The protooncogene C-Myc (Myc) regulates cardiac hypertrophy. Myc promotes compensated cardiac function, suggesting that the operative mechanisms differ from those leading to heart failure. Myc regulation of substrate metabolism is a reasonable target, as Myc alters metabolism in other tissues. We hypothesize that Myc-induced shifts in substrate utilization signal and promote compensated hypertrophy. We used cardiac specific Myc-inducible C57/BL6 male mice between 4–6 months old that develop hypertrophy with tamoxifen (tam) injections. Isolated working hearts and 13Carbon (13C)-NMR were used to measure function and fractional contributions (Fc) to the citric acid cycle by using perfusate containing 13C-labeled free fatty acids, acetoacetate, lactate, unlabeled glucose and insulin. Studies were performed at pre-hypertrophy (3-days tam, 3dMyc), established hypertrophy (7-days tam, 7dMyc) or vehicle control (Cont). Non-transgenic siblings (NTG) received 7-days tam or vehicle to assess drug effect. Hypertrophy was assessed by echocardiograms and heart weights. Western blots were performed on key metabolic enzymes. Hypertrophy occurred in 7dMyc only. Cardiac function did not differ between groups. Tam alone did not affect substrate contributions in NTG. Substrate utilization was not significantly altered in 3dMyc versus Cont. The free fatty acid FC was significantly greater in 7dMyc versus Cont with decreased unlabeled Fc, which is predominately exogenous glucose. Free fatty acid flux to the citric acid cycle increased while lactate flux was diminished in 7dMyc compared to Cont. Total protein levels of a panel of key metabolic enzymes were unchanged; however total protein O-GlcNAcylation was increased in 7dMyc. Substrate utilization changes for the citric acid cycle did not precede hypertrophy; therefore they are not the primary signal for cardiac growth in this model. Free fatty acid utilization and oxidation increase at established hypertrophy. Understanding the mechanisms whereby this change maintained compensated function could provide useful information for developing metabolic therapies to treat heart failure. The molecular signaling for this metabolic change may occur through O-GlcNAcylation.
Cardiac hypertrophy; compensated hypertrophy; substrate metabolism; fatty acid oxidation
Genetic variants in the inhibiting FcγRIIB mediate anti-inflammatory responses and influence IVIG refractoriness (IVIG-R). However, these variants are rare in Asian and Hispanic populations so other genes in the pathway could be potentially involved. IVIG is ineffective in mice lacking SIGN-R1, a related molecule to human DC-SIGN. Further, DC-SIGN is a known receptor for sialylated Fc, the component responsible for the anti-inflammatory action of IVIG. Thus, we hypothesized that DC-SIGN would also be involved in the pathway of IVIG response in Kawasaki Disease (KD) patients.
A case-control approach was performed to examine the differential distribution of five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DC-SIGN promoter with IVIG-R among White (158 vs. 62), Asian (64 vs. 12) and Hispanic (55 vs. 20) KD patients. Distinct differences in allele frequency distributions of several variants in the DC-SIGN promoter were observed in the three ethnic groups. Further, Asians with the major allele “A” in rs2287886 were more likely (OR = 1.76, p = 0.04) to be IVIG non-responder, but this allele is a minor allele in other two ethnic groups, where the association was not apparent.
DC-SIGN can potentially complement the role of FcγRIIB in the anti-inflammatory cascade involved in the IVIG response mechanism.
Kawasaki disease; IVIG treatment response; FcγR; Coronary artery disease; DC-SIGN
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) unloads the heart, providing a bridge to recovery in children after myocardial stunning. ECMO also induces stress which can adversely affect the ability to reload or wean the heart from the circuit. Metabolic impairments induced by altered loading and/or stress conditions may impact weaning. However, cardiac substrate and amino acid requirements upon weaning are unknown. We assessed the hypothesis that ventricular reloading with ECMO modulates both substrate entry into the citric acid cycle (CAC) and myocardial protein synthesis.
Methods and Results
Sixteen immature piglets (7.8 to 15.6 kg) were separated into 2 groups based on ventricular loading status: 8‐hour ECMO (UNLOAD) and postwean from ECMO (RELOAD). We infused into the coronary artery [2‐13C]‐pyruvate as an oxidative substrate and [13C6]‐L‐leucine as an indicator for amino acid oxidation and protein synthesis. Upon RELOAD, each functional parameter, which were decreased substantially by ECMO, recovered to near‐baseline level with the exclusion of minimum dP/dt. Accordingly, myocardial oxygen consumption was also increased, indicating that overall mitochondrial metabolism was reestablished. At the metabolic level, when compared to UNLOAD, RELOAD altered the contribution of various substrates/pathways to tissue pyruvate formation, favoring exogenous pyruvate versus glycolysis, and acetyl‐CoA formation, shifting away from pyruvate decarboxylation to endogenous substrate, presumably fatty acids. Furthermore, there was also a significant increase of tissue concentrations for all CAC intermediates (≈80%), suggesting enhanced anaplerosis, and of fractional protein synthesis rates (>70%).
RELOAD alters both cytosolic and mitochondrial energy substrate metabolism, while favoring leucine incorporation into protein synthesis rather than oxidation in the CAC. Improved understanding of factors governing these metabolic perturbations may serve as a basis for interventions and thereby improve success rate from weaning from ECMO.
amino acids; congenital heart disease; extracorporeal circulation; metabolism; pediatrics
A peroxisome proliferator-actived receptor (PPAR) response element (RE) in the promoter region of the adaptor-related protein complex 2, alpha 2 subunit (AP2α2) of mouse heart has been identified. The steroid hormone nuclear PPARs and the retinoid X receptors (RXRs) are important transcriptional factors that regulate gene expression, cell differentiation and lipid metabolism. They form homo- (RXR) and hetero- (PPAR-RXR) dimers that bind DNA at various REs. The AP2α2 gene is part of complex and process that transports lipids and proteins from the plasma membrane to the endosomal system. A PPAR activator (Wy14643) and DMSO (vehicle) was introduced into control and δ337T thyroid hormone receptor (TRβ1) transgenic mice. Heart tissue was extracted and AP2α2 gene expression was compared using Affymetrix expression arrays and qRT PCR among four groups [control, control with Wy14643, δ337T TRβ1 and δ337T TRβ1 with Wy14643]. The gene expression of AP2α2 in the Wy14643 control and transgenic mouse groups was significantly up regulated over the vehicle mouse groups in both the array (p<0.01) and qRT PCR (p<0.01) studies. Duplex oligo DNAs containing the PPAR/RXR motif (AGGTCA/TCCAGT) from the AP2α2 promoter were used in EMSA to verify binding of the PPAR and RXR receptors to their REs. pGL4.0 [Luc] constructs of the AP2α2 promoter with and without the PPAR/RXR motifs were co-transfected with mouse PPARα, β or γ1 into HepG2 cells and used in lucerifase assays to verify gene activation. In conclusion our study revealed that PPARα regulates the mouse cardiac AP2α2 gene in both the control and transgenic mouse.
AP2α2; PPARs; PPREs; Cardiac function; Gene regulation
Subclinical hypothyroidism occurs during aging in humans and mice and may contribute to the development of heart failure. Aging also impairs myocardial fatty acid oxidation, causing increased reliance on flux through pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) to maintain function. We hypothesize that the metabolic changes in aged hearts make them less tolerant to acutely increased work and that thyroid hormone supplementation reverses these defects.
Studies were performed on young (Young, 4–6 months) and aged (Old, 22–24 months) C57/BL6 mice at standard (50 mmHg) and high afterload (80 mmHg). Another aged group received thyroid hormone for 3 weeks (Old-TH, high afterload only). Function was measured in isolated working hearts along with substrate fractional contributions (Fc) to the citric acid cycle (CAC) using perfusate with 13C labeled lactate, pyruvate, glucose and unlabeled palmitate and insulin.
Old mice maintained cardiac function under standard workload conditions, despite a marked decrease in unlabeled (presumably palmitate) Fc and relatively similar individual carbohydrate contributions. However, old mice exhibited reduced palmitate oxidation with diastolic dysfunction exemplified by lower -dP/dT. Thyroid hormone abrogated the functional and substrate flux abnormalities in aged mice.
The aged heart shows diminished ability to increase cardiac work due to substrate limitations, primarily impaired fatty acid oxidation. The heart accommodates slightly by increasing efficiency through oxidation of carbohydrate substrates. Thyroid hormone supplementation in aged mice significantly improves cardiac function potentially through restoration of fatty acid oxidation.
A functional polymorphism in the inhibitory IgG-Fc receptor FcγRIIB influences intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) response in Kawasaki Disease (KD) a vasculitis preferentially affecting the coronary arteries in children. We tested the hypothesis that the polymorphisms in the activating receptors (Fcγ RIIA, Fcγ RIIIA and Fcγ RIIIB) also influence susceptibility, IVIG treatment response, and coronary artery disease (CAD) in KD patients.
Methods and Results
We genotyped polymorphisms in the activating FcγRIIA, FcγRIIIA and FcγRIIIB genes using pyrosequencing in 443 KD patients, including 266 trios and 150 single parent-child pairs, in northwest US and genetically determined race with 155 ancestry information markers. We used the FBAT program to test for transmission disequilibrium and further generated pseudo-sibling controls for comparisons to the cases. The FcγRIIA-131H variant showed an association with KD (p = 0.001) with ORadditive = 1.51 [1.16–1.96], p = 0.002) for the primary combined population, which persisted in both Caucasian (p = .04) and Asian (p = .01) subgroups and is consistent with the recent genome-wide association study. We also identified over-transmission of FcγRIIIB-NA1 among IVIG non-responders (p = 0.0002), and specifically to Caucasian IVIG non-responders (p = 0.007). Odds ratios for overall and Caucasian non-responders were respectively 3.67 [1.75–7.66], p = 0.0006 and 3.60 [1.34–9.70], p = 0.01. Excess NA1 transmission also occurred to KD with CAD (ORadditive = 2.13 [1.11–4.0], p = 0.02).
A common variation in FcγRIIA is associated with increased KD susceptibility. The FcγRIIIB-NA1, which confers higher affinity for IgG compared to NA2, is a determining factor for treatment response. These activating FcγRs play an important role in KD pathogenesis and mechanism of IVIG anti-inflammatory.
coronary disease; pediatrics; Kawasaki disease; IVIG treatment response; FcγR
Atrioventricular septal defects (AVSDs) are a frequent but not universal component of Down syndrome (DS), while AVSDs in otherwise normal individuals have no well-defined genetic basis. The contribution of copy number variation (CNV) to specific congenital heart disease (CHD) phenotypes including AVSD is unknown. We hypothesized that de novo CNVs on chromosome 21 might cause isolated sporadic AVSDs, and separately that CNVs throughout the genome might constitute an additional genetic risk factor for AVSD in patients with DS. We utilized a custom oligonucleotide arrays targeted to CNV hotspots that are flanked by large duplicated segments of high sequence identity. We assayed 29 euploid and 50 DS individuals with AVSD, and compared to general population controls. In patients with isolated-sporadic AVSD we identified two large unique deletions outside of chromosome 21 not seen in the expanded set of 8,635 controls, each overlapping with larger deletions associated with similar CHD reported in the DECIPHER database. There was a small duplication in one patient with DS and AVSD. We conclude that isolated sporadic AVSDs may be occasionally associated with large de novo genomic structural variation outside of chromosome 21. The absence of CNVs on chromosome 21 in patients with isolated sporadic AVSD suggests that sub-chromosomal duplications or deletions of greater than 150 kbp on chromosome 21 do not cause sporadic AVSDs. Large CNVs do not appear to be an additive risk factor for AVSD in the DS population.
Down syndrome; atrioventricular septal defects; copy number variation; array CGH; congenital heart disease
In Kawasaki Disease patients, the authors show associations between high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) response and a polymorphism in the FCγRIIB. This provides basis for defining the IVIG regulatory mechanisms and pharmacogenomic approach to IVIG therapy.
Kawasaki disease; IVIG treatment response; FcγR
To determine the safety and pharmacokinetics of etanercept (etanercept, Amgen inc. Thousands Oak, CA) a tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) receptor blocker, in children with acute Kawasaki disease (KD). Standard therapy of acute KD includes IVIG and high dose aspirin, but a substantial number of patients are refractory and require additional treatment. TNF-α is elevated in children with KD suggesting a role for etanercept in treatment.
We performed a prospective open label trial of etanercept in patients with KD (6 months to 5 years, n = 17) meeting clinical criteria and with fever ≤ 10 days. All received IVIG and ASA. They received etanercept immediately after IVIG infusion and then weekly times two. For initial safety evaluation, the first five patients received 0.4 mg/kg/dose. Subsequent subjects received 0.8 mg/kg/dose.
Fifteen patients completed the study. Pharmacokinetics were similar to older children in published series. No serious adverse events related to etanercept occurred. No patient demonstrated prolonged or recrudescent fever requiring retreatment with IVIG. No patient showed an increase in coronary artery diameter, new coronary artery dilation /cardiac dysfunction.
Etanercept appears to be safe and well tolerated in children with KD. The data support performance of a placebo-controlled trial.
Kawasaki’s disease; IVIG; TNF-α antagonist; Etanercept; Coronary artery aneurysm
The goals of this study were to determine the role of OCT3 in the pharmacologic action of metformin and to identify and functionally characterize genetic variants of OCT3 with respect to the uptake of metformin and monoamines.
For the pharmacologic studies, we evaluated metformin-induced activation of AMPK, a molecular target of metformin. We used quantitative PCR and immunostaining to localize the transporter and isotopic uptake studies in cells transfected with OCT3 and its nonsynonymous genetic variants for functional analyses.
Quantitative PCR and immunostaining showed that OCT3 was expressed high on the plasma membrane of skeletal muscle and liver, target tissues for metformin action. Both the OCT inhibitor, cimetidine, and OCT3-specific shRNA significantly reduced the activating effect of metformin on AMPK. To identify genetic variants in OCT3, we used recent data from the 1000 Genomes Project and the Pharmacogenomics of Membrane Transporters project. Six novel missense variants were identified. In functional assays, using various monoamines and metformin, 3 variants, T44M (c.131C>T), T400I (c.1199C>T) and V423F (c.1267G>T), showed altered substrate specificity. Notably, in cells expressing T400I and V423F, the uptakes of metformin and catecholamines were significantly reduced but the uptakes of metformin, MPP+ and histamine by T44M were significantly increased more than 50%. Structural modeling suggested that these two variants may be located in the pore-lining (T400) or proximal (V423) membrane-spanning helixes.
Our study suggests that OCT3 plays a role in the therapeutic action of metformin and that genetic variants of OCT3 may modulate metformin and catecholamine action.
Organic cation transporters; monoamines; metformin; pharmacogenomics; muscle cells
Triiodothyronine levels decrease in infants and children after cardiopulmonary bypass. We tested the primary hypothesis that triiodothyronine (T3) repletion is safe in this population and produces improvements in postoperative clinical outcome.
Methods and Results
The TRICC study was a prospective, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in children younger than 2 years old undergoing heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Enrollment was stratified by surgical diagnosis. Time to extubation (TTE) was the primary outcome. Patients received intravenous T3 as Triostat (n=98) or placebo (n=95), and data were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards. Overall, TTE was similar between groups. There were no differences in adverse event rates, including arrhythmia. Prespecified analyses showed a significant interaction between age and treatment (P=0.0012). For patients younger than 5 months, the hazard ratio (chance of extubation) for Triostat was 1.72. (P=0.0216). Placebo median TTE was 98 hours with 95% confidence interval (CI) of 71 to 142 compared to Triostat TTE at 55 hours with CI of 44 to 92. TTE shortening corresponded to a reduction in inotropic agent use and improvement in cardiac function. For children 5 months of age, or older, Triostat produced a significant delay in median TTE: 16 hours (CI, 7–22) for placebo and 20 hours (CI, 16–45) for Triostat and (hazard ratio, 0.60; P=0.0220).
T3 supplementation is safe. Analyses using age stratification indicate that T3 supplementation provides clinical advantages in patients younger than 5 months and no benefit for those older than 5 months.
Clinical Trial Registration
URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00027417.
cardiopulmonary bypass; congenital heart surgery; thyroid hormone
In the adult heart, regulation of fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial genes is controlled by the PPARγ coactivator–1 (PGC-1) family of transcriptional coactivators. However, in response to pathological stressors such as hemodynamic load or ischemia, cardiac myocytes downregulate PGC-1 activity and fatty acid oxidation genes in preference for glucose metabolism pathways. Interestingly, despite the reduced PGC-1 activity, these pathological stressors are associated with mitochondrial biogenesis, at least initially. The transcription factors that regulate these changes in the setting of reduced PGC-1 are unknown, but Myc can regulate glucose metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis during cell proliferation and tumorigenesis in cancer cells. Here we have demonstrated that Myc activation in the myocardium of adult mice increases glucose uptake and utilization, downregulates fatty acid oxidation by reducing PGC-1α levels, and induces mitochondrial biogenesis. Inactivation of Myc in the adult myocardium attenuated hypertrophic growth and decreased the expression of glycolytic and mitochondrial biogenesis genes in response to hemodynamic load. Surprisingly, the Myc-orchestrated metabolic alterations were associated with preserved cardiac function and improved recovery from ischemia. Our data suggest that Myc directly regulates glucose metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis in cardiac myocytes and is an important regulator of energy metabolism in the heart in response to pathologic stress.
The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) consensus statement includes recommendations and guidelines for therapeutic hypothermia in infants and children. The information supporting these recommendations is sparse, and reveals a need for target temperature and cooling mode data in age-appropriate animal models. Accordingly, we determined cardiac function and hemodynamic indices in immature piglets (< 28 days) undergoing graded and rapid central cooling from 36°C to 20 °C over 20 minutes by directing cardiac output through an extracorporeal circuit. Functional parameters were recorded continuously using aortic flow probes and left ventricular (LV) pressure capacitance catheters. Stroke volume and work increased during temperature reduction, peaking at 29°C, while systemic vascular resistance did not change. Although, heart rate decreased steadily, cardiac output, power, and LV dp/dtmax was maintained until 29°C. All function parameters decreased below 29°C, implying a critical threshold had been exceeded at lower temperatures. These data show that the temperature range 30 ± 1 °C maintains cardiac function and that this target should be further evaluated as a target for therapeutic hypothermia.
Gene expression data obtained in mouse heart indicate that increased expression for the nuclear receptor, peroxisomal proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα), prompts the postnatal transition from predominantly carbohydrate to fatty acid oxidation preference. However, no phenotypic or proteomic data are available to confirm downstream signaling and metabolic transition in mice. We studied the hypothesis that shifts in nuclear receptor expression trigger the newborn metabolic switch in a newborn sheep. This species is well characterized with regards to developmental changes in substrate oxidative metabolism. Heart tissues from fetal (130 days
gestation), newborn ≤24 hours, and 30-day old lambs were evaluated for protein expression from multiple enzymes controlling oxidative metabolism as well as principal nuclear receptors and coactivators. Although muscle and liver type carnitine palmitoyl transferases I showed no significant changes to correspond to the metabolic transition, hexokinase II protein content
showed a profound transient drop, and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase steadily increased. PPARα showed no increases preceding or during the transition, while peroxisomal proliferator activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 (PGC-1) increased approximately 20-fold transiently in newborn heart in conjunction with significant increases in thyroid hormone receptor α1 and retinoid-activated receptor α. These data challenge the paradigm that increases in PPARα prompt the postnatal metabolic switch, and suggest that other nuclear receptors play a major role. As thyroid hormone (TH) modulates PGC-1 expression in sheep during development, these data further suggest that well-characterized perinatal TH surge in sheep contributes to this metabolic switch.
Atrioventricular septal defects (AVSDs) are a frequent but not universal component of Down syndrome (DS), while AVSDs in otherwise normal individuals have no well-defined genetic basis. The contribution of copy number variation (CNV) to specific congenital heart disease (CHD) phenotypes including AVSD is unknown. We hypothesized that de novo CNVs on chromosome 21 might cause isolated sporadic AVSDs, and separately that CNVs throughout the genome might constitute an additional genetic risk factor for AVSD in patients with DS. We utilized a custom oligonucleotide arrays targeted to CNV hotspots that are flanked by large duplicated segments of high sequence identity. We assayed 29 euploid and 50 DS individuals with AVSD, and compared to general population controls. In patients with isolated-sporadic AVSD we identified two large unique deletions outside of chromosome 21 not seen in the expanded set of 8,635 controls, each overlapping with larger deletions associated with similar CHD reported in the DECIPHER database. There was a small duplication in one patient with DS and AVSD. We conclude that isolated sporadic AVSDs may be occasionally associated with large de novo genomic structural variation outside of chromosome 21. The absence of CNVs on chromosome 21 in patients with isolated sporadic AVSD suggests that sub-chromosomal duplications or deletions of greater than 150 kbp on chromosome 21 do not cause sporadic AVSDs. Large CNVs do not appear to be an additive risk factor for AVSD in the DS population. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Down syndrome; atrioventricular septal defects; copy number variation; array CGH; congenital heart disease