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1.  Prospective randomized trial of iliohypogastric-ilioinguinal nerve block on post-operative morphine use after inpatient surgery of the female reproductive tract 
Objective
To determine the impact of pre-operative and intra-operative ilioinguinal and iliohypogastric nerve block on post-operative analgesic utilization and length of stay (LOS).
Methods
We conducted a prospective randomized double-blind placebo controlled trial to assess effectiveness of ilioinguinal-iliohypogastric nerve block (IINB) on post-operative morphine consumption in female study patients (n = 60). Patients undergoing laparotomy via Pfannenstiel incision received injection of either 0.5% bupivacaine + 5 mcg/ml epinephrine for IINB (Group I, n = 28) or saline of equivalent volume given to the same site (Group II, n = 32). All injections were placed before the skin incision and after closure of rectus fascia via direct infiltration. Measured outcomes were post-operative morphine consumption (and associated side-effects), visual analogue pain scores, and hospital length of stay (LOS).
Results
No difference in morphine use was observed between the two groups (47.3 mg in Group I vs. 45.9 mg in Group II; p = 0.85). There was a trend toward lower pain scores after surgery in Group I, but this was not statistically significant. The mean time to initiate oral narcotics was also similar, 23.3 h in Group I and 22.8 h in Group II (p = 0.7). LOS was somewhat shorter in Group I compared to Group II, but this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.8). Side-effects occurred with similar frequency in both study groups.
Conclusion
In this population of patients undergoing inpatient surgery of the female reproductive tract, utilization of post-operative narcotics was not significantly influenced by IINB. Pain scores and LOS were also apparently unaffected by IINB, indicating a need for additional properly controlled prospective studies to identify alternative methods to optimize post-surgical pain management and reduce LOS.
doi:10.1186/1477-5751-7-11
PMCID: PMC2621114  PMID: 19040739
2.  Successful obstetrical management of 110-day intertwin delivery interval without cerclage: counseling and conservative management approach to extreme asynchronous twin birth 
Background
This report describes a patient counseling approach and non-surgical management of a dichorionic-diamniotic twin pregnancy where delivery of the second twin followed the delivery of the first by 110 days.
Case presentation
An early transvaginal sonogram at 19 1/2 weeks suggested cervical dilation with protruding amniotic membranes. Tocolytic and antibiotic therapy was initiated; no cerclage was placed. Spontaneous rupture of membranes and cord prolapse occurred 48 h later, resulting in delivery of a stillborn female infant. Conservative management was offered after counseling for possible risks associated with maternal sepsis, need for extended hospitalization, potential for hysterectomy and death. The cervix appeared closed after delivery and the umbilical cord was ligated, with subsequent spontaneous cord retraction in utero. Reassuring fetal status was observed for twin B without evidence of contractions or chorioamnionitis. A viable male infant (2894 g) was delivered vaginally at 35 1/2 weeks.
Conclusions
This report outlines a counseling approach useful for patients with premature delivery of one twin, and presents application of conservative obstetrical management principles for the aftercoming twin even when delivery interval is extreme.
doi:10.1186/1471-2393-4-23
PMCID: PMC539248  PMID: 15581427
3.  Eosinophilia in a patient with cyclical vomiting: a case report 
Background
Eosinophilic gastritis is related to eosinophilic gastroenteritis, varying only in regards to the extent of disease and small bowel involvement. Common symptoms reported are similar to our patient's including: abdominal pain, epigastric pain, anorexia, bloating, weight loss, diarrhea, ankle edema, dysphagia, melaena and postprandial nausea and vomiting. Microscopic features of eosinophilic infiltration usually occur in the lamina propria or submucosa with perivascular aggregates. The disease is likely mediated by eosinophils activated by various cytokines and chemokines. Therapy centers around the use of immunosuppressive agents and dietary therapy if food allergy is a factor.
Case presentation
The patient is a 31 year old Caucasian female with a past medical history significant for ulcerative colitis. She presented with recurrent bouts of vomiting, abdominal pain and chest discomfort of 11 months duration. The bouts of vomiting had been reoccurring every 7–10 days, with each episode lasting for 1–3 days. This was associated with extreme weakness and cachexia. Gastric biopsies revealed intense eosinophilic infiltration. The patient responded to glucocorticoids and azathioprine. The differential diagnosis and molecular pathogenesis of eosinophilic gastritis as well as the molecular effects of glucocorticoids in eosinophilic disorders are discussed.
Conclusions
The patient responded to a combination of glucocorticosteroids and azathioprine with decreased eosinophilia and symptoms. It is likely that eosinophil-active cytokines such as interleukin-3 (IL-3), granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and IL-5 play pivotal roles in this disease. Chemokines such as eotaxin may be involved in eosinophil recruitment. These mediators are downregulated or inhibited by the use of immunosuppressive medications.
doi:10.1186/1476-7961-2-7
PMCID: PMC425596  PMID: 15144561
4.  Correlations from gadopentetate dimeglumine-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging after methotrexate chemotherapy for hemorrhagic placenta increta 
Objective
To describe pre- and post-methotrexate (MTX) therapy images from pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with gadopentetate dimeglumine contrast following chemotherapy for post-partum hemorrhage secondary to placenta increta.
Material and method
A 28-year-old Caucasian female presented 4 weeks post-partum complaining of intermittent vaginal bleeding. She underwent dilatation and curettage immediately after vaginal delivery for suspected retained placental tissue but 28 d after delivery, the serum β-hCG persisted at 156 IU/mL. Office transvaginal sonogram (4 mHz B-mode) was performed, followed by pelvic MRI using a 1.5 Tesla instrument after administration of gadolinium-based contrast agent. MTX was administered intramuscularly, and MRI was repeated four weeks later.
Results
While transvaginal sonogram suggested retained products of conception confined to the endometrial compartment, an irregular 53 × 34 × 28 mm heterogeneous intrauterine mass was noted on MRI to extend into the anterior myometrium, consistent with placenta increta. Vaginal bleeding diminished following MTX treatment, with complete discontinuation of bleeding achieved by ~20 d post-injection. MRI using identical technique one month later showed complete resolution of the uterine lesion. Serum β-hCG was <5 IU/mL.
Conclusion
Reduction or elimination of risks associated with surgical management of placenta increta is important to preserve uterine function and reproductive potential. For selected hemodynamically stable patients, placenta increta may be treated non-operatively with MTX as described here. A satisfactory response to MTX can be ascertained by serum hCG measurements with pre- and post-treatment pelvic MRI with gadopentetate dimeglumine enhancement, which offers advantages over standard transvaginal sonography.
doi:10.1186/1477-044X-1-3
PMCID: PMC280697  PMID: 14617375
magnetic resonance imaging; placenta increta; methotrexate

Results 1-4 (4)