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1.  Linking multiple biodiversity informatics platforms with Darwin Core Archives 
We describe an implementation of the Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A) standard that allows for the exchange of biodiversity information contained within the Scratchpads virtual research environment with external collaborators. Using this single archive file Scratchpad users can expose taxonomies, specimen records, species descriptions and a range of other data to a variety of third-party aggregators and tools (currently Encyclopedia of Life, eMonocot Portal, CartoDB, and the Common Data Model) for secondary use. This paper describes our technical approach to dynamically building and validating Darwin Core Archives for the 600+ Scratchpad user communities, which can be used to serve the diverse data needs of all of our content partners.
PMCID: PMC3964728  PMID: 24723785
Darwin Core; Darwin Core Archive; Scratchpads; biodiversity informatics; virtual research environment; taxonomy; biodiversity
2.  Eupolybothrus cavernicolus Komerički & Stoev sp. n. (Chilopoda: Lithobiomorpha: Lithobiidae): the first eukaryotic species description combining transcriptomic, DNA barcoding and micro-CT imaging data 
We demonstrate how a classical taxonomic description of a new species can be enhanced by applying new generation molecular methods, and novel computing and imaging technologies. A cave-dwelling centipede, Eupolybothrus cavernicolus Komerički & Stoev sp. n. (Chilopoda: Lithobiomorpha: Lithobiidae), found in a remote karst region in Knin, Croatia, is the first eukaryotic species for which, in addition to the traditional morphological description, we provide a fully sequenced transcriptome, a DNA barcode, detailed anatomical X-ray microtomography (micro-CT) scans, and a movie of the living specimen to document important traits of its ex-situ behaviour. By employing micro-CT scanning in a new species for the first time, we create a high-resolution morphological and anatomical dataset that allows virtual reconstructions of the specimen and subsequent interactive manipulation to test the recently introduced ‘cybertype’ notion. In addition, the transcriptome was recorded with a total of 67,785 scaffolds, having an average length of 812 bp and N50 of 1,448 bp (see GigaDB). Subsequent annotation of 22,866 scaffolds was conducted by tracing homologs against current available databases, including Nr, SwissProt and COG. This pilot project illustrates a workflow of producing, storing, publishing and disseminating large data sets associated with a description of a new taxon. All data have been deposited in publicly accessible repositories, such as GigaScience GigaDB, NCBI, BOLD, Morphbank and Morphosource, and the respective open licenses used ensure their accessibility and re-usability.
PMCID: PMC3964625  PMID: 24723752
Cybertaxonomy; gene sequence data; micro-CT; data integration; molecular systematics; caves; Croatia; biospeleology
4.  1-tert-Butyl 2-ethyl 5-chloro-3-(2-furo­yl)-1H-indole-1,2-dicarboxyl­ate 
In the title compound, C21H20ClNO6, the furan moiety is located above the mean plane of the indole ring and displays rotational disorder (i.e. rotation through 180°); the site occupancy of the major component is 0.809 (6). In the crystal, C—H⋯O inter­actions link the mol­ecules into chains which run parallel to the b axis.
PMCID: PMC3588483  PMID: 23476614
5.  1-tert-Butyl 2-ethyl 5-bromo-3-(thio­phen-2-ylcarbon­yl)-1H-indole-1,2-dicarboxyl­ate 
In the title compound, C21H20BrNO5S, the thio­phene group is located above the mean plane of the indole ring and displays rotational disorder (i.e. rotation through 180°). The site occupancy of the major component is 0.902 (2), while that of the minor component is 0.098 (2). In the crystal, pairs of weak C—H⋯O inter­actions link the mol­ecules into centrosymmetric dimers.
PMCID: PMC3569770  PMID: 23424516
6.  1-[(1-Methyl-1H-imidazol-5-yl)meth­yl]-1H-indole-5-carbonitrile 
In the title compound, C14H12N4, the dihedral angle between the indole ring system (r.m.s. deviation = 0.010 Å) and the imidazole ring is 77.70 (6)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by C—H⋯N hydrogen bonds. One set of hydrogen bonds forms an undulating chain running parallel to the b-axis direction, while the other undulating chain is parallel to the c-axis direction. In combination, (100) sheets result.
PMCID: PMC3589058  PMID: 23476294
7.  5-Chloro-1-(4-methyl­phenyl­sulfon­yl)-1H-indole 
In the title compound, C15H12ClNO2S, the indole ring is essentially planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.0107 Å) and makes a dihedral angle of 85.01 (6)° with the benzene ring. In the crystal, three C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds result in a hydrogen-bonded spiral running parallel to the c axis.
PMCID: PMC3588956  PMID: 23476192
8.  N-(4-Amino­pyrimidin-5-yl)-4-methyl-N-(4-methyl­phenyl­sulfon­yl)benzene­sulfonamide 
In the title compound, C18H18N4O4S2, the mean planes passing through the tosyl benzene rings form dihedral angles of 48.42 (9) and 15.1 (1)° with the amino­pyrimidine ring. In the crystal, mol­ecules associate via N—H⋯N and N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming extended hydrogen-bonded sheets that lie parallel to the bc plane. The N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds propagate along the b-axis direction, while the N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds propagate along the c-axis direction.
PMCID: PMC3588960  PMID: 23476196
9.  Multiple lineages of lice pass through the K–Pg boundary 
Biology Letters  2011;7(5):782-785.
For modern lineages of birds and mammals, few fossils have been found that predate the Cretaceous–Palaeogene (K–Pg) boundary. However, molecular studies using fossil calibrations have shown that many of these lineages existed at that time. Both birds and mammals are parasitized by obligate ectoparasitic lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera), which have shared a long coevolutionary history with their hosts. Evaluating whether many lineages of lice passed through the K–Pg boundary would provide insight into the radiation of their hosts. Using molecular dating techniques, we demonstrate that the major louse suborders began to radiate before the K–Pg boundary. These data lend support to a Cretaceous diversification of many modern bird and mammal lineages.
PMCID: PMC3169043  PMID: 21471047
Phthiraptera; evolution; cospeciation; dating
10.  Bringing collections out of the dark 
ZooKeys  2012;1-6.
PMCID: PMC3406462  PMID: 22859874
11.  No specimen left behind: industrial scale digitization of natural history collections 
ZooKeys  2012;133-146.
Traditional approaches for digitizing natural history collections, which include both imaging and metadata capture, are both labour- and time-intensive. Mass-digitization can only be completed if the resource-intensive steps, such as specimen selection and databasing of associated information, are minimized. Digitization of larger collections should employ an “industrial” approach, using the principles of automation and crowd sourcing, with minimal initial metadata collection including a mandatory persistent identifier. A new workflow for the mass-digitization of natural history museum collections based on these principles, and using SatScan® tray scanning system, is described.
PMCID: PMC3406472  PMID: 22859884
Digitization; imaging; specimen metadata; natural history collections; biodiversity informatics
12.  Repeated adaptive divergence of microhabitat specialization in avian feather lice 
BMC Biology  2012;10:52.
Repeated adaptive radiations are evident when phenotypic divergence occurs within lineages, but this divergence into different forms is convergent when compared across lineages. Classic examples of such repeated adaptive divergence occur in island (for example, Caribbean Anolis lizards) and lake systems (for example, African cichlids). Host-parasite systems in many respects are analogous to island systems, where host species represent isolated islands for parasites whose life cycle is highly tied to that of their hosts. Thus, host-parasite systems might exhibit interesting cases of repeated adaptive divergence as seen in island and lake systems.
The feather lice of birds spend their entire life cycle on the body of the host and occupy distinct microhabitats on the host: head, wing, body and generalist. These microhabitat specialists show pronounced morphological differences corresponding to how they escape from host preening. We tested whether these different microhabitat specialists were a case of repeated adaptive divergence by constructing both morphological and molecular phylogenies for a diversity of avian feather lice, including many examples of head, wing, body and generalist forms.
Morphological and molecular based phylogenies were highly incongruent, which could be explained by rampant convergence in morphology related to microhabitat specialization on the host. In many cases lice from different microhabitat specializations, but from the same group of birds, were sister taxa.
This pattern indicates a process of repeated adaptive divergence of these parasites within host group, but convergence when comparing parasites across host groups. These results suggest that host-parasite systems might be another case in which repeated adaptive radiations could be relatively common, but potentially overlooked, because morphological convergence can obscure evolutionary relationships.
PMCID: PMC3391173  PMID: 22717002
adaptive radiation; convergence; Phthiraptera; ectoparasites; phylogenetics
13.  N-(2-Amino­pyridin-3-yl)-4-methyl-N-(4-methyl­phenyl­sulfon­yl)benzene­sulfonamide 
The title compound, C19H19N3O4S2, was prepared by the reaction of 2,3-diamino­pyridine with tosyl chloride in a mixture of dichloro­methane–pyridine as solvent. In the crystal, mol­ecules associate via pairs of N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming a centrosymmetric eight-membered {⋯HNCN}2 synthon. The dihedral angles between the amino­pyridine ring and the tosyl benzene rings are 50.01 (6) and 32.01 (4)°.
PMCID: PMC3344082  PMID: 22606085
14.  Collaborative electronic infrastructures to accelerate taxonomic research 
ZooKeys  2011;1-3.
PMCID: PMC3234428  PMID: 22207803
15.  Scratchpads 2.0: a Virtual Research Environment supporting scholarly collaboration, communication and data publication in biodiversity science 
ZooKeys  2011;53-70.
The Scratchpad Virtual Research Environment ( is a flexible system for people to create their own research networks supporting natural history science. Here we describe Version 2 of the system characterised by the move to Drupal 7 as the Scratchpad core development framework and timed to coincide with the fifth year of the project’s operation in late January 2012. The development of Scratchpad 2 reflects a combination of technical enhancements that make the project more sustainable, combined with new features intended to make the system more functional and easier to use. A roadmap outlining strategic plans for development of the Scratchpad project over the next two years concludes this article.
PMCID: PMC3234431  PMID: 22207806
Taxonomy; database; Virtual Research Environment; Biodiversity; e-infrastructure
16.  Who learns from whom? Supporting users and developers of a major biodiversity e-infrastructure 
ZooKeys  2011;177-192.
Support systems play an important role for the communication between users and developers of software. We studied two support systems, an issues tracker and an email service available for Scratchpads, a Web 2.0 social networking tool that enables communities to build, share, manage and publish biodiversity information on the Web. Our aim was to identify co-learning opportunities between users and developers of the Scratchpad system by asking which support system was used by whom and for what type of questions. Our results show that issues tracker and emails cater to different user mentalities as well as different kind of questions and suggest ways to improve the support system as part of the development under the EU funded ViBRANT programme.
PMCID: PMC3234438  PMID: 22207813
Shared knowledge; computer-supported cooperative work; issue tracking; software engineering; e-infrastructures
17.  A hitchhikers guide to the Galápagos: co-phylogeography of Galápagos mockingbirds and their parasites 
Parasites are evolutionary hitchhikers whose phylogenies often track the evolutionary history of their hosts. Incongruence in the evolutionary history of closely associated lineages can be explained through a variety of possible events including host switching and host independent speciation. However, in recently diverged lineages stochastic population processes, such as retention of ancestral polymorphism or secondary contact, can also explain discordant genealogies, even in fully co-speciating taxa. The relatively simple biogeographic arrangement of the Galápagos archipelago, compared with mainland biomes, provides a framework to identify stochastic and evolutionary informative components of genealogic data in these recently diverged organisms.
Mitochondrial DNA sequences were obtained for four species of Galápagos mockingbirds and three sympatric species of ectoparasites - two louse and one mite species. These data were complemented with nuclear EF1α sequences in selected samples of parasites and with information from microsatellite loci in the mockingbirds. Mitochondrial sequence data revealed differences in population genetic diversity between all taxa and varying degrees of topological congruence between host and parasite lineages. A very low level of genetic variability and lack of congruence was found in one of the louse parasites, which was excluded from subsequent joint analysis of mitochondrial data. The reconciled multi-species tree obtained from the analysis is congruent with both the nuclear data and the geological history of the islands.
The gene genealogies of Galápagos mockingbirds and two of their ectoparasites show strong phylogeographic correlations, with instances of incongruence mostly explained by ancestral genetic polymorphism. A third parasite genealogy shows low levels of genetic diversity and little evidence of co-phylogeny with their hosts. These differences can mostly be explained by variation in life-history characteristics, primarily host specificity and dispersal capabilities. We show that pooling genetic data from organisms living in close ecological association reveals a more accurate phylogeographic history for these taxa. Our results have implications for the conservation and taxonomy of Galápagos mockingbirds and their parasites.
PMCID: PMC3209464  PMID: 21966954
18.  Premature Infant Swallowing: Patterns of Tongue-Soft Palate Coordination Based Upon Videofluoroscopy 
Infant behavior & development  2010;33(2):209-218.
Coordination between movements of individual tongue points, and between soft palate elevation and tongue movements, were examined in 12 prematurely born infants referred from hospital NICUs for videofluoroscopic swallow study (VFSS) due to poor oral feeding and suspicion of aspiration. Detailed post-evaluation kinematic analysis was conducted by digitizing images of a lateral view of digitally superimposed points on the tongue and soft palate. The primary measure of coordination was continuous relative phase of the time series created by movements of points on the tongue and soft palate over successive frames. Three points on the tongue (anterior, medial, and posterior) were organized around a stable in-phase pattern, with a phase lag that implied an anterior to posterior direction of motion. Coordination between a tongue point and a point on the soft palate during lowering and elevation was close to anti-phase at initiation of the pharyngeal swallow. These findings suggest that anti-phase coordination between tongue and soft palate may reflect the process by which the tongue is timed to pump liquid by moving it into an enclosed space, compressing it, and allowing it to leave by a specific route through the pharynx.
PMCID: PMC2844905  PMID: 20181397
Infant; coordination; swallowing; videofluoroscopy; dysphagia; tongue; soft palate
19.  Evolutionary history of mammalian sucking lice (Phthiraptera: Anoplura) 
Sucking lice (Phthiraptera: Anoplura) are obligate, permanent ectoparasites of eutherian mammals, parasitizing members of 12 of the 29 recognized mammalian orders and approximately 20% of all mammalian species. These host specific, blood-sucking insects are morphologically adapted for life on mammals: they are wingless, dorso-ventrally flattened, possess tibio-tarsal claws for clinging to host hair, and have piercing mouthparts for feeding. Although there are more than 540 described species of Anoplura and despite the potential economical and medical implications of sucking louse infestations, this study represents the first attempt to examine higher-level anopluran relationships using molecular data. In this study, we use molecular data to reconstruct the evolutionary history of 65 sucking louse taxa with phylogenetic analyses and compare the results to findings based on morphological data. We also estimate divergence times among anopluran taxa and compare our results to host (mammal) relationships.
This study represents the first phylogenetic hypothesis of sucking louse relationships using molecular data and we find significant conflict between phylogenies constructed using molecular and morphological data. We also find that multiple families and genera of sucking lice are not monophyletic and that extensive taxonomic revision will be necessary for this group. Based on our divergence dating analyses, sucking lice diversified in the late Cretaceous, approximately 77 Ma, and soon after the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary (ca. 65 Ma) these lice proliferated rapidly to parasitize multiple mammalian orders and families.
The diversification time of sucking lice approximately 77 Ma is in agreement with mammalian evolutionary history: all modern mammal orders are hypothesized to have diverged by 75 Ma thus providing suitable habitat for the colonization and radiation of sucking lice. Despite the concordant timing of diversification events early in the association between anoplurans and mammals, there is substantial conflict between the host and parasite phylogenies. This conflict is likely the result of a complex history of host switching and extinction events that occurred throughout the evolutionary association between sucking lice and their mammalian hosts. It is unlikely that there are any ectoparasite groups (including lice) that tracked the early and rapid radiation of eutherian mammals.
PMCID: PMC2949877  PMID: 20860811
20.  Streamlining taxonomic publication: a working example with Scratchpads and ZooKeys 
ZooKeys  2010;17-28.
We describe a method to publish nomenclatural acts described in taxonomic websites (Scratchpads) that are formally registered through publication in a printed journal (ZooKeys). This method is fully compliant with the zoological nomenclatural code. Our approach supports manuscript creation (via a Scratchpad), electronic act registration (via ZooBank), online and print publication (in the journal ZooKeys) and simultaneous dissemination (ZooKeys and Scratchpads) for nomenclatorial acts including new species descriptions. The workflow supports the generation of manuscripts directly from a database and is illustrated by two sample papers published in the present issue.
PMCID: PMC3088019  PMID: 21594114
Online publishing; taxonomy; nomenclature; ICZN; ICBN
21.  Semantic tagging of and semantic enhancements to systematics papers: ZooKeys working examples 
ZooKeys  2010;1-16.
The concept of semantic tagging and its potential for semantic enhancements to taxonomic papers is outlined and illustrated by four exemplar papers published in the present issue of ZooKeys. The four papers were created in different ways: (i) written in Microsoft Word and submitted as non-tagged manuscript (doi: 10.3897/zookeys.50.504); (ii) generated from Scratchpads and submitted as XML-tagged manuscripts (doi: 10.3897/zookeys.50.505 and doi: 10.3897/zookeys.50.506); (iii) generated from an author’s database (doi: 10.3897/zookeys.50.485) and submitted as XML-tagged manuscript. XML tagging and semantic enhancements were implemented during the editorial process of ZooKeys using the Pensoft Mark Up Tool (PMT), specially designed for this purpose. The XML schema used was TaxPub, an extension to the Document Type Definitions (DTD) of the US National Library of Medicine Journal Archiving and Interchange Tag Suite (NLM). The following innovative methods of tagging, layout, publishing and disseminating the content were tested and implemented within the ZooKeys editorial workflow: (1) highly automated, fine-grained XML tagging based on TaxPub; (2) final XML output of the paper validated against the NLM DTD for archiving in PubMedCentral; (3) bibliographic metadata embedded in the PDF through XMP (Extensible Metadata Platform); (4) PDF uploaded after publication to the Biodiversity Heritage Library (BHL); (5) taxon treatments supplied through XML to Plazi; (6) semantically enhanced HTML version of the paper encompassing numerous internal and external links and linkouts, such as: (i) vizualisation of main tag elements within the text (e.g., taxon names, taxon treatments, localities, etc.); (ii) internal cross-linking between paper sections, citations, references, tables, and figures; (iii) mapping of localities listed in the whole paper or within separate taxon treatments; (v) taxon names autotagged, dynamically mapped and linked through the Pensoft Taxon Profile (PTP) to large international database services and indexers such as Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), Barcode of Life (BOLD), Encyclopedia of Life (EOL), ZooBank, Wikipedia, Wikispecies, Wikimedia, and others; (vi) GenBank accession numbers autotagged and linked to NCBI; (vii) external links of taxon names to references in PubMed, Google Scholar, Biodiversity Heritage Library and other sources. With the launching of the working example, ZooKeys becomes the first taxonomic journal to provide a complete XML-based editorial, publication and dissemination workflow implemented as a routine and cost-efficient practice. It is anticipated that XML-based workflow will also soon be implemented in botany through PhytoKeys, a forthcoming partner journal of ZooKeys. The semantic markup and enhancements are expected to greatly extend and accelerate the way taxonomic information is published, disseminated and used.
PMCID: PMC3088020  PMID: 21594113
Semantic tagging; semantic enhancements; systematics; taxonomy
22.  Scratchpads: a data-publishing framework to build, share and manage information on the diversity of life 
BMC Bioinformatics  2009;10(Suppl 14):S6.
Natural History science is characterised by a single immense goal (to document, describe and synthesise all facets pertaining to the diversity of life) that can only be addressed through a seemingly infinite series of smaller studies. The discipline's failure to meaningfully connect these small studies with natural history's goal has made it hard to demonstrate the value of natural history to a wider scientific community. Digital technologies provide the means to bridge this gap.
We describe the system architecture and template design of "Scratchpads", a data-publishing framework for groups of people to create their own social networks supporting natural history science. Scratchpads cater to the particular needs of individual research communities through a common database and system architecture. This is flexible and scalable enough to support multiple networks, each with its own choice of features, visual design, and constituent data. Our data model supports web services on standardised data elements that might be used by related initiatives such as GBIF and the Encyclopedia of Life. A Scratchpad allows users to organise data around user-defined or imported ontologies, including biological classifications. Automated semantic annotation and indexing is applied to all content, allowing users to navigate intuitively and curate diverse biological data, including content drawn from third party resources. A system of archiving citable pages allows stable referencing with unique identifiers and provides credit to contributors through normal citation processes.
Our framework currently serves more than 1,100 registered users across 100 sites, spanning academic, amateur and citizen-science audiences. These users have generated more than 130,000 nodes of content in the first two years of use. The template of our architecture may serve as a model to other research communities developing data publishing frameworks outside biodiversity research.
PMCID: PMC2775152  PMID: 19900302
23.  Genomic Diversity among Drug Sensitive and Multidrug Resistant Isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with Identical DNA Fingerprints 
PLoS ONE  2009;4(10):e7407.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), is characterized by low sequence diversity making this bacterium one of the classical examples of a genetically monomorphic pathogen. Because of this limited DNA sequence variation, routine genotyping of clinical MTBC isolates for epidemiological purposes relies on highly discriminatory DNA fingerprinting methods based on mobile and repetitive genetic elements. According to the standard view, isolates exhibiting the same fingerprinting pattern are considered direct progeny of the same bacterial clone, and most likely reflect ongoing transmission or disease relapse within individual patients.
Methodology/Principal Findings
Here we further investigated this assumption and used massively parallel whole-genome sequencing to compare one drug-susceptible (K-1) and one multidrug resistant (MDR) isolate (K-2) of a rapidly spreading M. tuberculosis Beijing genotype clone from a high incidence region (Karakalpakstan, Uzbekistan). Both isolates shared the same IS6110 RFLP pattern and the same allele at 23 out of 24 MIRU-VNTR loci.
We generated 23.9 million (K-1) and 33.0 million (K-2) paired 50 bp purity filtered reads corresponding to a mean coverage of 483.5 fold and 656.1 fold respectively. Compared with the laboratory strain H37Rv both Beijing isolates shared 1,209 SNPs. The two Beijing isolates differed by 130 SNPs and one large deletion. The susceptible isolate had 55 specific SNPs, while the MDR variant had 75 specific SNPs, including the five known resistance-conferring mutations.
Our results suggest that M. tuberculosis isolates exhibiting identical DNA fingerprinting patterns can harbour substantial genomic diversity. Because this heterogeneity is not captured by traditional genotyping of MTBC, some aspects of the transmission dynamics of tuberculosis could be missed or misinterpreted. Furthermore, a valid differentiation between disease relapse and exogenous reinfection might be impossible using standard genotyping tools if the overall diversity of circulating clones is limited. These findings have important implications for clinical trials of new anti-tuberculosis drugs.
PMCID: PMC2756628  PMID: 19823582
24.  Data publication: towards a database of everything 
BMC Research Notes  2009;2:113.
The fabric of science is changing, driven by a revolution in digital technologies that facilitate the acquisition and communication of massive amounts of data. This is changing the nature of collaboration and expanding opportunities to participate in science. If digital technologies are the engine of this revolution, digital data are its fuel. But for many scientific disciplines, this fuel is in short supply. The publication of primary data is not a universal or mandatory part of science, and despite policies and proclamations to the contrary, calls to make data publicly available have largely gone unheeded. In this short essay I consider why, and explore some of the challenges that lie ahead, as we work toward a database of everything.
PMCID: PMC2702265  PMID: 19552813
25.  An Ectromelia Virus Protein That Interacts with Chemokines through Their Glycosaminoglycan Binding Domain▿  
Journal of Virology  2007;82(2):917-926.
Poxviruses encode a number of secreted virulence factors that modulate the host immune response. The vaccinia virus A41 protein is an immunomodulatory protein with amino acid sequence similarity to the 35-kDa chemokine binding protein, but the host immune molecules targeted by A41 have not been identified. We report here that the vaccinia virus A41 ortholog encoded by ectromelia virus, a poxvirus pathogen of mice, named E163 in the ectromelia virus Naval strain, is a secreted 31-kDa glycoprotein that selectively binds a limited number of CC and CXC chemokines with high affinity. A detailed characterization of the interaction of ectromelia virus E163 with mutant forms of the chemokines CXCL10 and CXCL12α indicated that E163 binds to the glycosaminoglycan binding site of the chemokines. This suggests that E163 inhibits the interaction of chemokines with glycosaminoglycans and provides a mechanism by which E163 prevents chemokine-induced leukocyte migration to the sites of infection. In addition to interacting with chemokines, E163 can interact with high affinity with glycosaminoglycan molecules, enabling E163 to attach to cell surfaces and to remain in the vicinity of the sites of viral infection. These findings identify E163 as a new chemokine binding protein in poxviruses and provide a molecular mechanism for the immunomodulatory activity previously reported for the vaccinia virus A41 ortholog. The results reported here also suggest that the cell surface and extracellular matrix are important targeting sites for secreted poxvirus immune modulators.
PMCID: PMC2224573  PMID: 18003726

Results 1-25 (33)