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author:("Salma, ume")
1.  Cellular and Cytokine Responses to Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhi Proteins in Patients with Typhoid Fever in Bangladesh 
We assessed interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) responses via enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) to a number of S. Typhi antigens in samples from humans with S. Typhi bacteremia and typhoid fever in Bangladesh. Compared with responses in healthy endemic zone controls, there were significantly increased IFN-γ responses at the time of clinical presentation (acute phase) and at convalescence 14–28 days later. The majority (80–90%) of IFN-γ expressing T cells were CD4+. We observed a significant increase in interleukin-17 (IL-17) positive CD4 + T cells at convalescent versus acute stage of infection using an intracellular cytokine staining assay. We also found that stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) produced significantly increased levels of a number of cytokines at the convalescent versus acute phase of infection, including IFN-γ, MIP-1β, sCD40L, TNF-β, IL-13, and IL-9. These results suggest that S. Typhi antigens induce a predominantly Th1 response, but that elevations in other cytokines may be modulatory.
doi:10.4269/ajtmh.13-0261
PMCID: PMC4047724  PMID: 24615129
2.  Evaluation of a Typhoid/Paratyphoid Diagnostic Assay (TPTest) Detecting Anti-Salmonella IgA in Secretions of Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes in Patients in Dhaka, Bangladesh 
Background
Rapid and reliable diagnostic assays for enteric (typhoid and paratyphoid) fever are urgently needed. We report the characterization of novel approach utilizing lymphocyte secretions, for diagnosing patients with enteric fever by the TPTest procedure.
Methodology
TPTest detects Salmonella-specific IgA responses in lymphocyte culture supernatant. We utilized TPTest in patients with suspected enteric fever, patients with other illnesses, and healthy controls. We also evaluated simplified modifications of TPTest for adaptation in laboratories with limited facilities and equipment.
Principal Findings
TPTest was positive in 39 (27 typhoid and 12 paratyphoid A) patients confirmed by blood culture and was negative in 74 healthy individuals. Among 32 individuals with other illnesses, 29 were negative by TPTest. Of 204 individuals with suspected enteric fever who were negative by blood culture, 44 were positive by TPTest and the patients were clinically indistinguishable from patients with confirmed bacteremia, except they were more likely to be under 5 years of age. We evaluated simplifications in TPTest, including showing that lymphocytes could be recovered using lysis buffer or buffy coat method as opposed to centrifugation, that incubation of cells at 37°C did not require supplemental CO2, and that results were available for majority of samples within 24 hours. Positive results by TPTest are transient and revert to negative during convalescence, supporting use of the test in endemic areas. The results can also be read using immunodot blot approach as opposed to ELISA. Since no true gold standard currently exists, we used a number of definitions of true positives and negatives. TPTest had sensitivity of 100% compared to blood culture, and specificity that ranged from 78–97% (73–100, 95% CI), depending on definition of true negative.
Conclusion
The TPTest is useful for identification of patients with enteric fever in an endemic area, and additional development of simplified TPTest is warranted.
Author Summary
Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi and Paratyphi A are responsible for typhoid and paratyphoid fever respectively and the disease caused is known generally as enteric fever. Appropriate and early diagnosis of the disease is important for initiation of treatment of the patient with a suitable antibiotic. The performance of the available diagnostic methods take time and as well as have low sensitivity and specificity. We describe here an immunodiagnostic assay, the TPTest, which is based on the use of secretions of antibodies from peripheral blood lymphocytes. We describe simplifications of the procedure and show that the assay has as a sensitivity of 100% with a specificity that ranges from 78–97% (73–100, 95% CI) for detecting patients with typhoid and paratyphoid fever in an enteric fever endemic zone. The TPTest uses a small blood volume, and reverts to negative by convalescence, supporting its further development as a relatively low cost assay to diagnose patients with enteric fever in endemic zones.
doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0002316
PMCID: PMC3708850  PMID: 23951368
3.  Male subfertility and the role of micronutrient supplementation: clinical and economic issues 
The concept of male subfertility has evolved rapidly since 2000. This term is discussed based upon evidence relating to its first entrance into the literature, along with contemporary references to its purported incidence and prevalence. Factors affecting sperm quality are described in detail, and available data pertaining to the effects of micronutrients on spermatic parameters and resulting pregnancies are described. The first cost-efficiency analysis of the use of micronutrients vs. assisted reproductive technologies is presented. This paper also describes a therapeutic approach to males, recognizing that many potential fathers have no recourse to medical facilities to evaluate their fertility. At a time when medical dollars are either nonexistent or precious, such an approach using micronutrient supplementation may be cost-effective in developing and possibly even in developed countries.
PMCID: PMC3183500  PMID: 21991290
4.  Recipient screening in IVF: First data from women undergoing anonymous oocyte donation in Dublin 
Background
Guidelines for safe gamete donation have emphasised donor screening, although none exist specifically for testing oocyte recipients. Pre-treatment assessment of anonymous donor oocyte IVF treatment in Ireland must comply with the European Union Tissues and Cells Directive (Directive 2004/23/EC). To determine the effectiveness of this Directive when applied to anonymous oocyte recipients in IVF, we reviewed data derived from selected screening tests performed in this clinical setting.
Methods
Data from tests conducted at baseline for all women enrolling as recipients (n = 225) in the anonymous oocyte donor IVF programme at an urban IVF referral centre during a 24-month period were analysed. Patient age at programme entry and clinical pregnancy rate were also tabulated. All recipients had at least one prior negative test for HIV, Hepatitis B/C, chlamydia, gonorrhoea and syphilis performed by her GP or other primary care provider before reproductive endocrinology consultation.
Results
Mean (±SD) age for donor egg IVF recipients was 40.7 ± 4.2 yrs. No baseline positive chlamydia, gonorrhoea or syphilis screening results were identified among recipients for anonymous oocyte donation IVF during the assessment interval. Mean pregnancy rate (per embryo transfer) in this group was 50.5%.
Conclusion
When tests for HIV, Hepatitis B/C, chlamydia, gonorrhoea and syphilis already have been confirmed to be negative before starting the anonymous donor oocyte IVF sequence, additional (repeat) testing on the recipient contributes no new clinical information that would influence treatment in this setting. Patient safety does not appear to be enhanced by application of Directive 2004/23/EC to recipients of anonymous donor oocyte IVF treatment. Given the absence of evidence to quantify risk, this practice is difficult to justify when applied to this low-risk population.
doi:10.1186/1742-4755-8-8
PMCID: PMC3107773  PMID: 21507224
5.  The long path to pregnancy: early experience with dual anonymous gamete donation in a European in vitro fertilisation referral centre 
Reproductive Health  2010;7:20.
Background
This investigation describes features of patients undergoing in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and embryo transfer (ET) where both gametes were obtained from anonymous donors.
Methods
Gamete unsuitability or loss was confirmed in both members of seven otherwise healthy couples presenting for reproductive endocrinology consultation over a 12-month interval in Ireland. IVF was undertaken with fresh oocytes provided by anonymous donors in Ukraine; frozen sperm (anonymous donor) was obtained from a licensed tissue establishment. For recipients, saline-enhanced sonography was used to assess intrauterine contour with endometrial preparation via transdermal estrogen.
Results
Among commissioning couples, mean±SD female and male age was 41.9 ± 3.7 and 44.6 ± 3.5 yrs, respectively. During this period, female age for non dual anonymous gamete donation IVF patients was 37.9 ± 3 yrs (p < 0.001). Infertility duration was ≥3 yrs for couples enrolling in dual gamete donation, and each had ≥2 prior failed fertility treatments using native oocytes. All seven recipient couples proceeded to embryo transfer, although one patient had two transfers. Clinical pregnancy was achieved for 5/7 (71.4%) patients. Non-transferred cryopreserved embryos were available for all seven couples.
Conclusions
Mean age of females undergoing dual anonymous donor gamete donation with IVF is significantly higher than the background IVF patient population. Even when neither partner is able to contribute any gametes for IVF, the clinical pregnancy rate per transfer can be satisfactory if both anonymous egg and sperm donation are used concurrently. Our report emphasises the role of pre-treatment counselling in dual anonymous gamete donation, and presents a coordinated screening and treatment approach in IVF where this option may be contemplated.
doi:10.1186/1742-4755-7-20
PMCID: PMC2925351  PMID: 20701806
6.  IVF for premature ovarian failure: first reported births using oocytes donated from a twin sister 
Background
Premature ovarian failure (POF) remains a clinically challenging entity because in vitro fertilisation (IVF) with donor oocytes is currently the only treatment known to be effective.
Methods
A 33 year-old nulligravid patient with a normal karyotype was diagnosed with POF; she had a history of failed fertility treatments and had an elevated serum FSH (42 mIU/ml). Oocytes donated by her dizygotic twin sister were used for IVF. The donor had already completed a successful pregnancy herself and subsequently produced a total of 10 oocytes after a combined FSH/LH superovulation regime. These eggs were fertilised with sperm from the recipient's husband via intracytoplasmic injection and two fresh embryos were transferred to the recipient on day three.
Results
A healthy twin pregnancy resulted from IVF; two boys were delivered by caesarean section at 39 weeks' gestation. Additionally, four embryos were cryopreserved for the recipient's future use. The sister-donor achieved another natural pregnancy six months after oocyte retrieval, resulting in a healthy singleton delivery.
Conclusion
POF is believed to affect approximately 1% of reproductive age females, and POF patients with a sister who can be an oocyte donor for IVF are rare. Most such IVF patients will conceive from treatment using oocytes from an anonymous oocyte donor. This is the first report of births following sister-donor oocyte IVF in Ireland. Indeed, while sister-donor IVF has been successfully undertaken by IVF units elsewhere, this is the only known case where oocyte donation involved twin sisters. As with all types of donor gamete therapy, pre-treatment counselling is important in the circumstance of sister oocyte donation.
doi:10.1186/1477-7827-8-31
PMCID: PMC2861671  PMID: 20334702

Results 1-6 (6)