannamalai, Trichy and Salem in Tamil Nadu towns.
Statistical Analysis:
Statistical Package for Social Science for Windows (version 11 code: 3000135939012345).
Result:
Of the total 326 children, 201 (61.65%) had oral lesions. (68 [20.86%] with Oral Candidiasis [OC], 54 [16.56%] with Angular Cheilitis, 27 [8.28%] with Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis [NUG], 25 [7.66%] with Necrotizing Ulcerative Periodontitis [NUP], 18 [5.53%] with Linear Gingival Erythema [LGE] and 9 [2.76%] with Apthous Ulcer.) Conclusion Among the oral lesions in HIV infected children, OC 20.86% was the predominant oral lesion followed by Angular Chelitis 16.56%, NUG 8.28%, NUP 7.66%, LGE5.53% and Apthous Ulcer 2.76%.
doi:10.4103/0976-237X.123043
PMCID: PMC3883325  PMID: 24403790
Oral lesions; prevalence; human immunodeficiency virus
8.  Estimation of prostaglandin E2 levels in gingival crevicular fluid in periodontal health, disease and after treatment 
Contemporary Clinical Dentistry  2013;4(3):303-306.
Background and Objectives:
Initial research has shown a positive correlation between the severity of periodontal disease (PD) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) concentrations in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). However, there are no enough reports to correlate the PGE2 concentrations in GCF in periodontal health, disease and after treatment. Hence, the present study is aimed to estimate the levels of PGE2 in GCF in periodontal health, disease and after periodontal therapy.
Materials and Methods:
A periodontal examination and collection of GCF by extracrevicular method was performed in 25 subjects selected randomly and categorized into three groups on the basis of plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level. Group I (healthy) consists of 10 subjects, Group II (chronic periodontitis) consists of 15 patients and Group III (after treatment group) consists of 15 patients of Group II. PGE2 levels were estimated in GCF samples by using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.
Results:
All clinical parameters improved significantly after therapy (P < 0.001). PGE2 was detected in all the samples. Highest mean PGE2 concentrations in GCF were obtained for Group II while the lowest concentrations were seen in Group I and Group III. Statistically significant difference was found between the levels of PGE2 at Group-II and Group-III (P < 0.05).
Conclusion:
There is a substantial increase in the concentrations of PGE2 as PD progresses. Since PGE2 levels in GCF are positively correlated with gingival index, plaque index, probing pocket depths and clinical attachment levels, PGE2 may be considered as a Novel Biomarker in PD progression. However, controlled, longitudinal studies are needed to confirm this possibility.
doi:10.4103/0976-237X.118354
PMCID: PMC3793549  PMID: 24124294
Gingival crevicular fluid; periodontal disease; prostaglandin E2; root planing; scaling
9.  Comparison of matrix metalloproteinase-3 and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 levels in gingival crevicular fluid in periodontal health, disease and after treatment: A clinico biochemical study 
Dental Research Journal  2013;10(4):434-439.
Background:
Considering the role of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) in the pathogenesis of periodontitis, the present study is to estimate the levels of MMP-3 and TIMP-1 in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in periodontal health, disease and to evaluate the effect of periodontal therapy on MMP-3 and TIMP-1 concentrations in GCF.
Materials and Methods:
A periodontal examination and collection of GCF by extra-crevicular method was performed in 30 subjects selected randomly and categorized into 3 groups. Group I consists of 10 subjects Group II consists of 20 patients and Group III consists of 20 patients of Group II. Non surgical periodontal therapy was performed, and GCF was collected after 8 weeks from the same site of 20 chronic periodontitis patients who are considered as Group III. MMP- 3 and TIMP-1 levels were estimated in GCF-samples by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The findings were analyzed using the software and descriptive statistical methods such as Mann- Whitney U-test and Kruskal-Wallis test. P value < 0.001 was considered significant.
Results:
MMP-3 and TIMP-1 was detected in all samples. Highest mean MMP-3 concentrations in GCF were obtained for Group II (7.490 ng/ml) while the lowest concentrations were seen in Group I (0.344 ng/ml) and Group III (2.129 ng/ml). This suggests that MMP-3 levels in GCF increases proportionally with the progression of periodontal disease and decreases after treatment. Lowest mean TIMP-1 concentrations in GCF were obtained for Group-II (1.592 ng/ml), while the highest concentrations were seen in Group-I (8.78 ng/ml) and Group-III (6.40 ng/ml). This suggests that TIMP-1 levels in GCF decreases proportionally with progression of periodontal disease and increases after treatment.
Conclusion:
There is a substantial increase in the concentrations of MMP-3 and decrease in TIMP-1 as periodontal disease progress. Since MMP-3 and TIMP-1 levels in GCF are positively correlated with gingival index, probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment loss, MMP-3, and TIMP-1 may be considered as a Novel Biomarkers in periodontal disease. However, controlled, longitudinal studies are needed to confirm this possibility.
PMCID: PMC3793404  PMID: 24130576
Gingival crevicular fluid; matrix metalloproteinase-3; periodontal disease; scaling and root planning; tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1
10.  Identification of a novel heterozygous mutation in exon 50 of the COL1A1 gene causing osteogenesis imperfecta 
Summary
A 19-year-old woman was diagnosed with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). She had sustained numerous low-trauma fractures throughout her childhood, including a recent pelvic fracture (superior and inferior ramus) following a low-impact fall. She had the classical blue sclerae, and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) bone scanning confirmed low bone mass for her age in the lumbar spine (Z-score was −2.6). However, despite these classical clinical features, the diagnosis of OI had not been entertained throughout the whole of her childhood. Sequencing of her genomic DNA revealed that she was heterozygous for the c.3880_3883dup mutation in exon 50 of the COL1A1 gene. This mutation is predicted to result in a frameshift at p.Thr1295, and truncating stop codon 3 amino acids downstream. To our knowledge, this mutation has not previously been reported in OI.
Learning points
OI is a rare but important genetic metabolic bone and connective tissue disorder that manifests a diverse clinical phenotype that includes recurrent low-impact fractures.Most mutations that underlie OI occur within exon 50 of the COL1A1 gene (coding for protein constituents of type 1 pro-collagen).The diagnosis of OI is easily missed in its mild form. Early diagnosis is important, and there is a need for improved awareness of OI among health care professionals.OI is a diagnosis of exclusion, although the key diagnostic criterion is through genetic testing for mutations within the COL1A1 gene.Effective management of OI should be instituted through a multidisciplinary team approach that includes a bone specialist (usually an endocrinologist or rheumatologist), a geneticist, an audiometrist and a genetic counsellor. Physiotherapy and orthopaedic surgery may also be required.
doi:10.1530/EDM-13-0002
PMCID: PMC3922149  PMID: 24616757
11.  Acquired acid resistance of human enamel treated with laser (Er:YAG laser and Co2 laser) and acidulated phosphate fluoride treatment: An in vitro atomic emission spectrometry analysis 
Contemporary Clinical Dentistry  2013;4(2):170-175.
Background:
Dental caries is essentially a process of diffusion and dissolution. If the aspect of dissolution can be curtailed some degree of prevention can be achieved.
Aims:
The present study was carried out to evaluate and compare the effect of Er:YAG laser and Co2 laser irradiation combined with acidulated phosphate fluoride treatment on in vitro acid resistance of human enamel.
Design:
An in vitro study was carried out on 30 human premolars to evaluate the enamel's acid resistance using an atomic emission spectrometry analysis.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 60 enamel specimens were prepared from 30 human premolars and were randomly assigned to 6 groups: (1) Untreated (control); (2) 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) gel application alone for 4 min; (3) Er:YAG laser treatment alone; (4) Co2 laser treatment alone; (5) Er:YAG laser + APF gel application; (6) Co2 laser + APF gel application. The specimens were then individually immersed in 5 ml of acetate buffer solution (0.1 mol/L, pH 4.5) and incubated at 37°C for 24 h, and the acid resistance was evaluated by determining the calcium ion concentration using the atomic emission spectrometry.
Statistical Analysis:
An ANOVA model was constructed (P value of 0.05), followed by Tukey's test for multiple pair wise comparisons of mean values.
Results:
Significant differences were found between the control group and the test groups (P < 0.001).
Conclusions:
Combining acidulated phosphate fluoride with either Er:YAG or Co2 laser had a synergistic effect in decreasing the enamel demineralization more than either fluoride treatment or laser treatment alone.
doi:10.4103/0976-237X.114864
PMCID: PMC3757877  PMID: 24015004
Acidulated phosphate fluoride; acid resistance; Co2 laser; Er:YAG laser
12.  Atraumatic surgical extrusion using periotome in esthetic zone: A case series 
Several techniques have been proposed for clinical crown lengthening procedures. Crown lengthening in esthetic zone can be classified in two basic types: Restorative and non-restorative cases after the crown lengthening is executed.
Atraumatic surgical extrusion using a specially designed instrument called periotome was performed in four cases on isolated teeth in esthetic zone.
The technique presented is an alternative approach to periodontal surgical procedures consisting orthodontic extrusion and osseous recontouring. It does not result in functional or esthetic deformities especially in the anterior esthetic zone.
doi:10.4103/0972-0707.108213
PMCID: PMC3659867  PMID: 23716974
Biologic width; crown lengthening; extrusion; periotome
13.  Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis: Mass Drug Administration in Endemic Areas of (Bidar District) Karnataka-2008 
Background:
Lymphatic Filariasis is a mosquito transmitted disease, caused by parasitic worm Wuchereria bancrofti. Global Programme for Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis was established in early 2000. The strategy recommended by the World Health Organization is annual Mass Drug Administration (MDA) of single-dose of Diethylcarbamazine 6 mg/kg (DEC), distributed to inhabitants of Filariasis endemic areas, excluding children below 2 years of age, pregnant women, and seriously ill persons, and Morbidity Management. The health system distributes the drugs by a door-to-door strategy.
Objective:
To assess the coverage and compliance of MDA in Bidar district during the campaign in November 2008.
Materials and Methods:
Cross-sectional population-based house-to-house visit. Outcome is assessed as actual coverage and compliance, in Percentage and proportions.
Results:
Eight clusters, total eligible population of 1 131 individuals were interviewed. The coverage rate was 78% with variation across different areas. The compliance with drug ingestion was 68%.
Conclusion:
The effective coverage was below the target (85%). Side effects of DEC were minimum, the overall coverage was better in rural areas compared with urban areas.
doi:10.4103/0970-0218.103468
PMCID: PMC3531013  PMID: 23293434
Coverage; DEC; lymphatic filariasis; mass drug administration
14.  Estimation of matrix metalloproteinase-3 levels in gingival crevicular fluid in periodontal disease, health and after scaling and root planing 
Background:
Initial research has shown a positive correlation between the severity of periodontal disease and matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) concentrations in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). However, there are no enough reports to correlate the MMP-3 concentrations in GCF in periodontal health, disease and after treatment. Hence, the present study is to estimate the levels of MMP-3 in GCF in periodontal health, disease and to evaluate the effect of periodontal therapy on MMP-3 concentrations in GCF.
Materials and Methods:
Periodontal examination and collection of GCF by extracrevicular method was performed in 30 subjects selected randomly and categorized into three groups. Group I (Healthy, n=10), group II (Chronic periodontitis, n=20) and group III (After treatment group, n=20). Scaling and root planing (SRP) was performed and GCF was collected after 8 weeks of treatment. MMP-3 levels were estimated in GCF samples using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
Results:
MMP-3 was detected in all samples. Highest mean MMP-3 concentrations in GCF were obtained for group II (7.490 ng/ml), while the lowest concentrations were seen in group I (0.344 ng/ml) and group III (2.129 ng/ml). This suggests that MMP-3 levels in GCF increases proportionally with the progression of periodontal disease and decreases after treatment.
Conclusion:
There is a substantial increase in the concentrations of MMP-3 as periodontal disease progresses. Since MMP-3 levels in GCF are positively correlated with gingival index, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level, MMP-3 may be considered as a “novel biomarker” in periodontal disease progression. However, controlled, longitudinal studies are needed to confirm this possibility.
doi:10.4103/0972-124X.106907
PMCID: PMC3590725  PMID: 23493467
Gingival crevicular fluid; matrix metalloproteinase-3; periodontal disease; scaling and root planing
15.  Surgical Management of Aggressive Central Giant Cell Granuloma of Maxilla through Le Fort I Access Osteotomy 
Giant cell granuloma (GCG) is an uncommon bony lesion in the head and neck region, most commonly affecting the maxilla and mandible and has a female predilection. The clinical behavior of central GCG ranges from a slowly growing asymptomatic swelling to an aggressive lesion. The clinical, radiological, histological features and management of an aggressive GCG of maxilla in an 18-year-old female patient are described and discussed. It is emphasized that surgery is the traditional and still the most accepted treatment for GCG. Le Fort I osteotomy has been advocated as one of the access osteotomy for the surgical management of aggressive and extensive GCG involving the maxilla. The postoperative morbidity and recurrence have been discussed.
doi:10.4103/2156-7514.96543
PMCID: PMC3385503  PMID: 22754742
Giant cell granuloma; Le Fort I access osteotomy; maxillary sinus tumor
16.  Trochleoplasty and medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction for recurrent patellar dislocation 
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics  2012;46(2):242-245.
We report a case of recurrent patellar dislocation with high-grade trochlear dysplasia which persisted despite two previous operations. We did a Dejour's sulcus deepening trochleoplasty, medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction, and lateral retinacular release. Trochleoplasty and medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction is required in patients with high grade trochlear dysplasia.
doi:10.4103/0019-5413.93691
PMCID: PMC3308670  PMID: 22448067
Medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction; patellar dislocation; trochleoplasty
17.  Assessment and comparison of microleakage of a fluoride-releasing sealant after acid etching and Er: YAG laser treatment – An in vitro study 
Aim:
The aim of the present study was to estimate and compare the microleakage of a pit and fissure sealant after etching and Er:YAG laser treatment.
Materials and Methods:
Twenty non-carious premolars extracted for orthodontic reasons were equally divided into two groups. Samples in Group- I were treated with 37% phosphoric acid. Samples in Group II were irradiated with Er: YAG laser at 400 mJ at 4 Hz. Sealant was placed and light cured. Then, the samples were subjected to thermocycling. The samples were then immersed in 1% methylene blue. The samples were sectioned and examined under stereomicroscope at ×10 magnification.
Results:
Acid etched samples showed significantly less microleakage when compared to laser etching and it was statistically significant (P<0.01).
doi:10.4103/0976-237X.94549
PMCID: PMC3341762  PMID: 22557900
Er:YAG laser; microleakage; sealants
18.  Role of lifestyle variables on the lipid profile of selected South Indian subjects 
Indian Heart Journal  2012;64(1):28-34.
Objective
To study the associations between diet, exercise. and the serum lipid profile.
Materials and methods
Hospital based cross-sectional study. The study participants were selected through purposive sampling. The study participants comprised 316 men and women above 20 years of age from a disease-free cohort and included healthy subjects visiting the lifestyle clinic of CARE Hospitals, Hyderabad, India for health check-up.
Results
Among the participants of the study, 28.5% of the males and 42.2% of the females had hypercholesterolaemia. Body weight was significantly associated with total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. Of the subjects studied, males had a higher mean calorie and fat intake than the females. A positive association was observed between waist circumference and both total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol. Waist circumference was also positively correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure and triglycerides. There was a significant difference in the total cholesterol levels of subjects who exercised and those who were not involved in any physical activity. There was a significant difference between the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol values of the subjects based on exercise levels. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were significantly higher in males than in females and this is corroborated by the finding of increased exercise levels in males. Duration of exercise had a significant impact on the total cholesterol levels.
Conclusion
Our results confirm that diet and exercise routines significantly affect the serum lipid profile. Obesity and overweight constitute a risk factor for the development of hypercholesterolaemia and hypertriglyceridaemia.
doi:10.1016/S0019-4832(12)60007-8
PMCID: PMC3860764  PMID: 22572422
Cholesterol; Diet; Lipid profile; Obesity
19.  Molecular disruption of NBS1 with targeted gene delivery enhances chemosensitisation in head and neck cancer 
British Journal of Cancer  2010;103(12):1822-1830.
Background:
A fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2)-targeted adenoviral system can alter viral tropism and allow for improved transduction and reduced systemic toxicity. This study is to investigate if the FGF2-targeted adenoviral mutant Nijmegen breakage syndrome 1 (FGF2-Ad-NBS1) gene transfer can enhance cisplatin chemosensitisation not only by targeting DNA repair, but also through the induction of antiangiogenesis, whereas at the same time reducing toxicities in treating head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).
Methods:
The human HNSCC cell line was treated in vitro and in a nude mouse xenograft model. We conducted verification of binding ability of mutant NBS1 and downregulation of MRN complex, evaluation of transduction efficiency and combined antitumour activities. The antiangiogenesis mechanism was also investigated. Finally, we estimated the distribution of adenoviral vector in the liver.
Results:
The mutant NBS1 protein retains the binding ability and effectively suppresses the expression level of the MRN in infected cells. Transduction efficiency in vitro and cisplatin chemosensitisation were upregulated. The FGF2-Ad-NBS1 also showed detargeting the viral vectors away from the liver. The downregulation of NF-κB expression was supposed to correlate with increased antiangiogenesis.
Conclusions:
FGF2-targeted adenoviral system enhances the cisplatin chemosensitisation of mutant NBS1 and may avoid viral-associated liver toxicities.
doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6605980
PMCID: PMC3008607  PMID: 21063405
chemoresistance; NBS1; adenovirus; targeted gene therapy; DNA double-strand breaks; DNA repair
20.  Pierre robin sequence and the pediatric dentist 
Contemporary Clinical Dentistry  2011;2(3):222-225.
This article on the dental management of a neonate with Pierre Robin sequence describes the clinical and laboratory procedures for construction of a feeding plate due to the presence of a cleft palate. Emphasis has also been laid on a few literatures to describe medical complications associated with this condition. A 56-day-old neonate had been referred to the outpatient department with the complaint of difficulty in feeding, description, and management of which has been described in the case report.
doi:10.4103/0976-237X.86467
PMCID: PMC3214532  PMID: 22090768
Cleft palate; feeding obturator; feeding plate; Pierre Robin syndrome; syndromic cleft
21.  Effect of frequency and amplitude of vibration and role of a surfactant on void formation in models poured from polyvinyl siloxane impressions 
Aims:
To determine whether the frequency and amplitude of vibration and the use of surfactant has any effect on the formation of voids on the cast surface, poured from a polyvinyl siloxane impression material, using a mechanical model vibrator.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 100 impressions of a master die were made using Reprosil, Type 1, Medium Viscosity, Regular body, and Dentsply Caulk. The test group was subdivided into a surfactant and non-surfactant group, 50 impressions each. The impressions were poured in a dental stone with a mechanical model vibrator that was set at a vibration frequency of 3000 cycles / minute (low) and 6000 cycles / minute (high) with the help of a knob. The resultant casts were examined with a Stereomicroscope (LABOMED CZM4) under ×10 magnifications.
Results:
For the low and high frequencies, when surfactant and non-surfactant groups were compared, for all the amplitudes and for both the material groups, the surfactant groups resulted in fewer void formations and showed very high statistical significance (P-value = 0.001).
Conclusions:
The lowest mean voids were obtained for high frequency surfactant groups. Reprosil: High frequency amplitude 2 being the most prominent, produced the least mean voids (mean = 23.2000, P = 0.001, very highly significant). In comparison, the surfactant groups produced the least voids for both frequencies.
doi:10.4103/0972-0707.82620
PMCID: PMC3146107  PMID: 21814356
Void-free casts; polyvinyl siloxane impressions; surfactant; mechanical model vibrator
22.  Work–Life Balance among Married Women Employees 
Family–work conflict (FWC) and work–family conflict (WFC) are more likely to exert negative influences in the family domain, resulting in lower life satisfaction and greater internal conflict within the family. Studies have identified several variables that influence the level of WFC and FWC. Variables such as the size of family, the age of children, the work hours and the level of social support impact the experience of WFC and FWC. However, these variables have been conceptualized as antecedents of WFC and FWC; it is also important to consider the consequences these variables have on psychological distress and wellbeing of the working women.
Aim:
to study various factors which could lead to WFC and FWC among married women employees.
Materials and Methods:
The sample consisted of a total of 90 married working women of age between 20 and 50 years. WFC and FWC Scale was administered to measure WFC and FWC of working women. The obtained data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Carl Pearson's Correlation was used to find the relationship between the different variables.
Findings and Conclusion:
The findings of the study emphasized the need to formulate guidelines for the management of WFCs at organizational level as it is related to job satisfaction and performance of the employees.
doi:10.4103/0253-7176.78508
PMCID: PMC3122548  PMID: 21716777
Married; women; work-life balance; employed
23.  Primary aneurysmal bone cyst of patella 
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics  2009;43(2):216-217.
Of all the aneurysmal bone cysts (ABC) occurring in the body, less than 1% are seen in the patella. We report here, a 27-year-old woman with Stage III ABC of patella. Curettage, chemical and thermal cautery of the bed followed by autogenous bone grafting of the defect was done. At two-year follow up, there was a suspicion of lucency in the middle of the patella. However a repeat curettage revealed only fibrous tissue. Now at four years of follow up, the bone graft remained well incorporated. Patient has mild anterior knee pain on stair climbing but regained normal knee function.
doi:10.4103/0019-5413.50859
PMCID: PMC2762258  PMID: 19838375
Aneurysmal bone cyst; patella; curettage; bone grafting
24.  Analyses of In Vivo Interaction and Mobility of Two Spliceosomal Proteins Using FRAP and BiFC 
PLoS ONE  2008;3(4):e1953.
U1-70K, a U1 snRNP-specific protein, and serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins are components of the spliceosome and play critical roles in both constitutive and alternative pre-mRNA splicing. However, the mobility properties of U1-70K, its in vivo interaction with SR proteins, and the mobility of the U1-70K-SR protein complex have not been studied in any system. Here, we studied the in vivo interaction of U1-70K with an SR protein (SR45) and the mobility of the U1-70K/SR protein complex using bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). Our results show that U1-70K exchanges between speckles and the nucleoplasmic pool very rapidly and that this exchange is sensitive to ongoing transcription and phosphorylation. BiFC analyses showed that U1-70K and SR45 interacted primarily in speckles and that this interaction is mediated by the RS1 or RS2 domain of SR45. FRAP analyses showed considerably slower recovery of the SR45/U1-70K complex than either protein alone indicating that SR45/U1-70K complexes remain in the speckles for a longer duration. Furthermore, FRAP analyses with SR45/U1-70K complex in the presence of inhibitors of phosphorylation did not reveal any significant change compared to control cells, suggesting that the mobility of the complex is not affected by the status of protein phosphorylation. These results indicate that U1-70K, like SR splicing factors, moves rapidly in the nucleus ensuring its availability at various sites of splicing. Furthermore, although it appears that U1-70K moves by diffusion its mobility is regulated by phosphorylation and transcription.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0001953
PMCID: PMC2278372  PMID: 18414657
25.  Austro-Asiatic Tribes of Northeast India Provide Hitherto Missing Genetic Link between South and Southeast Asia 
PLoS ONE  2007;2(11):e1141.
Northeast India, the only region which currently forms a land bridge between the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia, has been proposed as an important corridor for the initial peopling of East Asia. Given that the Austro-Asiatic linguistic family is considered to be the oldest and spoken by certain tribes in India, Northeast India and entire Southeast Asia, we expect that populations of this family from Northeast India should provide the signatures of genetic link between Indian and Southeast Asian populations. In order to test this hypothesis, we analyzed mtDNA and Y-Chromosome SNP and STR data of the eight groups of the Austro-Asiatic Khasi from Northeast India and the neighboring Garo and compared with that of other relevant Asian populations. The results suggest that the Austro-Asiatic Khasi tribes of Northeast India represent a genetic continuity between the populations of South and Southeast Asia, thereby advocating that northeast India could have been a major corridor for the movement of populations from India to East/Southeast Asia.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0001141
PMCID: PMC2065843  PMID: 17989774

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