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1.  Attentive Scanning Behavior Drives One-Trial Potentiation of Hippocampal Place Fields 
Nature neuroscience  2014;17(5):725-731.
The hippocampus is thought to play a critical role in episodic memory by incorporating the sensory input of an experience onto a spatial framework embodied by place cells. Although the formation and stability of place fields requires exploration, the interaction between discrete exploratory behaviors and the specific, immediate, and persistent modifications of neural representations required by episodic memory has not been established. We recorded place cells in rats and found that increased neural activity during exploratory head-scanning behaviors predicted the formation and potentiation of place fields on the next pass through that location, regardless of environmental familiarity and across multiple testing days. These results strongly suggest that, during the attentive behaviors that punctuate exploration, place cell activity mediates the one-trial encoding of ongoing experiences necessary for episodic memory.
doi:10.1038/nn.3687
PMCID: PMC4036486  PMID: 24686786
2.  Conflicts between Local and Global Spatial Frameworks Dissociate Neural Representations of the Lateral and Medial Entorhinal Cortex 
Manipulation of spatial reference frames is a common experimental tool to investigate the nature of hippocampal information coding and to investigate high-order processes, such as cognitive coordination. However, it is unknown how the hippocampus afferents represent the local and global reference frames of an environment. To address these issues, single units were recorded in freely moving rats with multi-tetrode arrays targeting the superficial layers of the lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC) and medial entorhinal cortex (MEC), the two primary cortical inputs to the hippocampus. Rats ran clockwise laps around a circular track partitioned into quadrants covered by different textures (the local reference frame). The track was centered in a circular environment with distinct landmarks on the walls (the global reference frame). Here we demonstrate a novel dissociation between MEC and LEC in that the global frame controlled the MEC representation and the local frame controlled the LEC representation when the reference frames were rotated in equal, but opposite, directions. Consideration of the functional anatomy of the hippocampal circuit and popular models of attractor dynamics in CA3 suggests a mechanistic explanation of previous data showing a dissociation between the CA3 and CA1 regions in their responses to this local–global conflict. Furthermore, these results are consistent with a model of the LEC providing the hippocampus with the external sensory content of an experience and the MEC providing the spatial context, which combine to form conjunctive codes in the hippocampus that form the basis of episodic memory.
doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0946-13.2013
PMCID: PMC3747988  PMID: 23719794
3.  Lateral entorhinal neurons are not spatially selective in cue-rich environments 
Hippocampus  2010;21(12):1363-1374.
The hippocampus is a brain region that is critical for spatial learning, context-dependent memory, and episodic memory. It receives major inputs from the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) and the lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC). MEC neurons show much greater spatial firing than LEC neurons in a recording chamber with a single, salient landmark. The MEC cells are thought to derive their spatial tuning through path integration, which permits spatially selective firing in such a cue-deprived environment. In accordance with theories that postulate two spatial mapping systems that provide input to the hippocampus—an internal, path-integration system and an external, landmark-based system—it was possible that LEC neurons can also convey a spatial signal, but that the signal requires multiple landmarks to define locations, rather than movement integration. To test this hypothesis, neurons from the MEC and LEC were recorded as rats foraged for food in cue-rich environments. In both environments, LEC neurons showed little spatial specificity, whereas many MEC neurons showed a robust spatial signal. These data strongly support the notion that the MEC and LEC convey fundamentally different types of information to the hippocampus, in terms of their spatial firing characteristics, under various environmental and behavioral conditions.
doi:10.1002/hipo.20839
PMCID: PMC3010309  PMID: 20857485
medial entorhinal cortex; medial temporal lobe; parahippocampal; spatial orientation; hippocampus
4.  Translation Inhibition of the Developmental Cycle Protein HctA by the Small RNA IhtA Is Conserved across Chlamydia 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(10):e47439.
The developmental cycle of the obligate intracellular pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 is controlled in part by the small non-coding RNA (sRNA), IhtA. All Chlamydia alternate in a regulated fashion between the infectious elementary body (EB) and the replicative reticulate body (RB) which asynchronously re-differentiates back to the terminal EB form at the end of the cycle. The histone like protein HctA is central to RB:EB differentiation late in the cycle as it binds to and occludes the genome, thereby repressing transcription and translation. The sRNA IhtA is a critical component of this regulatory loop as it represses translation of hctA until late in infection at which point IhtA transcription decreases, allowing HctA expression to occur and RB to EB differentiation to proceed. It has been reported that IhtA is expressed during infection by the human pathogens C. trachomatis serovars L2, D and L2b and C. pneumoniae. We show in this work that IhtA is also expressed by the animal pathogens C. caviae and C. muridarum. Expression of HctA in E. coli is lethal and co-expression of IhtA relieves this phenotype. To determine if regulation of HctA by IhtA is a conserved mechanism across pathogenic chlamydial species, we cloned hctA and ihtA from C. trachomatis serovar D, C. muridarum, C. caviae and C. pneumoniae and assayed for rescue of growth repression in E. coli co-expression studies. In each case, co-expression of ihtA with the cognate hctA resulted in relief of growth repression. In addition, expression of each chlamydial species IhtA rescued the lethal phenotype of C. trachomatis serovar L2 HctA expression. As biolayer interferometry studies indicate that IhtA interacts directly with hctA message for all species tested, we predict that conserved sequences of IhtA are necessary for function and/or binding.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047439
PMCID: PMC3469542  PMID: 23071807
5.  Functional Differences in the Backward Shifts of CA1 and CA3 Place Fields in Novel and Familiar Environments 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(4):e36035.
Insight into the processing dynamics and other neurophysiological properties of different hippocampal subfields is critically important for understanding hippocampal function. In this study, we compared shifts in the center of mass (COM) of CA3 and CA1 place fields in a familiar and completely novel environment. Place fields in CA1 and CA3 were simultaneously recorded as rats ran along a closed loop track in a familiar room followed by a session in a completely novel room. This process was repeated each day over a 4-day period. CA3 place fields shifted backward (opposite to the direction of motion of the rat) only in novel environments. This backward shift gradually diminished across days, as the novel environment became more familiar with repeated exposures. Conversely, CA1 place fields shifted backward across all days in both familiar and novel environments. Prior studies demonstrated that CA1 place fields on average do not exhibit a backward shift during the first exposure to an environment in which the familiar cues are rearranged into a novel configuration, although CA3 place fields showed a strong backward shift. Under the completely novel conditions of the present study, no dissociation was observed between CA3 and CA1 during the first novel session (although a strong dissociation was observed in the familiar sessions and the later novel sessions). In summary, this is the first study to use simultaneous recordings in CA1 and CA3 to compare place field COM shift and other associated properties in truly novel and familiar environments. This study further demonstrates functional differentiation between CA1 and CA3 as the plasticity of CA1 place fields is affected differently by exposure to a completely novel environment in comparison to an altered, familiar environment, whereas the plasticity of CA3 place fields is affected similarly during both types of environmental novelty.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0036035
PMCID: PMC3338615  PMID: 22558316
6.  Maternal Footprints of Southeast Asians in North India 
Human heredity  2008;66(1):1-9.
We have analyzed 7137 samples from 125 different caste, tribal and religious groups of India and 99 samples from three populations of Nepal for the length variation in the COII/tRNALys region of mtDNA. Samples showing length variation were subjected to detailed phylogenetic analysis based on HVS-I and informative coding region sequence variation. The overall frequencies of the 9-bp deletion and insertion variants in South Asia were 1.8% and 0.5%, respectively. We have also defined a novel deep-rooting haplogroup M43 and identified the rare haplogroup H14 in Indian populations carrying the 9bp-deletion by complete mtDNA sequencing. Moreover, we redefined haplogroup M6 and dissected it into two well-defined subclades. The presence of haplogroups F1 and B5a in Uttar Pradesh suggests minor maternal contribution from Southeast Asia to Northern India. The occurrence of haplogroup F1 in the Nepalese sample implies that Nepal might have served as a bridge for the flow of eastern lineages to India. The presence of R6 in the Nepalese, on the other hand, suggests that the gene flow between India and Nepal has been reciprocal.
doi:10.1159/000114160
PMCID: PMC2588665  PMID: 18223312
South Asia; 9bp indel; mtDNA; Haplogroup
7.  Maternal Footprints of Southeast Asians in North India 
Human Heredity  2008;66(1):1-9.
We have analyzed 7,137 samples from 125 different caste, tribal and religious groups of India and 99 samples from three populations of Nepal for the length variation in the COII/tRNALys region of mtDNA. Samples showing length variation were subjected to detailed phylogenetic analysis based on HVS-I and informative coding region sequence variation. The overall frequencies of the 9-bp deletion and insertion variants in South Asia were 1.9 and 0.6%, respectively. We have also defined a novel deep-rooting haplogroup M43 and identified the rare haplogroup H14 in Indian populations carrying the 9-bp deletion by complete mtDNA sequencing. Moreover, we redefined haplogroup M6 and dissected it into two well-defined subclades. The presence of haplogroups F1 and B5a in Uttar Pradesh suggests minor maternal contribution from Southeast Asia to Northern India. The occurrence of haplogroup F1 in the Nepalese sample implies that Nepal might have served as a bridge for the flow of eastern lineages to India. The presence of R6 in the Nepalese, on the other hand, suggests that the gene flow between India and Nepal has been reciprocal.
doi:10.1159/000114160
PMCID: PMC2588665  PMID: 18223312
South Asia; 9bp indel; mtDNA; Haplogroup
8.  A Protein Similarity Approach For Detecting Prophage Regions In Bacterial Genomes 
Genome Biology  2005;6(10):P11.
The e14 region from Escherichia coli is a decaying lambdoid prophage element. This study shows that a protein based comparative approach using BLAST can be used to identify similar lambdoid prophage elements in other bacterial genomes
Background
Numerous completely sequenced bacterial genomes harbor prophage elements. These elements have been implicated in increasing the virulence of the host and in phage immunity. The e14 element is a defective lambdoid prophage element present at 25 min in the Escherichia coli K-12 genome. e14 is a well-characterized prophage element and has been subjected to in-depth bioinformatic analysis.
Results
A protein-based comparative approach using BLAST helped identify lambdoid-like prophage elements in a representative set of completely sequenced bacterial genomes. Twelve putative prophage regions were identified in six different bacterial genomes. Examination of the known and newly identified prophage regions suggests that on an average, the prophage elements do not seem to occur either randomly or in a uniform manner along the genome amongst genomes of the selected pathogenic organisms.
Conclusions
The protein based comparative approach can be effectively used to detect lambdoid-like prophage elements in bacterial genomes. It is possible that this method can be extended to all prophage elements and can be made automated.
doi:10.1186/gb-2005-6-10-p11
PMCID: PMC4071267

Results 1-8 (8)