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1.  Systematic screen with kinases inhibitors reveals kinases play distinct roles in growth of osteoprogenitor cells 
Cancer treatment-related bone loss has become growing problematic, especially in breast and prostate cancer treated with hormone/endocrine therapy, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. However, bone loss caused by targeted therapy in cancer patients is largely unknown yet. In present study, a kinase inhibitors screen was applied for MC3T3-E1, a murine osteoprogenitor cell line, and seven kinase inhibitors (GSK1838705A, PF-04691502, Dasatinib, Masitinib, GDC-0941, XL880 and Everolimus) were found to suppress the cell viability with dose- and time-dependent manner. The most interesting is that many kinase inhibitors (such as lapatinib, erlotinib and sunitinib) can promote MC3T3-E1 cell proliferation at 0.01 μM. 4 out of 7 inhibitors were selected to perform the functional study and found that they lead to cell cycle dysregulation, treatments of PF-04691502 (AKT inhibitor), Dasatinib (Src inhibitor) and Everolimus (mTOR inhibitor) lead to G1 arrest of MC3T3-E1 cells via downregulation of cyclin D1 and p-AKT, whereas XL880 (MET and VEGFR inhibitor) treatment results in increase of sub-G1 and G2/M phase by upregulation of p53 protein. Our work provides important indications for the comprehensive care of cancer patients treated with some targeted drugs.
PMCID: PMC3796230  PMID: 24133586
Cancer treatment-related bone loss; kinases inhibitors screening; osteoprogenitor cells
2.  Genome Array of Hair Follicle Genes in Lambskin with Different Patterns 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(7):e68840.
Hu sheep lambskin comes from a specific breed of sheep of China. Hu sheep are considered a protected breed by the Chinese government. The hair follicles of these sheep have three types of waves, large, medium, and small. There are only few histological reports of Hu sheep lambskin, and there are no modern molecular or biological studies, so the molecular mechanisms underlying the formation of hair follicles with different patterns are not currently known. The aim of this article was to study the molecular mechanism of the formation of these types of hair follicles in Hu sheep. Histological and microscopic analysis indicated that the number of follicles with small waves was not significantly higher than the number of follicles with large waves (P>0.05). The diameters of primary and secondary small-wave follicles were significantly smaller than those of large-wave follicles (P<0.05; P<0.01). The ratio between the number primary follicles and the number of secondary follicles was significantly higher among small-wave follicles than among large-wave follicles (P<0.05). Differentially expressed genes in the skin tissue were screened using an Agilent gene chip and RT-PCR. Differential expression analysis revealed 3 groups of large waves and small waves; 1067, 2071, and 3879 differentially expressed genes; and 137 genes common to all 3 groups. Differentially expressed genes were classified using gene ontology. They were found to be mainly involved in cell differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, growth, immune response, and ion transport. RT-PCR results of 4 differentially expressed genes were consistent with gene chip results. Combined with related literature, our results suggest that BMP7, MMP2, SNAI1, SFXN1, CDKNIC, MT3, and POU1F1 may have important effects on the formation of large-wave and small-wave hair follicles. This study may enrich knowledge of hair follicle development, and may identify the genes responsible for the formation of hair follicles with different patterns.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0068840
PMCID: PMC3728312  PMID: 23935896
3.  Detection of differentially expressed genes and association with clinicopathological features in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma 
Oncology Letters  2012;4(6):1354-1360.
Head and neck cancer is a significant health problem worldwide. Early detection and prediction of prognosis will improve patient survival and quality of life. The aim of this study was to identify genes differentially expressed between laryngeal cancer and the corresponding normal tissues as potential biomarkers. A total of 36 patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma were recruited. Four of these cases were randomly selected for cDNA microarray analysis of the entire genome. Using semi-quantitative RT-PCR and western blot analysis, the differential expression of genes and their protein products, respectively, between laryngeal cancer tissues and corresponding adjacent normal tissues was verified in the remaining 32 cases. The expression levels of these genes and proteins were investigated for associations with clinicopathological parameters taken from patient data. The cDNA microarray analysis identified 349 differentially expressed genes between tumor and normal tissues, 112 of which were upregulated and 237 were downregulated in tumors. Seven genes and their protein products were then selected for validation using RT-PCR and western blot analysis, respectively. The data demonstrated that the expression of SENP1, CD109, CKS2, LAMA3, ITGAV and ITGB8 was increased, while LAMA2 was downregulated in laryngeal cancer compared with the corresponding normal tissues. Associations between the expression of these genes and clinicopathological data from the patients were also established, including age, tumor classification, stage, differentiation and lymph node metastasis. Our current study provides the first evidence that these seven genes may be differentially expressed in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and also associated with clinicopathological data. Future study is required to further confirm whether detection of their expression can be used as biomarkers for prediction of patient survival or potential treatment targets.
doi:10.3892/ol.2012.920
PMCID: PMC3506781  PMID: 23226807
cDNA microarray; gene expression; laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma
4.  Peptide Membranes in Chemical Evolution* 
Current opinion in chemical biology  2009;13(5-6):652-659.
SUMMARY
Simple surfactants achieve remarkable long-range order in aqueous environments. This organizing potential is seen most dramatically in biological membranes where phospholipid assemblies both define cell boundaries and provide a ubiquitous structural scaffold for controlling cellular chemistry. Here we consider simple peptides that also spontaneously assemble into exceptionally ordered scaffolds, and review early data suggesting that these structures maintain the functional diversity of proteins. We argue that such scaffolds can achieve the required molecular order and catalytic agility for the emergence of chemical evolution.
doi:10.1016/j.cbpa.2009.09.027
PMCID: PMC2801140  PMID: 19879180
5.  Clear and independent associations of several HLA-DRB1 alleles with differential antibody responses to hepatitis B vaccination in youth 
Human Genetics  2009;126(5):685-696.
To confirm and refine associations of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotypes with variable antibody (Ab) responses to hepatitis B vaccination, we have analyzed 255 HIV-1 seropositive (HIV+) youth and 80 HIV-1 seronegatives (HIV−) enrolled into prospective studies. In univariate analyses that focused on HLA-DRB1, -DQA1, and -DQB1 alleles and haplotypes, the DRB1*03 allele group and DRB1*0701 were negatively associated with the responder phenotype (serum Ab concentration ≥ 10 mIU/mL) (P = 0.026 and 0.043, respectively). Collectively, DRB1*03 and DRB1*0701 were found in 42 (53.8%) out of 78 non-responders (serum Ab <10 mIU/mL), 65 (40.6%) out of 160 medium responders (serum Ab 10–1,000 mIU/mL), and 27 (27.8%) out of 97 high responders (serum Ab >1,000 mIU/mL) (P < 0.001 for trend). Meanwhile, DRB1*08 was positively associated with the responder phenotype (P = 0.010), mostly due to DRB1*0804 (P = 0.008). These immunogenetic relationships were all independent of non-genetic factors, including HIV-1 infection status and immunodeficiency. Alternative analyses confined to HIV+ youth or Hispanic youth led to similar findings. In contrast, analyses of more than 80 non-coding, single nucleotide polymorphisms within and beyond the three HLA class II genes revealed no clear associations. Overall, several HLA-DRB1 alleles were major predictors of differential Ab responses to hepatitis B vaccination in youth, suggesting that T-helper cell-dependent pathways mediated through HLA class II antigen presentation are critical to effective immune response to recombinant vaccines.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00439-009-0720-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s00439-009-0720-z
PMCID: PMC2771141  PMID: 19597844
6.  Genetic Epidemiology of Glioblastoma Multiforme: Confirmatory and New Findings from Analyses of Human Leukocyte Antigen Alleles and Motifs 
PLoS ONE  2009;4(9):e7157.
Background
Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I genes mediate cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses and natural killer cell function. In a previous study, several HLA-B and HLA-C alleles and haplotypes were positively or negatively associated with the occurrence and prognosis of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM).
Methodology/Principal Findings
As an extension of the Upper Midwest Health Study, we have performed HLA genotyping for 149 GBM patients and 149 healthy control subjects from a non-metropolitan population consisting almost exclusively of European Americans. Conditional logistic regression models did not reproduce the association of HLA-B*07 or the B*07-Cw*07 haplotype with GBM. Nonetheless, HLA-A*32, which has previously been shown to predispose GBM patients to a favorable prognosis, was negatively associated with occurrence of GBM (odds ratio = 0.41, p = 0.04 by univariate analysis). Other alleles (A*29, A*30, A*31 and A*33) within the A19 serology group to which A*32 belongs showed inconsistent trends. Sequencing-based HLA-A genotyping established that A*3201 was the single A*32 allele underlying the observed association. Additional evaluation of HLA-A promoter and exon 1 sequences did not detect any unexpected single nucleotide polymorphisms that could suggest differential allelic expression. Further analyses restricted to female GBM cases and controls revealed a second association with a specific HLA-B sequence motif corresponding to Bw4-80Ile (odds ratio = 2.71, p = 0.02).
Conclusions/Significance
HLA-A allelic product encoded by A*3201 is likely to be functionally important to GBM. The novel, sex-specific association will require further confirmation in other representative study populations.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0007157
PMCID: PMC2742900  PMID: 19774073

Results 1-6 (6)