Helicobacter pylori is the primary cause of gastric cancer. However, monoclonal Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nucleic acid is also present in up to 10% of these tumors worldwide. EBV prevalence is increased with male sex, non-antral localization and surgically disrupted anatomy. To further examine associations between EBV and gastric cancer, we organized an international consortium of 11 studies with tumor EBV status assessed by in situ hybridization. We pooled individual-level data on 2,648 gastric cancer patients, including 184 (7%) with EBV-positive cancers; all studies had information on cigarette use (64% smokers) and 9 had data on alcohol (57% drinkers). We compared patients with EBV-positive and EBV-negative tumors to evaluate smoking and alcohol interactions with EBV status. To account for within-population clustering, multi-level logistic regression models were used to estimate interaction odds ratios (OR) adjusted for distributions of sex (72% male), age (mean 59 years), tumor histology (56% Lauren intestinal-type), anatomic subsite (61% noncardia) and year of diagnosis (1983–2012). In unadjusted analyses, the OR of EBV positivity with smoking was 2.2 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6–3.2). The OR was attenuated to 1.5 (95% CI, 1.01–2.3) by adjustment for the possible confounders. There was no significant interaction of EBV status with alcohol drinking (crude OR, 1.4; adjusted OR, 1.0). Our data indicate the smoking association with gastric cancer is stronger for EBV-positive than EBV-negative tumors. Conversely, the null association with alcohol does not vary by EBV status. Distinct epidemiologic characteristics of EBV-positive cancer further implicate the virus as a co-factor in gastric carcinogenesis.
Alcohol; EBV; gastric cancer; smoking; pooled-analysis
The t(14;18) translocation might represent an intermediate step in the pathogenesis of follicular lymphoma (FL), one of the most common subtypes of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Circulating t(14;18)-positive cells can also be detected in 30–60 % of healthy individuals at low frequencies. Some studies found a negative association between reproductive factors or use of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) with FL. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether there is an association between number of frequencies, oral contraceptive (OC) use, menopausal status and MHT, and t(14;18) prevalence and frequency in a representative population analysis based on an epidemiologic study in the northeastern part of Germany.
The analysis is based on results of buffy coat samples from 1,981 women of the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-0) and data obtained in standardized face-to-face interviews. For prevalence, odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. Frequency data were analyzed using negative binomial regression. The multivariable models included age, number of pregnancies, menopausal status (premenopausal, natural, medical/surgical menopause), OC use and MHT as a measure for exogenous hormone exposure use.
We found no association between reproductive history and combined exogenous hormone use on the prevalence of circulating t(14;18)-positive cells. Modeling MHT and OC use separately in a sensitivity analysis, the MHT parameter yielded statistical significance [OR 1.37 (95 % CI 1.04;1.81)]. t(14;18) frequency was associated with use of OC [incidence rate ratio (IRR) for ever use 3.18 (95 % CI 1.54;6.54)], current use [IRR 3.86 (1.56;9.54)], >10 years use [IRR 3.93 (1.67;9.23)] and MHT [restricted to postmenopausal women; IRR 2.63 (95 % CI 1.01;6.85)] in bivariate age-adjusted analyses. In the multivariable model, medical/surgical menopause [IRR 2.46 (1.11;5.44)] and the category ever use of OC and MHT were statistically significant [IRR 2.41 (1.09;5.33)].
Exogenous hormone use might be a risk factor for t(14;18) frequency rather than for t(14;18) prevalence. Further research on healthy individuals carrying a t(14;18) translocation and possible risk factors for malignant lymphoma is necessary to determine the additional molecular or immunological events that have to occur to develop FL.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10552-015-0525-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
t(14;18) translocation; Healthy individuals; Reproductive history; Exogenous hormone use
The t(14;18) translocation is a common genetic aberration that can be seen as an early step in pathogenesis of follicular lymphoma (FL). The significance of low level circulating t(14;18)-positive cells in healthy individuals as clonal lymphoma precursors or indicators of risk is still unclear. We determined the age dependent prevalence and frequency of BCL2/IgH rearrangements in 715 healthy individuals ranging from newborns to octo- and nonagenarians. These results were compared with number of circulating t(14;18)-positive cells in 108 FL patients at initial presentation. The overall prevalence of BCL2/IgH junctions in this large sample was 46% (327/715). However, there was a striking dependence upon age. Specifically, among individuals up to 10 years old, none had detectable circulating t(14;18)-positive cells. In the age groups representing 10–50 years old, we found a steady elevation in the prevalence of BCL2/IgH junctions up to a prevalence of 66%. Further increases of the prevalence in individuals older than 50 years were not seen. The mean frequency of BCL2/IgH junctions in healthy individuals ≥40 years (18–26 × 10−6) was significantly higher than in younger subjects (7–9 × 10−6). Four percent (31/715) of individuals carried more than one t(14;18)-positive cell per 25,000 peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs). In comparison, 108 stage III/IV FL patients had a median number of circulating t(14;18)-positive malignant FL cells of about 9200/1 million PBMNCs (range 7–1,000,000). These findings will further improve the understanding of the relevance of t(14;18)-positive cells in healthy individuals as a risk marker toward the development into lymphoma precursors.
t(14;18)-translocation; BCL2; quantitative real-time PCR; healthy individuals; follicular lymphoma
Gastric cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths, but analysis of its molecular and clinical characteristics has been complicated by histological and aetiological heterogeneity. Here we describe a comprehensive molecular evaluation of 295 primary gastric adenocarcinomas as part of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. We propose a molecular classification dividing gastric cancer into four subtypes: tumours positive for Epstein–Barr virus, which display recurrent PIK3CA mutations, extreme DNA hypermethylation, and amplification of JAK2, CD274 (also known as PD-L1) and PDCD1LG2 (also knownasPD-L2); microsatellite unstable tumours, which show elevated mutation rates, including mutations of genes encoding targetable oncogenic signalling proteins; genomically stable tumours, which are enriched for the diffuse histological variant and mutations of RHOA or fusions involving RHO-family GTPase-activating proteins; and tumours with chromosomal instability, which show marked aneuploidy and focal amplification of receptor tyrosine kinases. Identification of these subtypes provides a roadmap for patient stratification and trials of targeted therapies.
AIM: To optimize diagnosis and treatment guidelines for this geographic region, a panel of gastroenterologists, epidemiologists, and basic scientists carried out a structured evaluation of available literature.
METHODS: Relevant questions were distributed among the experts, who generated draft statements for consideration by the entire panel. A modified three-round Delphi technique method was used to reach consensus. Critical input was also obtained from representatives of the concerned medical community. The quality of the evidence and level of recommendation supporting each statement was graded according to United States Preventive Services Task Force criteria.
RESULTS: A group of ten experts was established. The survey included 15 open-ended questions that were distributed among the experts, who assessed the articles associated with each question. The levels of agreement achieved by the panel were 50% in the first round, 73.3% in the second round and 100% in the third round. Main consensus recommendations included: (1) when available, urea breath and stool antigen test (HpSA) should be used for non-invasive diagnosis; (2) detect and eradicate Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in all gastroscopy patients to decrease risk of peptic ulcer disease, prevent o retard progression in patients with preneoplastic lesions, and to prevent recurrence in patients treated for gastric cancer; (3) further investigate implementation issues and health outcomes of H. pylori eradication for primary prevention of gastric cancer in high-risk populations; (4) prescribe standard 14-d triple therapy or sequential therapy for first-line treatment; (5) routinely assess eradication success post-treatment in clinical settings; and (6) select second- and third-line therapies according to antibiotic susceptibility testing.
CONCLUSION: These achievable steps toward better region-specific management can be expected to improve clinical health outcomes.
Helicobacter pylori; Consensus development conference; Delphi technique; Latin America
Latin America has among the highest gastric cancer incidence rates in the world, for reasons that are still unknown. In order to identify region-specific risk factors for gastric cancer, we conducted a meta-analysis summarizing published literature.
Searches of PubMed and regional databases for relevant studies published up to December 2011 yielded a total of 29 independent case-control studies. We calculated summary odds ratios (OR) for risk factors reported in at least five studies, including socioeconomic status (education), lifestyle habits (smoking and alcohol use), dietary factors (consumption of fruits, total vegetables, green vegetables, chili pepper, total meat, processed meat, red meat, fish and salt) and host genetic variants (IL1B-511T, IL1B-31C, IL1RN*2, TNFA-308A, TP53 codon 72 Arg and GSTM1 null). Study-specific ORs were extracted and summarized using random-effects models.
Chili pepper was the only region-specific factor reported in at least five studies. Consistent with multifactorial pathogenesis, smoking, alcohol use, high consumption of red meat or processed meat, excessive salt intake and carriage of IL1RN*2 were each associated with a moderate increase in gastric cancer risk. Conversely, higher levels of education, fruit consumption, and total vegetable consumption were each associated with a moderately decreased risk. The other exposures were not significantly associated. No prospective study data were identified.
Risk factor associations for gastric cancer in Latin America are based on case-control comparisons that have uncertain reliability, particularly with regard to diet; the specific factors identified and their magnitudes of association are largely similar to those globally recognized. Future studies should emphasize prospective data collection and focus on region-specific exposures that may explain high gastric cancer risk.
epidemiology; gastric cancer; Latin-America; meta-analysis; risk factors
Cytokine stimulation of B-cell proliferation may be an important etiologic mechanism for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). The Epstein-Barr virus may be a co-factor, particularly for primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors, which are uniformly EBV-positive in the setting of AIDS. Thus, we examined associations of genetic variation in IL10 and related cytokine signaling molecules (IL10RA, CXCL12, IL13, IL4, IL4R, CCL5 and BCL6) with AIDS-related NHL risk and evaluated differences between primary CNS and systemic tumors. We compared 160 Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) participants with incident lymphomas, of which 90 followed another AIDS diagnosis, to HIV-1-seropositive controls matched on duration of lymphoma-free survival post-HIV-1 infection (N=160) or post-AIDS diagnosis (N=90). We fit conditional logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95 percent confidence intervals (95%CIs). Carriage of at least one copy of the T allele for the IL10 rs1800871 (as compared to no copies) was associated with decreased AIDS-NHL risk specific to lymphomas arising from the CNS (CC vs. CT/TT: OR=0.3; 95%CI: 0.1, 0.7) but not systemically (CC vs. CT/TT: OR=1.0; 95%CI: 0.5, 1.9) (Pheterogeneity=0.03). Carriage of two copies of the “low IL10” haplotype rs1800896_A/rs1800871_T/rs1800872_A was associated with decreased lymphoma risk that varied by number of copies (Ptrend=0.02). None of the ORs for the other studied polymorphisms was significantly different from 1.0. Excessive IL10 response to HIV-1 infection may be associated with increased risk of NHL, particularly in the CNS. IL10 dysregulation may be an important etiologic pathway for EBV-related lymphomagenesis.
cytokine; SNPs; AIDS-related lymphoma
Cytokines may contribute to the severity of CD4 cell depletion with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, but quantitative relationships are not well defined. Serum and plasma from 181 HIV-infected individuals were tested with Millipore 30-plex Luminex cytokine assays. Within-individual correlations among cytokines were summarized by two-dimensional hierarchical cluster analysis. Associations with age, sex, race, CD4 count, and HIV viral load were determined with linear regression models. Tests for statistical significance were corrected for multiple comparisons, using a false discovery rate of 0.1. African-Americans had significantly higher levels than whites of six cytokines (IL-2, IL-5, IL-7, IL-15, fractalkine, and IFN-γ), and lower levels of MCP-1. Females had higher fractalkine levels than males. Age was not associated with levels of any cytokine. Six cytokines, including the T-helper (Th) type 1 cytokine IL-15, the Th2 cytokines IL-1ra and IL-10, the chemokines fractalkine and MCP-1, and the growth factor G-CSF were each inversely associated with CD4 count; no cytokine was directly associated with CD4 count. Fractalkine was directly associated with HIV viral load, adjusted for CD4 count. Cytokines clustered by primary function (e.g., Th1, Th2, proinflammatory, chemokines, or growth factors) whereas individuals clustered according to cytokine levels (generally high, intermediate, or low) had significantly different CD4 counts [medians (interquartile range) of 60 (17–162), 131 (62–321), and 155 (44–467), respectively; p<0.0001]. CD4 deficiency is associated with generalized increases in cytokines of various functions. Racial differences in cytokine response to HIV infection could contribute to disparities in disease progression.
Estrogens may influence gastric cancer risk but published studies are inconclusive. We therefore performed a meta-analysis addressing the associations of gastric cancer in women with menstrual and reproductive factors, and with use of estrogen- and antiestrogen-related therapies. Searches of PubMed up to June, 2011 and review of citations yielded a total of 28 independent studies including at least one exposure of interest. Random effects pooled estimates of relative risk (RR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for eight exposures reported in at least five studies, including: age at menarche, age at menopause, years of fertility, parity, age at first birth, oral contraceptive use, hormone replacement therapy (HRT), and tamoxifen treatment. Longer years of fertility (RR= 0.74; 95% CI= 0.63 to 0.86) and HRT (RR= 0.77, 95% CI= 0.64 to 0.92) were each associated with decreased gastric cancer risk. Conversely, tamoxifen treatment was associated with increased risk (RR= 1.82, 95% CI= 1.39 to 2.38). The other five exposures were not significantly associated. Our analysis supports the hypothesis that longer exposure to estrogen effects of either ovarian or exogenous origin may decrease risk of gastric cancer. Additional studies are warranted to extend this finding and to identify the underlying mechanisms.
Gastric Cancer; Hormone Therapy; Menstrual Factors; Reproductive Factors; Tamoxifen
Background & Aims
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been causally associated with cancer; some gastric carcinomas have a monoclonal EBV genome in every cancer cell, indicating that they arose from a single infected progenitor cell. However, the proportion of EBV-positive gastric carcinomas is uncertain and the etiological significance is unknown.
We conducted a meta-analysis of 70 studies including 15,952 cases of gastric cancer assessed by in situ hybridization for EBV-encoded small RNA.
The pooled prevalence estimate of EBV-positivity was 8.7% (95% CI: 7.5, 10.0) overall, with a two-fold difference by sex: 11.1% (95% CI: 8.7, 14.1) of gastric cancer cases in males vs. 5.2% (95% CI: 3.6, 7.4) of cases in females. Tumors arising in the gastric cardia (13.6%) or corpus (13.1%) were more than twice as likely to be EBV-positive as those in the antrum (5.2%; p<0.01 for both comparisons). EBV-prevalence was four times higher (35.1%) for tumors in post-surgical gastric stump/remnants. Over 90% of lymphoepithelioma-like carcinomas were EBV-positive but only 15 studies reported any cases of this type; prevalence did not significantly differ between the more common diffuse (7.6%) and intestinal (9.5%) histologies. EBV-prevalence was similar in cases from Asia (8.3%), Europe (9.2%), and the Americas (9.9%).
EBV-positive gastric cancers greatly differ from other gastric carcinomas based on sex, anatomic subsite, and surgically disrupted anatomy, indicating that it is a distinct etiologic entity. Epidemiologic studies comparing EBV-positive and -negative gastric cancers are warranted to investigate EBV’s role in gastric carcinogenesis.
Epstein-Barr virus; gastric cancer; meta-analysis; prevalence
Cytokine dysregulation and decontrol of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latency by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are potential mechanisms for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). We therefore assessed circulating blood levels in pre-diagnosis plasma or serum from 63 AIDS-related NHL cases 0.1 – 2.0 (median 1.0) years pre-NHL and 181 controls matched for CD4+ T-cell count. Cytokines were measured by Millipore 30-plex Luminex assays and cell-free EBV DNA detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Correlations in multiplex cytokine levels were summarized by factor analysis. Individual cytokines and their principal factors were analyzed for associations with NHL by conditional logistic regression. Cases had higher levels for 25 of the 30 cytokines. In analyses of cytokine profiles, cases had significantly higher scores for a principal factor primarily reflecting levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-13, and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (four gene products with coordinated transcription in vitro), as well as IL-1alpha. Epstein-Barr viremia was not significantly associated based on 113 evaluable samples without PCR inhibition. We found increases of T-helper type 2 interleukins and generalized elevations of other inflammatory cytokines and growth factors up to two years before AIDS-NHL. Cytokine-mediated hyperstimulation of B-cell proliferation may play a role in AIDS-related lymphomagenesis.
The control of the host cytokine network is known to influence gastric cancer susceptibility; the specific inflammatory responses in gastric carcinogenesis remain unclear.
We prospectively examined the relationships of plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL6, IL8 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α to gastric cancer risk within The Shanghai Women’s Health Study. Two controls were matched to each case by age, menopausal status and sample collection parameters. The associations of gastric cancer risk and tertile of cytokine levels were estimated by odds ratios (ORs) and 95 per cent confidence intervals (% CIs) from conditional logistic regression, adjusting for education.
During a median follow-up period of 4 years (range: 0.1–8), 141 women developed gastric cancer and were matched to 282 cancer-free study participants. Elevated levels of plasma IL6 were associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer (Ρtrend=0.04). Risk increased 70% (OR=1.7, 95% CI, 1.0, 3.0) for women in the highest tertile (> 4 pg/mL) of IL-6 compared to those in the lowest tertile (<1.8 pg/mL). The association with IL6 was stronger after 4 years of follow-up (OR=2.6, 95% CI, 1.0, 6.7 for highest vs. lowest tertile) compared to an OR of 1.4 (0.7, 2.9) for those diagnosed within 1–4 years of follow-up. No associations were observed with the other examined pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL1β, IL8 and TNFα.
Systemic plasma IL6 levels may inform long-term gastric cancer risk. This novel finding awaits confirmation in future studies with sequential plasma collection.
cytokine; gastric cancer; prediagnostic
The risk of developing non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is greatly increased in HIV infection. The aim of this study was to determine if elevated serum levels of molecules associated with B cell activation precede the diagnosis of AIDS-associated NHL.
Serum levels of B cell activation-associated molecules, interleukin-6 (IL6), interleukin-10 (IL10), soluble CD23 (sCD23), soluble CD27 (sCD27), soluble CD30 (sCD30), C-reactive protein (CRP), and IgE were determined in 179 NHL cases and HIV+ controls in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, collected at up to three time points per subject, 0–5 years prior to AIDS-NHL diagnosis.
Serum IL6, IL10, CRP, sCD23, sCD27, and sCD30 levels were all significantly elevated in the AIDS-NHL group, when compared to HIV+ controls or to AIDS controls, after adjusting for CD4 T cell number. Elevated serum levels of B cell activation-associated molecules were seen to be associated with the development of systemic (non-CNS) NHL, but not with the development of primary CNS lymphoma.
Levels of certain B cell stimulatory cytokines and molecules associated with immune activation are elevated for several years preceding the diagnosis of systemic AIDS-NHL. This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that chronic B cell activation contributes to the development of these hematologic malignancies.
Marked differences in serum levels of several molecules are seen for several years pre-diagnosis in those who eventually develop AIDS-NHL. Some of these molecules may serve as candidate biomarkers and provide valuable information to better define the etiology of NHL.
lymphoma; B cell; cytokines; AIDS; immune activation
Background & Aims
An association between gastric cancer and the rs2294008 (C>T) polymorphism in the prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) gene has been reported for several Asian populations. We set out to determine whether such an association exists in Caucasians.
We genotyped 166 relatives of gastric cancer patients, including 43 H pylori-infected subjects with hypochlorhydria and gastric atrophy, 65 infected subjects without these abnormalities, 58 H pylori-negative relatives, and 100 population controls. Additionally, a population-based study of chronic atrophic gastritis provided 533 cases and 1054 controls. We then genotyped 2 population-based case-control studies of upper gastrointestinal cancer: the first included 312 gastric cancer cases and 383 controls; the second included 309 gastric cancer cases, 159 esophageal cancer cases, and 211 controls. Odds ratios were computed from logistic models and adjusted for confounding variables.
Carriage of the risk allele (T) of rs2294008 in PSCA was associated with chronic atrophic gastritis (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1–1.9) and non-cardia gastric cancer (OR = 1.9; 95% CI, 1.3– 2.8). The association was strongest for the diffuse histological-type (OR = 3.2; 95% CI, 1.2–10.7). An inverse association was observed between carriage of the risk allele and gastric cardia cancer (OR = 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3–0.9), esophageal adenocarcinoma (OR = 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3–0.9), and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OR = 0.4; 95% CI, 0.2–0.9).
The rs2294008 polymorphism in PSCA increases the risk of non-cardia gastric cancer and its precursors in Caucasians but protects against proximal cancers.
Stomach cancer; esophageal cancer; genetic polymorphisms, cancer genetics
Over recent years, genome wide association studies (GWAS) have contributed to our understanding of genetic susceptibility to sporadic cancer. In this study, we assessed the association between upper gastrointestinal cancer risk and four GWAS-identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), previously implicated in prostate and colorectal cancer susceptibility. Genotyping for each SNP was performed in two, independent, Caucasian, population-based case-control studies. The first study comprised 290 gastric cancer cases and 374 controls. The second study included 185 non-cardia gastric cancers, 123 cardia cancers, 158 oesophageal cancers, and 209 controls. Odds ratios were computed from logistic models and adjusted for potential confounding variables. An inverse association was observed between the SNP rs1447295, located at 8q24, and gastric cancer risk in the first study population (odds ratio [OR] = 0.63; 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 0.41–0.97). A positive association was observed for the same SNP and oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma in the second study population (OR = 7.43; 95% CI, 1.37–49.98). No significant associations were detected in either study for the three remaining SNPs (rs6983297, rs10505477 and rs719725). Our data represent novel findings on heritable susceptibility to gastric and oesophageal cancer and warrant validation in additional populations.
Gastric cancer; oesophageal cancer; genetic polymorphism; cancer susceptibiility
Background and aim
Age-specific analyses of non-cardia gastric cancer incidence reveal divergent trends among US whites: rates are declining in individuals aged 40 years and older but rising in younger persons. To investigate this heterogeneity further, incidence trends were evaluated by anatomical subsite.
Gastric cancer incidence data for 1976–2007 were obtained from the US National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Program of Cancer Registries (NPCR). Incidence rates and estimated annual percentage change were calculated by age group (25–39, 40–59 and 60–84 years), race/ethnicity and subsite.
Based on data from the nine oldest SEER registries (covering ~10% of the US population), rates for all non-cardia subsites decreased in whites and blacks, except for corpus cancer, which increased between 1976 and 2007 with estimated annual percentage changes of 1.0% (95% CI 0.1% to 1.9%) for whites and 3.5% (95% CI 1.8% to 5.2%) for blacks. In contrast, rates for all non-cardia subsites including corpus cancer declined among other races. In combined data from NPCR and SEER registries (covering 89% of the US population), corpus cancer significantly increased between 1999 and 2007 among younger and middle-aged whites; in ethnic-specific analyses, rates significantly increased among the same age groups in non-Hispanic whites and were stable among Hispanic whites. Age-specific rates for all subsites declined or were stable in this period among blacks and other races.
Long- and short-term incidence trends for gastric cancers indicate a shifting distribution by anatomical subsite. Corpus cancer may have distinctive aetiology and changing risk factor exposures, warranting further investigation.
For the last 50 years, overall age-standardized incidence rates for noncardia gastric cancer have steadily declined in most populations. However, overall rates are summary measures that may obscure important age-specific trends.
To examine effects of age at diagnosis on noncardia gastric cancer incidence trends in the United States.
Design, Setting, and Participants
Descriptive study with age-period-cohort analysis of cancer registration data from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program, which covers approximately 26% of the US population. From 1977 through 2006, there were 83 225 adults with incident primary gastric cancer, including 39 003 noncardia cases.
Main Outcome Measures
Overall and age-specific incidence rates, adjusted for period and cohort effects using age-period-cohort models. Results were stratified by race, sex, and socioeconomic status.
Overall age-standardized annual incidence per 100 000 population declined during the study period from 5.9 (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.7-6.1) to 4.0 (95% CI, 3.9-4.1) in whites, from 13.7 (95% CI, 12.5-14.9) to 9.5 (95% CI, 9.1-10.0) in blacks, and from 17.8 (95% CI, 16.1-19.4) to 11.7 (95% CI, 11.2-12.1) in other races. Age-specific trends among whites varied significantly between older and younger age groups (P < .001 for interaction by age): incidence per 100 000 declined significantly from 19.8 (95% CI, 19.0-20.6) to 12.8 (95% CI, 12.5-13.1) for ages 60 to 84 years and from 2.6 (95% CI, 2.4-2.8) to 2.0 (95% CI, 1.9-2.1) for ages 40 to 59 years but increased significantly from 0.27 (95% CI, 0.19-0.35) to 0.45 (95% CI, 0.39-0.50) for ages 25 to 39 years. Conversely, rates for all age groups declined or were stable among blacks and other races. Age-period-cohort analysis confirmed a significant increase in whites among younger cohorts born since 1952 (P < .001).
From 1977 through 2006, the incidence rate for noncardia gastric cancer declined among all race and age groups except for whites aged 25 to 39 years, for whom it increased. Additional surveillance and analytical studies are warranted to identify risk factors that may explain this unfavorable trend.
Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV) infects B-cells and is found in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) B-cell tumors and could therefore contribute to the occurrence of NHL. We performed a nested case–control study including 155 incident NHL cases and matched noncancer controls. Pre-NHL serum was tested for KSHV DNA and antibodies. Serum KSHV DNA was more common in cases than controls (14% versus 6%, P = 0.03), but after adjustment, the difference was not significant. Epstein-Barr virus serum DNA was similarly unassociated with NHL as were KSHV antibodies. KSHV is not a primary cause of NHL in HIV-infected men who have sex with men.
Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirusp; non-Hodgkin lymphoma; MACS; human herpesvirus 8; DNA; AIDS cancer
HIV-infected persons have an elevated risk of developing non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL); this risk remains increased in the era of effective HIV therapy. We evaluated serum immunoglobulin (Ig) proteins as predictors of NHL risk among HIV-infected individuals.
Patients and Methods
By using three cohorts of HIV-infected persons (from 1982 to 2005), we identified 66 individuals who developed NHL and 225 matched (by cohort, sex, ethnicity, age, and CD4 count), HIV-infected, lymphoma-free controls who had available stored prediagnostic blood samples. Serum/plasma samples obtained 0 to 2 years and 2 to 5 years before diagnosis/selection were assayed for IgG, IgM, and IgA levels; monoclonal (M) Igs; and κ and λ free light chain (FLC) levels. Patients and matched controls were compared by using conditional logistic regression.
The κ and λ FLCs were both significantly higher in patients (eg, in 2- to 5-year window: median κ, 4.24 v 3.43 mg/dL; median λ, 4.04 v 3.09 mg/dL) and strongly predicted NHL in a dose-response manner up to 2 to 5 years before diagnosis/selection (eg, NHL risk 3.76-fold higher with κ concentration at least 2.00 times the upper limit of normal, and 8.13-fold higher with λ concentration at least 2.00 times the upper limit of normal compared with normal levels). In contrast, IgG, IgM, and IgA levels were similar in patients and controls. M proteins were detected in only two patients with NHL (3%) and in nine controls (4%), and they were not significantly associated with NHL risk.
Elevated FLCs may represent sensitive markers of polyclonal B-cell activation and dysfunction and could be useful for identifying HIV-infected persons at increased NHL risk.
Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in adjacent genes, lymphotoxin alpha (LTA +252G, rs909253 A>G) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF −308A, rs1800629 G>A), form the G-A haplotype repeatedly associated with increased risk of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) in individuals uninfected with HIV-1. This association has been observed alone or in combination with HLA-B* 08 or HLA-DRB1*03 in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Which gene variant on this highly conserved extended haplotype (CEH 8.1) in Caucasians most likely represents a true etiologic factor remains uncertain. We aimed to determine whether the reported association of the G-A haplotype of LTA-TNF with non-AIDS NHL also occurs with AIDS-related NHL. SNPs in LTA and TNF and in six other genes nearby were typed in 140 non-Hispanic European American pairs of AIDS-NHL cases and matched controls selected from HIV-infected men in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. The G-A haplotype and a 4-SNP haplotype in the neighboring gene cluster (rs537160 (A) rs1270942 (G), rs2072633 (A) and rs6467 (C)) were associated with AIDS-NHL (OR=2.7, 95% CI: 1.5–4.8, p=0.0009 and OR=3.2, 95% CI: 1.6–6.6 p=0.0008; respectively). These two haplotypes occur in strong linkage disequilibrium with each other on CEH 8.1. The CEH 8.1-specific haplotype association of MHC class III variants with AIDS-NHL closely resembles that observed for non-AIDS NHL. Corroboration of an MHC determinant of AIDS and non-AIDS NHL alike would imply an important pathogenetic mechanism common to both.
Human Leukocyte Antigen; HIV; CD4; Multicenter AIDS Cohort NHL Study
Host genetic factors play an important role in modifying the risk of human disease, including cancers of the upper gastrointestinal tract, with increasing interest in Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling and the impact of genetic polymorphisms in these systems. The CD14-159C/T and the TLR9-1237T/C promoter polymorphisms have previously been shown to be associated with various inflammatory conditions including Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis in Caucasian populations. In this study, we assessed the association of these two functional single nucleotide polymorphisms with gastric cancer in two independent Caucasian population-based case–control studies of upper gastrointestinal tract cancer, initially in 312 noncardia gastric carcinoma cases and 419 controls and then in 184 noncardia gastric carcinomas, 123 cardia carcinomas, 159 esophageal cancers, and 211 frequency-matched controls. Odds ratios were computed from logistic models and adjusted for potential confounding factors. No significant association was found between the CD14-159C/T and the TLR9-1237T/C promoter polymorphisms and increased risk of gastric cancer. Neither single nucleotide polymorphism has been assessed in a Caucasian gastric cancer case–control study before; although the CD14-159C/T polymorphism has been reported to show no apparent association with H. pylori-related gastric malignancy in a Taiwanese Chinese population. In conclusion, although our earlier preliminary studies suggested that the CD14-159C/T and the TLR9-1237T/C promoter polymorphisms increase the risk of precancerous outcomes, they do not seem to increase the risk of gastric cancer itself. This discrepancy merits further examination.
gastric cancer; Helicobacter pylori-induced disease; innate immunity; polymorphisms; Toll-like receptor signaling pathways
We assessed foreskin inflammation associated with HIV and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) in circumcised men.
Foreskin tissues were assessed in 97 HIV-infected and 135 HIV-uninfected men enrolled in randomized trials of circumcision in Rakai, Uganda. Inflammation was quantified using an ordinal score evaluating extent, intensity, and cellular composition of infiltrates in the epithelium and stroma. Prevalence rate ratios of inflammation were estimated by multivariate Poisson regression.
Foreskin inflammation was primarily focal. Epithelial inflammation was present in 4.2% of men with neither HIV nor HSV-2 infection; 7.8% of men with only HSV-2; 19.0% with HIV alone (P=0.04); and 31.6% in HIV/HSV-2 coinfected men [prevalence rate ratio (PRR) 7.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.3-23.8, P<0.001]. Stromal inflammation was present in 14.1% of HIV/HSV-2 uninfected men, compared with 29.7% in men with HSV-2 alone (P=0.03), 33.3% in men with HIV alone (P=0.04), and 61.0% in men with HIV/HSV-2 coinfection (PRR 4.3, 95% CI 2.3-7.9, P<0.001). In HIV-infected men, epithelial inflammation was associated with higher HIV viral load. Epithelial inflammation was more frequent among men reporting recent genital ulceration. Both epithelial and stromal inflammation were more common among men with smegma on physical examination.
Foreskin inflammation is increased with HIV and HSV-2 infections, higher HIV viral load and presence of smegma. Foreskin inflammation may have implications for HIV transmission and acquisition in uncircumcised men.
circumcision; foreskin; HIV; herpes simplex virus type 2; inflammation; Uganda
Host immune responses are known determinants of gastric cancer susceptibility. We previously reported an increased gastric cancer risk associated with common variants of several T helper type 1 (Th1) cytokine genes in a population-based case–control study in Warsaw, Poland. In the present study, we augmented our investigation to include additional Th1 genes as well as key genes in the Th2 and Th3 pathways. Analysis of 378 cases and 435 age- and sex-matched controls revealed associations for polymorphisms in the Th1 IL7R gene and one polymorphism in the Th2 IL5 gene. The odd ratios (ORs) for IL7R rs1494555 were 1.4 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.0–1.9] for A/G and 1.5 (95% CI, 1.0–2.4) for G/G carriers relative to A/A carriers (P = 0.04). The ORs for IL5 rs2069812 were 0.9 (95% CI, 0.7–1.3) for C/T and 0.6 (95% CI, 0.3–1.0) T/T carriers compared with C/C carriers (P = 0.03). These results suggest that IL5 rs2069812 and IL7R rs1389832, rs1494556 and rs1494555 polymorphisms may contribute to gastric cancer etiology.
gastric cancer; T helper cell pathways; polymorphism
Sexually transmissible infections (STIs) have been variably associated with increased risks of prostate cancer, largely in case-control studies.
In the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial, we examined risk of prostate cancer in relation to serum antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis, human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18, herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2, cytomegalovirus (CMV), and human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) in 868 cases (765 whites and 103 blacks) and 1,283 controls matched by race, age, time since initial screening, and year of blood draw; all blood samples were collected at least one year prior to prostate cancer diagnosis, except for 43 black cases. We also assessed risk associated with self-reported history of syphilis and gonorrhea.
Prevalences of the 7 STIs among controls were weakly correlated, and all were more frequent among blacks than whites, except for HHV-8. Among whites, prostate cancer risk was not significantly associated with the individual infections nor with their number (Ptrend = 0.1); however, men with one or more STI had slightly higher risk (odds ratio [OR] = 1.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0-1.6). Among blacks, excess risk was associated with IgA antibody to C. trachomatis (OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.2-3.6).
This large prospective study of prostate cancer shows no consistent association with specific STIs and a borderline association with any vs. none. Whether a shared response or correlated infection not directly measured underlies the weak association requires further study.