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1.  Elevated homocysteine levels in type 2 diabetes induce constitutive neutrophil extracellular traps 
Scientific Reports  2016;6:36362.
Constitutively active neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and elevated plasma homocysteine are independent risk factors for Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) associated vascular diseases. Here, we show robust NETosis due to elevated plasma homocysteine levels in T2D subjects and increased components of NETs such as neutrophil elastase and cell free DNA. Cooperative NETs formation was observed in neutrophils exposed to homocysteine, IL-6 and high glucose suggesting acute temporal changes tightly regulate constitutive NETosis. Homocysteine induced NETs by NADPH oxidase dependent and independent mechanisms. Constitutively higher levels of calcium and mitochondrial superoxides under hyperglycemic conditions were further elevated in response to homocysteine leading to accelerated NETosis. Homocysteine showed robust interaction between neutrophils and platelets by inducing platelet aggregation and NETosis in an interdependent manner. Our data demonstrates that homocysteine can alter innate immune function by promoting NETs formation and disturbs homeostasis between platelets and neutrophils which may lead to T2D associated vascular diseases.
doi:10.1038/srep36362
PMCID: PMC5095649  PMID: 27811985
3.  Identification of Proteins Associating with Glycosylphosphatidylinositol- Anchored T-Cadherin on the Surface of Vascular Endothelial Cells: Role for Grp78/BiP in T-Cadherin-Dependent Cell Survival▿ † 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2008;28(12):4004-4017.
There is scant knowledge regarding how cell surface lipid-anchored T-cadherin (T-cad) transmits signals through the plasma membrane to its intracellular targets. This study aimed to identify membrane proteins colocalizing with atypical glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored T-cad on the surface of endothelial cells and to evaluate their role as signaling adaptors for T-cad. Application of coimmunoprecipitation from endothelial cells expressing c-myc-tagged T-cad and high-performance liquid chromatography revealed putative association of T-cad with the following proteins: glucose-related protein GRP78, GABA-A receptor α1 subunit, integrin β3, and two hypothetical proteins, LOC124245 and FLJ32070. Association of Grp78 and integrin β3 with T-cad on the cell surface was confirmed by surface biotinylation and reciprocal immunoprecipitation and by confocal microscopy. Use of anti-Grp78 blocking antibodies, Grp78 small interfering RNA, and coexpression of constitutively active Akt demonstrated an essential role for surface Grp78 in T-cad-dependent survival signal transduction via Akt in endothelial cells. The findings herein are relevant in the context of both the identification of transmembrane signaling partners for GPI-anchored T-cad as well as the demonstration of a novel mechanism whereby Grp78 can influence endothelial cell survival as a cell surface signaling receptor rather than an intracellular chaperone.
doi:10.1128/MCB.00157-08
PMCID: PMC2423122  PMID: 18411300
4.  Microsatellite-based phylogeny of Indian domestic goats 
BMC Genetics  2008;9:11.
Background
The domestic goat is one of the important livestock species of India. In the present study we assess genetic diversity of Indian goats using 17 microsatellite markers. Breeds were sampled from their natural habitat, covering different agroclimatic zones.
Results
The mean number of alleles per locus (NA) ranged from 8.1 in Barbari to 9.7 in Jakhrana goats. The mean expected heterozygosity (He) ranged from 0.739 in Barbari to 0.783 in Jakhrana goats. Deviations from Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) were statistically significant (P < 0.05) for 5 loci breed combinations. The DA measure of genetic distance between pairs of breeds indicated that the lowest distance was between Marwari and Sirohi (0.135). The highest distance was between Pashmina and Black Bengal. An analysis of molecular variance indicated that 6.59% of variance exists among the Indian goat breeds. Both a phylogenetic tree and Principal Component Analysis showed the distribution of breeds in two major clusters with respect to their geographic distribution.
Conclusion
Our study concludes that Indian goat populations can be classified into distinct genetic groups or breeds based on the microsatellites as well as mtDNA information.
doi:10.1186/1471-2156-9-11
PMCID: PMC2268706  PMID: 18226239

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