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1.  Inselect: Automating the Digitization of Natural History Collections 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(11):e0143402.
The world’s natural history collections constitute an enormous evidence base for scientific research on the natural world. To facilitate these studies and improve access to collections, many organisations are embarking on major programmes of digitization. This requires automated approaches to mass-digitization that support rapid imaging of specimens and associated data capture, in order to process the tens of millions of specimens common to most natural history collections. In this paper we present Inselect—a modular, easy-to-use, cross-platform suite of open-source software tools that supports the semi-automated processing of specimen images generated by natural history digitization programmes. The software is made up of a Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux desktop application, together with command-line tools that are designed for unattended operation on batches of images. Blending image visualisation algorithms that automatically recognise specimens together with workflows to support post-processing tasks such as barcode reading, label transcription and metadata capture, Inselect fills a critical gap to increase the rate of specimen digitization.
PMCID: PMC4658125  PMID: 26599208
2.  The Association between Maternal Oral Health Experiences and Risk of Preterm Birth in 10 States, Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, 2004–2006 
Maternal and child health journal  2012;16(8):1688-1695.
The aim of this study is to investigate the association between oral health experiences of women in the peripartum period and the risk of preterm delivery (<37 weeks). We analyzed 2004–2006 data from the CDC Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), a population-based surveillance system that collects data on pregnancy and postpartum experiences of mothers who have recently delivered a live infant. Ten states included in the analysis had a ≥70% weighted response rate and three standard questions pertaining to oral health. White non-Hispanic (WNH), Black non-Hispanic (BNH), and Hispanic women were selected for analysis. Chi-squared analysis was performed for our bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression models were created to calculate adjusted odds ratios, controlling for socio-demographic characteristics and peripartum morbidities. Weighted percentages and standard errors were used for all analyses. Among the 35,267 women studied, in the multivariate analysis, mothers who did not receive dental care during pregnancy and did not have a teeth cleaning during pregnancy were at higher risk for delivering a preterm infant (OR 1.15, CI 1.02–1.30; OR 1.23, CI 1.08–1.41). In this population-based study, women who did not receive dental care or have a teeth cleaning during pregnancy were at slightly higher risk for preterm delivery after adjustment for pertinent confounders.
PMCID: PMC4561173  PMID: 21847677
Maternal oral health; Preterm birth; Dental care during pregnancy
3.  BioAcoustica: a free and open repository and analysis platform for bioacoustics 
We describe an online open repository and analysis platform, BioAcoustica (, for recordings of wildlife sounds. Recordings can be annotated using a crowdsourced approach, allowing voice introductions and sections with extraneous noise to be removed from analyses. This system is based on the Scratchpads virtual research environment, the BioVeL portal and the Taverna workflow management tool, which allows for analysis of recordings using a grid computing service. At present the analyses include spectrograms, oscillograms and dominant frequency analysis. Further analyses can be integrated to meet the needs of specific researchers or projects. Researchers can upload and annotate their recordings to supplement traditional publication.
Database URL:
PMCID: PMC4460420  PMID: 26055102
4.  Infant Weight Gain and School-age Blood Pressure and Cognition in Former Preterm Infants 
Pediatrics  2010;125(6):e1419-e1426.
More rapid infant weight gain may be associated with better neurodevelopment but also with higher blood pressure (BP). The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which infant weight gain is associated with systolic BP (SBP) and IQ at school age in former preterm, low birth weight infants.
We studied 911 participants in the Infant Health and Development Program, an 8-center longitudinal study of children born at ≤37 weeks' gestation and ≤2500 g. Study staff weighed participants at term and at 4 and 12 months' corrected ages; measured BP 3 times at 6.5 years; and administered the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Third Edition (WISC-III), an IQ test, at 8 years. In linear regression, we modeled our exposure “infant weight gain” as the 12-month weight z score adjusted for the term weight z score.
Median (interquartile range) weight z score was −0.7 (−1.5 to −0.0) at 12 months. Mean ± SD SBP at 6.5 years was 104.2 ± 8.4 mm Hg, and mean ± SD WISC-III total score at 8 years was 91 ± 18. Adjusting for child gender, age, and race and maternal education, income, age, IQ, and smoking, for each z score additional weight gain from term to 12 months, SBP was 0.7 mm Hg higher and WISC-III total score was 1.9 points higher.
In preterm infants, there seem to be modest neurodevelopmental advantages of more rapid weight gain in the first year of life and only small BP-related effects.
PMCID: PMC4138041  PMID: 20478940
preterm infant; infant; blood pressure; cognition; fetal programming; growth and development; postnatal growth; small for gestational age
5.  Preterm Infant Swallowing of Thin and Nectar-Thick Liquids: Changes in Lingual–Palatal Coordination and Relation to Bolus Transit 
Dysphagia  2013;28(2):234-244.
Tongue–soft palate coordination and bolus head pharyngeal transit were studied by means of postacquisition kinematic analysis of videofluoroscopic swallowing images of ten preterm infants referred from hospital NICUs due to poor oral feeding and suspicion of aspiration. Sequences of coordinated tongue–soft palate movements and bolus transits during swallows of thin-consistency and nectar-thick-consistency barium were digitized, and time series data were used to calculate continuous relative phase, a measure of coordination. During swallows of nectar-thick compared to thin barium, tongue–soft palate coordination was more likely to be antiphase, bolus head pharyngeal transit time was longer, and coordination was significantly correlated with bolus head pharyngeal transit. Analysis of successive swallows indicated that tongue–soft palate coordination variability decreased with nectar-thick but not with thin-consistency barium. Together, the results suggest that slower-moving bolus transits may promote greater opportunity for available sensory information to be used to modulate timing of tongue–soft palate movements so that they are more effective for pumping liquids.
PMCID: PMC3638056  PMID: 23274694
Infant; Swallowing; Coordination; Liquid properties
6.  Linking multiple biodiversity informatics platforms with Darwin Core Archives 
We describe an implementation of the Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A) standard that allows for the exchange of biodiversity information contained within the Scratchpads virtual research environment with external collaborators. Using this single archive file Scratchpad users can expose taxonomies, specimen records, species descriptions and a range of other data to a variety of third-party aggregators and tools (currently Encyclopedia of Life, eMonocot Portal, CartoDB, and the Common Data Model) for secondary use. This paper describes our technical approach to dynamically building and validating Darwin Core Archives for the 600+ Scratchpad user communities, which can be used to serve the diverse data needs of all of our content partners.
PMCID: PMC3964728  PMID: 24723785
Darwin Core; Darwin Core Archive; Scratchpads; biodiversity informatics; virtual research environment; taxonomy; biodiversity
7.  Eupolybothrus cavernicolus Komerički & Stoev sp. n. (Chilopoda: Lithobiomorpha: Lithobiidae): the first eukaryotic species description combining transcriptomic, DNA barcoding and micro-CT imaging data 
We demonstrate how a classical taxonomic description of a new species can be enhanced by applying new generation molecular methods, and novel computing and imaging technologies. A cave-dwelling centipede, Eupolybothrus cavernicolus Komerički & Stoev sp. n. (Chilopoda: Lithobiomorpha: Lithobiidae), found in a remote karst region in Knin, Croatia, is the first eukaryotic species for which, in addition to the traditional morphological description, we provide a fully sequenced transcriptome, a DNA barcode, detailed anatomical X-ray microtomography (micro-CT) scans, and a movie of the living specimen to document important traits of its ex-situ behaviour. By employing micro-CT scanning in a new species for the first time, we create a high-resolution morphological and anatomical dataset that allows virtual reconstructions of the specimen and subsequent interactive manipulation to test the recently introduced ‘cybertype’ notion. In addition, the transcriptome was recorded with a total of 67,785 scaffolds, having an average length of 812 bp and N50 of 1,448 bp (see GigaDB). Subsequent annotation of 22,866 scaffolds was conducted by tracing homologs against current available databases, including Nr, SwissProt and COG. This pilot project illustrates a workflow of producing, storing, publishing and disseminating large data sets associated with a description of a new taxon. All data have been deposited in publicly accessible repositories, such as GigaScience GigaDB, NCBI, BOLD, Morphbank and Morphosource, and the respective open licenses used ensure their accessibility and re-usability.
PMCID: PMC3964625  PMID: 24723752
Cybertaxonomy; gene sequence data; micro-CT; data integration; molecular systematics; caves; Croatia; biospeleology
8.  Biodiversity research in the “big data” era: GigaScience and Pensoft work together to publish the most data-rich species description 
GigaScience  2013;2:14.
With the publication of the first eukaryotic species description, combining transcriptomic, DNA barcoding, and micro-CT imaging data, GigaScience and Pensoft demonstrate how classical taxonomic description of a new species can be enhanced by applying new generation molecular methods, and novel computing and imaging technologies. This 'holistic’ approach in taxonomic description of a new species of cave-dwelling centipede is published in the Biodiversity Data Journal (BDJ), with coordinated data release in the GigaScience GigaDB database.
PMCID: PMC4076509  PMID: 24229463
10.  1-tert-Butyl 2-ethyl 5-chloro-3-(2-furo­yl)-1H-indole-1,2-dicarboxyl­ate 
In the title compound, C21H20ClNO6, the furan moiety is located above the mean plane of the indole ring and displays rotational disorder (i.e. rotation through 180°); the site occupancy of the major component is 0.809 (6). In the crystal, C—H⋯O inter­actions link the mol­ecules into chains which run parallel to the b axis.
PMCID: PMC3588483  PMID: 23476614
11.  1-tert-Butyl 2-ethyl 5-bromo-3-(thio­phen-2-ylcarbon­yl)-1H-indole-1,2-dicarboxyl­ate 
In the title compound, C21H20BrNO5S, the thio­phene group is located above the mean plane of the indole ring and displays rotational disorder (i.e. rotation through 180°). The site occupancy of the major component is 0.902 (2), while that of the minor component is 0.098 (2). In the crystal, pairs of weak C—H⋯O inter­actions link the mol­ecules into centrosymmetric dimers.
PMCID: PMC3569770  PMID: 23424516
12.  Accurate Whole Human Genome Sequencing using Reversible Terminator Chemistry 
Bentley, David R. | Balasubramanian, Shankar | Swerdlow, Harold P. | Smith, Geoffrey P. | Milton, John | Brown, Clive G. | Hall, Kevin P. | Evers, Dirk J. | Barnes, Colin L. | Bignell, Helen R. | Boutell, Jonathan M. | Bryant, Jason | Carter, Richard J. | Cheetham, R. Keira | Cox, Anthony J. | Ellis, Darren J. | Flatbush, Michael R. | Gormley, Niall A. | Humphray, Sean J. | Irving, Leslie J. | Karbelashvili, Mirian S. | Kirk, Scott M. | Li, Heng | Liu, Xiaohai | Maisinger, Klaus S. | Murray, Lisa J. | Obradovic, Bojan | Ost, Tobias | Parkinson, Michael L. | Pratt, Mark R. | Rasolonjatovo, Isabelle M. J. | Reed, Mark T. | Rigatti, Roberto | Rodighiero, Chiara | Ross, Mark T. | Sabot, Andrea | Sankar, Subramanian V. | Scally, Aylwyn | Schroth, Gary P. | Smith, Mark E. | Smith, Vincent P. | Spiridou, Anastassia | Torrance, Peta E. | Tzonev, Svilen S. | Vermaas, Eric H. | Walter, Klaudia | Wu, Xiaolin | Zhang, Lu | Alam, Mohammed D. | Anastasi, Carole | Aniebo, Ify C. | Bailey, David M. D. | Bancarz, Iain R. | Banerjee, Saibal | Barbour, Selena G. | Baybayan, Primo A. | Benoit, Vincent A. | Benson, Kevin F. | Bevis, Claire | Black, Phillip J. | Boodhun, Asha | Brennan, Joe S. | Bridgham, John A. | Brown, Rob C. | Brown, Andrew A. | Buermann, Dale H. | Bundu, Abass A. | Burrows, James C. | Carter, Nigel P. | Castillo, Nestor | Catenazzi, Maria Chiara E. | Chang, Simon | Cooley, R. Neil | Crake, Natasha R. | Dada, Olubunmi O. | Diakoumakos, Konstantinos D. | Dominguez-Fernandez, Belen | Earnshaw, David J. | Egbujor, Ugonna C. | Elmore, David W. | Etchin, Sergey S. | Ewan, Mark R. | Fedurco, Milan | Fraser, Louise J. | Fajardo, Karin V. Fuentes | Furey, W. Scott | George, David | Gietzen, Kimberley J. | Goddard, Colin P. | Golda, George S. | Granieri, Philip A. | Green, David E. | Gustafson, David L. | Hansen, Nancy F. | Harnish, Kevin | Haudenschild, Christian D. | Heyer, Narinder I. | Hims, Matthew M. | Ho, Johnny T. | Horgan, Adrian M. | Hoschler, Katya | Hurwitz, Steve | Ivanov, Denis V. | Johnson, Maria Q. | James, Terena | Jones, T. A. Huw | Kang, Gyoung-Dong | Kerelska, Tzvetana H. | Kersey, Alan D. | Khrebtukova, Irina | Kindwall, Alex P. | Kingsbury, Zoya | Kokko-Gonzales, Paula I. | Kumar, Anil | Laurent, Marc A. | Lawley, Cynthia T. | Lee, Sarah E. | Lee, Xavier | Liao, Arnold K. | Loch, Jennifer A. | Lok, Mitch | Luo, Shujun | Mammen, Radhika M. | Martin, John W. | McCauley, Patrick G. | McNitt, Paul | Mehta, Parul | Moon, Keith W. | Mullens, Joe W. | Newington, Taksina | Ning, Zemin | Ng, Bee Ling | Novo, Sonia M. | O'Neill, Michael J. | Osborne, Mark A. | Osnowski, Andrew | Ostadan, Omead | Paraschos, Lambros L. | Pickering, Lea | Pike, Andrew C. | Pike, Alger C. | Pinkard, D. Chris | Pliskin, Daniel P. | Podhasky, Joe | Quijano, Victor J. | Raczy, Come | Rae, Vicki H. | Rawlings, Stephen R. | Rodriguez, Ana Chiva | Roe, Phyllida M. | Rogers, John | Rogert Bacigalupo, Maria C. | Romanov, Nikolai | Romieu, Anthony | Roth, Rithy K. | Rourke, Natalie J. | Ruediger, Silke T. | Rusman, Eli | Sanches-Kuiper, Raquel M. | Schenker, Martin R. | Seoane, Josefina M. | Shaw, Richard J. | Shiver, Mitch K. | Short, Steven W. | Sizto, Ning L. | Sluis, Johannes P. | Smith, Melanie A. | Sohna, Jean Ernest Sohna | Spence, Eric J. | Stevens, Kim | Sutton, Neil | Szajkowski, Lukasz | Tregidgo, Carolyn L. | Turcatti, Gerardo | vandeVondele, Stephanie | Verhovsky, Yuli | Virk, Selene M. | Wakelin, Suzanne | Walcott, Gregory C. | Wang, Jingwen | Worsley, Graham J. | Yan, Juying | Yau, Ling | Zuerlein, Mike | Rogers, Jane | Mullikin, James C. | Hurles, Matthew E. | McCooke, Nick J. | West, John S. | Oaks, Frank L. | Lundberg, Peter L. | Klenerman, David | Durbin, Richard | Smith, Anthony J.
Nature  2008;456(7218):53-59.
PMCID: PMC2581791  PMID: 18987734
13.  1-[(1-Methyl-1H-imidazol-5-yl)meth­yl]-1H-indole-5-carbonitrile 
In the title compound, C14H12N4, the dihedral angle between the indole ring system (r.m.s. deviation = 0.010 Å) and the imidazole ring is 77.70 (6)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by C—H⋯N hydrogen bonds. One set of hydrogen bonds forms an undulating chain running parallel to the b-axis direction, while the other undulating chain is parallel to the c-axis direction. In combination, (100) sheets result.
PMCID: PMC3589058  PMID: 23476294
14.  5-Chloro-1-(4-methyl­phenyl­sulfon­yl)-1H-indole 
In the title compound, C15H12ClNO2S, the indole ring is essentially planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.0107 Å) and makes a dihedral angle of 85.01 (6)° with the benzene ring. In the crystal, three C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds result in a hydrogen-bonded spiral running parallel to the c axis.
PMCID: PMC3588956  PMID: 23476192
15.  N-(4-Amino­pyrimidin-5-yl)-4-methyl-N-(4-methyl­phenyl­sulfon­yl)benzene­sulfonamide 
In the title compound, C18H18N4O4S2, the mean planes passing through the tosyl benzene rings form dihedral angles of 48.42 (9) and 15.1 (1)° with the amino­pyrimidine ring. In the crystal, mol­ecules associate via N—H⋯N and N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming extended hydrogen-bonded sheets that lie parallel to the bc plane. The N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds propagate along the b-axis direction, while the N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds propagate along the c-axis direction.
PMCID: PMC3588960  PMID: 23476196
16.  Multiple lineages of lice pass through the K–Pg boundary 
Biology Letters  2011;7(5):782-785.
For modern lineages of birds and mammals, few fossils have been found that predate the Cretaceous–Palaeogene (K–Pg) boundary. However, molecular studies using fossil calibrations have shown that many of these lineages existed at that time. Both birds and mammals are parasitized by obligate ectoparasitic lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera), which have shared a long coevolutionary history with their hosts. Evaluating whether many lineages of lice passed through the K–Pg boundary would provide insight into the radiation of their hosts. Using molecular dating techniques, we demonstrate that the major louse suborders began to radiate before the K–Pg boundary. These data lend support to a Cretaceous diversification of many modern bird and mammal lineages.
PMCID: PMC3169043  PMID: 21471047
Phthiraptera; evolution; cospeciation; dating
17.  Bringing collections out of the dark 
ZooKeys  2012;1-6.
PMCID: PMC3406462  PMID: 22859874
18.  No specimen left behind: industrial scale digitization of natural history collections 
ZooKeys  2012;133-146.
Traditional approaches for digitizing natural history collections, which include both imaging and metadata capture, are both labour- and time-intensive. Mass-digitization can only be completed if the resource-intensive steps, such as specimen selection and databasing of associated information, are minimized. Digitization of larger collections should employ an “industrial” approach, using the principles of automation and crowd sourcing, with minimal initial metadata collection including a mandatory persistent identifier. A new workflow for the mass-digitization of natural history museum collections based on these principles, and using SatScan® tray scanning system, is described.
PMCID: PMC3406472  PMID: 22859884
Digitization; imaging; specimen metadata; natural history collections; biodiversity informatics
19.  Repeated adaptive divergence of microhabitat specialization in avian feather lice 
BMC Biology  2012;10:52.
Repeated adaptive radiations are evident when phenotypic divergence occurs within lineages, but this divergence into different forms is convergent when compared across lineages. Classic examples of such repeated adaptive divergence occur in island (for example, Caribbean Anolis lizards) and lake systems (for example, African cichlids). Host-parasite systems in many respects are analogous to island systems, where host species represent isolated islands for parasites whose life cycle is highly tied to that of their hosts. Thus, host-parasite systems might exhibit interesting cases of repeated adaptive divergence as seen in island and lake systems.
The feather lice of birds spend their entire life cycle on the body of the host and occupy distinct microhabitats on the host: head, wing, body and generalist. These microhabitat specialists show pronounced morphological differences corresponding to how they escape from host preening. We tested whether these different microhabitat specialists were a case of repeated adaptive divergence by constructing both morphological and molecular phylogenies for a diversity of avian feather lice, including many examples of head, wing, body and generalist forms.
Morphological and molecular based phylogenies were highly incongruent, which could be explained by rampant convergence in morphology related to microhabitat specialization on the host. In many cases lice from different microhabitat specializations, but from the same group of birds, were sister taxa.
This pattern indicates a process of repeated adaptive divergence of these parasites within host group, but convergence when comparing parasites across host groups. These results suggest that host-parasite systems might be another case in which repeated adaptive radiations could be relatively common, but potentially overlooked, because morphological convergence can obscure evolutionary relationships.
PMCID: PMC3391173  PMID: 22717002
adaptive radiation; convergence; Phthiraptera; ectoparasites; phylogenetics
20.  N-(2-Amino­pyridin-3-yl)-4-methyl-N-(4-methyl­phenyl­sulfon­yl)benzene­sulfonamide 
The title compound, C19H19N3O4S2, was prepared by the reaction of 2,3-diamino­pyridine with tosyl chloride in a mixture of dichloro­methane–pyridine as solvent. In the crystal, mol­ecules associate via pairs of N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming a centrosymmetric eight-membered {⋯HNCN}2 synthon. The dihedral angles between the amino­pyridine ring and the tosyl benzene rings are 50.01 (6) and 32.01 (4)°.
PMCID: PMC3344082  PMID: 22606085
21.  Collaborative electronic infrastructures to accelerate taxonomic research 
ZooKeys  2011;1-3.
PMCID: PMC3234428  PMID: 22207803
22.  Scratchpads 2.0: a Virtual Research Environment supporting scholarly collaboration, communication and data publication in biodiversity science 
ZooKeys  2011;53-70.
The Scratchpad Virtual Research Environment ( is a flexible system for people to create their own research networks supporting natural history science. Here we describe Version 2 of the system characterised by the move to Drupal 7 as the Scratchpad core development framework and timed to coincide with the fifth year of the project’s operation in late January 2012. The development of Scratchpad 2 reflects a combination of technical enhancements that make the project more sustainable, combined with new features intended to make the system more functional and easier to use. A roadmap outlining strategic plans for development of the Scratchpad project over the next two years concludes this article.
PMCID: PMC3234431  PMID: 22207806
Taxonomy; database; Virtual Research Environment; Biodiversity; e-infrastructure
23.  Who learns from whom? Supporting users and developers of a major biodiversity e-infrastructure 
ZooKeys  2011;177-192.
Support systems play an important role for the communication between users and developers of software. We studied two support systems, an issues tracker and an email service available for Scratchpads, a Web 2.0 social networking tool that enables communities to build, share, manage and publish biodiversity information on the Web. Our aim was to identify co-learning opportunities between users and developers of the Scratchpad system by asking which support system was used by whom and for what type of questions. Our results show that issues tracker and emails cater to different user mentalities as well as different kind of questions and suggest ways to improve the support system as part of the development under the EU funded ViBRANT programme.
PMCID: PMC3234438  PMID: 22207813
Shared knowledge; computer-supported cooperative work; issue tracking; software engineering; e-infrastructures
24.  A hitchhikers guide to the Galápagos: co-phylogeography of Galápagos mockingbirds and their parasites 
Parasites are evolutionary hitchhikers whose phylogenies often track the evolutionary history of their hosts. Incongruence in the evolutionary history of closely associated lineages can be explained through a variety of possible events including host switching and host independent speciation. However, in recently diverged lineages stochastic population processes, such as retention of ancestral polymorphism or secondary contact, can also explain discordant genealogies, even in fully co-speciating taxa. The relatively simple biogeographic arrangement of the Galápagos archipelago, compared with mainland biomes, provides a framework to identify stochastic and evolutionary informative components of genealogic data in these recently diverged organisms.
Mitochondrial DNA sequences were obtained for four species of Galápagos mockingbirds and three sympatric species of ectoparasites - two louse and one mite species. These data were complemented with nuclear EF1α sequences in selected samples of parasites and with information from microsatellite loci in the mockingbirds. Mitochondrial sequence data revealed differences in population genetic diversity between all taxa and varying degrees of topological congruence between host and parasite lineages. A very low level of genetic variability and lack of congruence was found in one of the louse parasites, which was excluded from subsequent joint analysis of mitochondrial data. The reconciled multi-species tree obtained from the analysis is congruent with both the nuclear data and the geological history of the islands.
The gene genealogies of Galápagos mockingbirds and two of their ectoparasites show strong phylogeographic correlations, with instances of incongruence mostly explained by ancestral genetic polymorphism. A third parasite genealogy shows low levels of genetic diversity and little evidence of co-phylogeny with their hosts. These differences can mostly be explained by variation in life-history characteristics, primarily host specificity and dispersal capabilities. We show that pooling genetic data from organisms living in close ecological association reveals a more accurate phylogeographic history for these taxa. Our results have implications for the conservation and taxonomy of Galápagos mockingbirds and their parasites.
PMCID: PMC3209464  PMID: 21966954
25.  Premature Infant Swallowing: Patterns of Tongue-Soft Palate Coordination Based Upon Videofluoroscopy 
Infant behavior & development  2010;33(2):209-218.
Coordination between movements of individual tongue points, and between soft palate elevation and tongue movements, were examined in 12 prematurely born infants referred from hospital NICUs for videofluoroscopic swallow study (VFSS) due to poor oral feeding and suspicion of aspiration. Detailed post-evaluation kinematic analysis was conducted by digitizing images of a lateral view of digitally superimposed points on the tongue and soft palate. The primary measure of coordination was continuous relative phase of the time series created by movements of points on the tongue and soft palate over successive frames. Three points on the tongue (anterior, medial, and posterior) were organized around a stable in-phase pattern, with a phase lag that implied an anterior to posterior direction of motion. Coordination between a tongue point and a point on the soft palate during lowering and elevation was close to anti-phase at initiation of the pharyngeal swallow. These findings suggest that anti-phase coordination between tongue and soft palate may reflect the process by which the tongue is timed to pump liquid by moving it into an enclosed space, compressing it, and allowing it to leave by a specific route through the pharynx.
PMCID: PMC2844905  PMID: 20181397
Infant; coordination; swallowing; videofluoroscopy; dysphagia; tongue; soft palate

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