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1.  Targeting Inflammation Using Salsalate in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: Effects on Flow-Mediated Dilation (TINSAL-FMD) 
Diabetes Care  2013;36(12):4132-4139.
OBJECTIVE
To test whether inhibiting inflammation with salsalate improves endothelial function in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D).
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
We conducted an ancillary study to the National Institutes of Health–sponsored, multicenter, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial evaluating the safety and efficacy of salsalate in targeting inflammation to improve glycemia in patients with T2D. Flow-mediated, endothelium-dependent dilation (FMD) and endothelium-independent, nitroglycerin-mediated dilation (NMD) of the brachial artery were assessed at baseline and 3 and 6 months following randomization to either salsalate 3.5 g/day or placebo. The primary end point was change in FMD at 6 months.
RESULTS
A total of 88 participants were enrolled in the study, and data after randomization were available for 75. Patients in the treatment and control groups had similar ages (56 years), BMI (33 kg/m2), sex (64% male), ethnicity, current treatment, and baseline HbA1c (7.7% [61 mmol/mol]). In patients treated with salsalate versus placebo, HbA1c was reduced by 0.46% (5.0 mmol/mol; P < 0.001), fasting glucose by 16.1 mg/dL (P < 0.001), and white blood cell count by 430 cells/µL (P < 0.02). There was no difference in the mean change in either FMD (0.70% [95% CI −0.86 to 2.25%]; P = 0.38) or NMD (−0.59% [95% CI −2.70 to 1.51%]; P = 0.57) between the groups treated with salsalate and placebo at 6 months. Total and LDL cholesterol were 11 and 16 mg/dL higher, respectively, and urinary albumin was 2.0 µg/mg creatinine higher in the patients treated with salsalate compared with those treated with placebo (all P < 0.009).
CONCLUSIONS
Salsalate does not change FMD in peripheral conduit arteries in patients with T2D despite lowering HbA1c. This finding suggests that salsalate does not have an effect on vascular inflammation, inflammation does not cause endothelial dysfunction in T2D, or confounding effects of salsalate mitigate favorable effects on endothelial function.
doi:10.2337/dc13-0859
PMCID: PMC3836144  PMID: 24130358
2.  Association of fasting insulin and C peptide with diabetic retinopathy in Latinos with type 2 diabetes 
Objective
Residual insulin secretion provides important protection against the development of diabetic retinopathy in type 1 diabetes. The data to support this in type 2 diabetes are unclear. We therefore tested in type 2 diabetes whether markers of residual beta-cell function are associated with the development of diabetic retinopathy, an important microvascular complication of diabetes.
Design
Prospective, cross-sectional, family-based study.
Participants
585 Latino type 2 diabetic participants, ascertained in families via a proband either with known diabetes duration of greater than 10 years and/or with diabetic retinopathy.
Outcome measures
Circulating levels of fasting insulin and C peptide measured and correlated to degree of diabetic retinopathy, assessed by digital fundus photography and graded using the Modified Airlie House Classification and the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study scale (range: levels 10–85).
Results
Fasting plasma insulin (β=−0.29; 95% CI −0.38 to −0.20; p<0.0001) and C peptide (β=−0.21; 95% CI −0.30 to −0.13; p<0.0001) concentrations in these diabetic participants were significantly correlated with retinopathy and its degree of severity. This relationship remained significant after adjusting for potential covariates including age, gender, glycosylated hemoglobin, duration of diabetes, blood pressure, and renal function.
Conclusions
These data suggest that residual endogenous insulin secretion is associated with the presence of diabetic retinopathy and its severity in Latinos with familial type 2 diabetes. It remains to be proven whether beta-cell targeted therapies, to maintain beta-cell mass and/or function in addition to glycemic control, will further the goal of preventing diabetic microvascular disease.
doi:10.1136/bmjdrc-2014-000027
PMCID: PMC4212555  PMID: 25452868
Retinopathy; Insulin; C-Peptide
3.  Benefits of Liraglutide Treatment in Overweight and Obese Older Individuals With Prediabetes 
Diabetes Care  2013;36(10):3276-3282.
OBJECTIVE
The aim was to evaluate the ability of liraglutide to augment weight loss and improve insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, and inflammation in a high-risk population for type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and CVD.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
We randomized 68 older individuals (mean age, 58 ± 8 years) with overweight/obesity and prediabetes to this double-blind study of liraglutide 1.8 mg versus placebo for 14 weeks. All subjects were advised to decrease calorie intake by 500 kcal/day. Peripheral insulin resistance was quantified by measuring the steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentration during the insulin suppression test. Traditional CVD risk factors and inflammatory markers also were assessed.
RESULTS
Eleven out of 35 individuals (31%) assigned to liraglutide discontinued the study compared with 6 out of 33 (18%) assigned to placebo (P = 0.26). Subjects who continued to use liraglutide (n = 24) lost twice as much weight as those using placebo (n = 27; 6.8 vs. 3.3 kg; P < 0.001). Liraglutide-treated subjects also had a significant improvement in SSPG concentration (−3.2 vs. 0.2 mmol/L; P < 0.001) and significantly (P ≤ 0.04) greater lowering of systolic blood pressure (−8.1 vs. −2.6 mmHg), fasting glucose (−0.5 vs. 0 mmol/L), and triglyceride (−0.4 vs. −0.1 mmol/L) concentration. Inflammatory markers did not differ between the two groups, but pulse increased after liraglutide treatment (6.4 vs. −0.9 bpm; P = 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS
The addition of liraglutide to calorie restriction significantly augmented weight loss and improved insulin resistance, systolic blood pressure, glucose, and triglyceride concentration in this population at high risk for development of T2DM and CVD.
doi:10.2337/dc13-0354
PMCID: PMC3781545  PMID: 23835684
4.  Salicylate (Salsalate) in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes 
Annals of internal medicine  2013;159(1):1-12.
Background
Short-duration studies show that salsalate improves glycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
Objective
To assess 1-year efficacy and safety of salsalate in T2DM.
Design
Placebo-controlled, parallel trial; computerized randomization and centralized allocation, with patients, providers, and researchers blinded to assignment. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00799643)
Setting
3 private practices and 18 academic centers in the United States.
Patients
Persons aged 18 to 75 years with fasting glucose levels of 12.5 mmol/L or less (≤225 mg/dL) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels of 7.0% to 9.5% who were treated for diabetes.
Intervention
286 participants were randomly assigned (between January 2009 and July 2011) to 48 weeks of placebo (n = 140) or salsalate, 3.5 g/d (n = 146), in addition to current therapies, and 283 participants were analyzed (placebo, n = 137; salsalate, n = 146).
Measurements
Change in hemoglobin A1c level (primary outcome) and safety and efficacy measures.
Results
The mean HbA1c level over 48 weeks was 0.37% lower in the salsalate group than in the placebo group (95% CI, −0.53% to −0.21%; P < 0.001). Glycemia improved despite more reductions in concomitant diabetes medications in salsalate recipients than in placebo recipients. Lower circulating leukocyte, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts show the anti-inflammatory effects of salsalate. Adiponectin and hematocrit levels increased more and fasting glucose, uric acid, and triglyceride levels decreased with salsalate, but weight and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels also increased. Urinary albumin levels increased but reversed on discontinuation; estimated glomerular filtration rates were unchanged.
Limitation
Trial duration and number of patients studied were insufficient to determine long-term risk–benefit of salsalate in T2DM.
Conclusion
Salsalate improves glycemia in patients with T2DM and decreases inflammatory mediators. Continued evaluation of mixed cardiorenal signals is warranted.
Primary Funding Source
National Institutes of Health.
doi:10.7326/0003-4819-159-1-201307020-00003
PMCID: PMC4128629  PMID: 23817699
5.  Discovery and Refinement of Loci Associated with Lipid Levels 
Willer, Cristen J. | Schmidt, Ellen M. | Sengupta, Sebanti | Peloso, Gina M. | Gustafsson, Stefan | Kanoni, Stavroula | Ganna, Andrea | Chen, Jin | Buchkovich, Martin L. | Mora, Samia | Beckmann, Jacques S. | Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L. | Chang, Hsing-Yi | Demirkan, Ayşe | Den Hertog, Heleen M. | Do, Ron | Donnelly, Louise A. | Ehret, Georg B. | Esko, Tõnu | Feitosa, Mary F. | Ferreira, Teresa | Fischer, Krista | Fontanillas, Pierre | Fraser, Ross M. | Freitag, Daniel F. | Gurdasani, Deepti | Heikkilä, Kauko | Hyppönen, Elina | Isaacs, Aaron | Jackson, Anne U. | Johansson, Åsa | Johnson, Toby | Kaakinen, Marika | Kettunen, Johannes | Kleber, Marcus E. | Li, Xiaohui | Luan, Jian’an | Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka | Magnusson, Patrik K.E. | Mangino, Massimo | Mihailov, Evelin | Montasser, May E. | Müller-Nurasyid, Martina | Nolte, Ilja M. | O’Connell, Jeffrey R. | Palmer, Cameron D. | Perola, Markus | Petersen, Ann-Kristin | Sanna, Serena | Saxena, Richa | Service, Susan K. | Shah, Sonia | Shungin, Dmitry | Sidore, Carlo | Song, Ci | Strawbridge, Rona J. | Surakka, Ida | Tanaka, Toshiko | Teslovich, Tanya M. | Thorleifsson, Gudmar | Van den Herik, Evita G. | Voight, Benjamin F. | Volcik, Kelly A. | Waite, Lindsay L. | Wong, Andrew | Wu, Ying | Zhang, Weihua | Absher, Devin | Asiki, Gershim | Barroso, Inês | Been, Latonya F. | Bolton, Jennifer L. | Bonnycastle, Lori L | Brambilla, Paolo | Burnett, Mary S. | Cesana, Giancarlo | Dimitriou, Maria | Doney, Alex S.F. | Döring, Angela | Elliott, Paul | Epstein, Stephen E. | Ingi Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur | Gigante, Bruna | Goodarzi, Mark O. | Grallert, Harald | Gravito, Martha L. | Groves, Christopher J. | Hallmans, Göran | Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa | Hayward, Caroline | Hernandez, Dena | Hicks, Andrew A. | Holm, Hilma | Hung, Yi-Jen | Illig, Thomas | Jones, Michelle R. | Kaleebu, Pontiano | Kastelein, John J.P. | Khaw, Kay-Tee | Kim, Eric | Klopp, Norman | Komulainen, Pirjo | Kumari, Meena | Langenberg, Claudia | Lehtimäki, Terho | Lin, Shih-Yi | Lindström, Jaana | Loos, Ruth J.F. | Mach, François | McArdle, Wendy L | Meisinger, Christa | Mitchell, Braxton D. | Müller, Gabrielle | Nagaraja, Ramaiah | Narisu, Narisu | Nieminen, Tuomo V.M. | Nsubuga, Rebecca N. | Olafsson, Isleifur | Ong, Ken K. | Palotie, Aarno | Papamarkou, Theodore | Pomilla, Cristina | Pouta, Anneli | Rader, Daniel J. | Reilly, Muredach P. | Ridker, Paul M. | Rivadeneira, Fernando | Rudan, Igor | Ruokonen, Aimo | Samani, Nilesh | Scharnagl, Hubert | Seeley, Janet | Silander, Kaisa | Stančáková, Alena | Stirrups, Kathleen | Swift, Amy J. | Tiret, Laurence | Uitterlinden, Andre G. | van Pelt, L. Joost | Vedantam, Sailaja | Wainwright, Nicholas | Wijmenga, Cisca | Wild, Sarah H. | Willemsen, Gonneke | Wilsgaard, Tom | Wilson, James F. | Young, Elizabeth H. | Zhao, Jing Hua | Adair, Linda S. | Arveiler, Dominique | Assimes, Themistocles L. | Bandinelli, Stefania | Bennett, Franklyn | Bochud, Murielle | Boehm, Bernhard O. | Boomsma, Dorret I. | Borecki, Ingrid B. | Bornstein, Stefan R. | Bovet, Pascal | Burnier, Michel | Campbell, Harry | Chakravarti, Aravinda | Chambers, John C. | Chen, Yii-Der Ida | Collins, Francis S. | Cooper, Richard S. | Danesh, John | Dedoussis, George | de Faire, Ulf | Feranil, Alan B. | Ferrières, Jean | Ferrucci, Luigi | Freimer, Nelson B. | Gieger, Christian | Groop, Leif C. | Gudnason, Vilmundur | Gyllensten, Ulf | Hamsten, Anders | Harris, Tamara B. | Hingorani, Aroon | Hirschhorn, Joel N. | Hofman, Albert | Hovingh, G. Kees | Hsiung, Chao Agnes | Humphries, Steve E. | Hunt, Steven C. | Hveem, Kristian | Iribarren, Carlos | Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta | Jula, Antti | Kähönen, Mika | Kaprio, Jaakko | Kesäniemi, Antero | Kivimaki, Mika | Kooner, Jaspal S. | Koudstaal, Peter J. | Krauss, Ronald M. | Kuh, Diana | Kuusisto, Johanna | Kyvik, Kirsten O. | Laakso, Markku | Lakka, Timo A. | Lind, Lars | Lindgren, Cecilia M. | Martin, Nicholas G. | März, Winfried | McCarthy, Mark I. | McKenzie, Colin A. | Meneton, Pierre | Metspalu, Andres | Moilanen, Leena | Morris, Andrew D. | Munroe, Patricia B. | Njølstad, Inger | Pedersen, Nancy L. | Power, Chris | Pramstaller, Peter P. | Price, Jackie F. | Psaty, Bruce M. | Quertermous, Thomas | Rauramaa, Rainer | Saleheen, Danish | Salomaa, Veikko | Sanghera, Dharambir K. | Saramies, Jouko | Schwarz, Peter E.H. | Sheu, Wayne H-H | Shuldiner, Alan R. | Siegbahn, Agneta | Spector, Tim D. | Stefansson, Kari | Strachan, David P. | Tayo, Bamidele O. | Tremoli, Elena | Tuomilehto, Jaakko | Uusitupa, Matti | van Duijn, Cornelia M. | Vollenweider, Peter | Wallentin, Lars | Wareham, Nicholas J. | Whitfield, John B. | Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.R. | Ordovas, Jose M. | Boerwinkle, Eric | Palmer, Colin N.A. | Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur | Chasman, Daniel I. | Rotter, Jerome I. | Franks, Paul W. | Ripatti, Samuli | Cupples, L. Adrienne | Sandhu, Manjinder S. | Rich, Stephen S. | Boehnke, Michael | Deloukas, Panos | Kathiresan, Sekar | Mohlke, Karen L. | Ingelsson, Erik | Abecasis, Gonçalo R.
Nature genetics  2013;45(11):10.1038/ng.2797.
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, and total cholesterol are heritable, modifiable, risk factors for coronary artery disease. To identify new loci and refine known loci influencing these lipids, we examined 188,578 individuals using genome-wide and custom genotyping arrays. We identify and annotate 157 loci associated with lipid levels at P < 5×10−8, including 62 loci not previously associated with lipid levels in humans. Using dense genotyping in individuals of European, East Asian, South Asian, and African ancestry, we narrow association signals in 12 loci. We find that loci associated with blood lipids are often associated with cardiovascular and metabolic traits including coronary artery disease, type 2 diabetes, blood pressure, waist-hip ratio, and body mass index. Our results illustrate the value of genetic data from individuals of diverse ancestries and provide insights into biological mechanisms regulating blood lipids to guide future genetic, biological, and therapeutic research.
doi:10.1038/ng.2797
PMCID: PMC3838666  PMID: 24097068
6.  Common variants associated with plasma triglycerides and risk for coronary artery disease 
Do, Ron | Willer, Cristen J. | Schmidt, Ellen M. | Sengupta, Sebanti | Gao, Chi | Peloso, Gina M. | Gustafsson, Stefan | Kanoni, Stavroula | Ganna, Andrea | Chen, Jin | Buchkovich, Martin L. | Mora, Samia | Beckmann, Jacques S. | Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L. | Chang, Hsing-Yi | Demirkan, Ayşe | Den Hertog, Heleen M. | Donnelly, Louise A. | Ehret, Georg B. | Esko, Tõnu | Feitosa, Mary F. | Ferreira, Teresa | Fischer, Krista | Fontanillas, Pierre | Fraser, Ross M. | Freitag, Daniel F. | Gurdasani, Deepti | Heikkilä, Kauko | Hyppönen, Elina | Isaacs, Aaron | Jackson, Anne U. | Johansson, Åsa | Johnson, Toby | Kaakinen, Marika | Kettunen, Johannes | Kleber, Marcus E. | Li, Xiaohui | Luan, Jian'an | Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka | Magnusson, Patrik K.E. | Mangino, Massimo | Mihailov, Evelin | Montasser, May E. | Müller-Nurasyid, Martina | Nolte, Ilja M. | O'Connell, Jeffrey R. | Palmer, Cameron D. | Perola, Markus | Petersen, Ann-Kristin | Sanna, Serena | Saxena, Richa | Service, Susan K. | Shah, Sonia | Shungin, Dmitry | Sidore, Carlo | Song, Ci | Strawbridge, Rona J. | Surakka, Ida | Tanaka, Toshiko | Teslovich, Tanya M. | Thorleifsson, Gudmar | Van den Herik, Evita G. | Voight, Benjamin F. | Volcik, Kelly A. | Waite, Lindsay L. | Wong, Andrew | Wu, Ying | Zhang, Weihua | Absher, Devin | Asiki, Gershim | Barroso, Inês | Been, Latonya F. | Bolton, Jennifer L. | Bonnycastle, Lori L | Brambilla, Paolo | Burnett, Mary S. | Cesana, Giancarlo | Dimitriou, Maria | Doney, Alex S.F. | Döring, Angela | Elliott, Paul | Epstein, Stephen E. | Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur Ingi | Gigante, Bruna | Goodarzi, Mark O. | Grallert, Harald | Gravito, Martha L. | Groves, Christopher J. | Hallmans, Göran | Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa | Hayward, Caroline | Hernandez, Dena | Hicks, Andrew A. | Holm, Hilma | Hung, Yi-Jen | Illig, Thomas | Jones, Michelle R. | Kaleebu, Pontiano | Kastelein, John J.P. | Khaw, Kay-Tee | Kim, Eric | Klopp, Norman | Komulainen, Pirjo | Kumari, Meena | Langenberg, Claudia | Lehtimäki, Terho | Lin, Shih-Yi | Lindström, Jaana | Loos, Ruth J.F. | Mach, François | McArdle, Wendy L | Meisinger, Christa | Mitchell, Braxton D. | Müller, Gabrielle | Nagaraja, Ramaiah | Narisu, Narisu | Nieminen, Tuomo V.M. | Nsubuga, Rebecca N. | Olafsson, Isleifur | Ong, Ken K. | Palotie, Aarno | Papamarkou, Theodore | Pomilla, Cristina | Pouta, Anneli | Rader, Daniel J. | Reilly, Muredach P. | Ridker, Paul M. | Rivadeneira, Fernando | Rudan, Igor | Ruokonen, Aimo | Samani, Nilesh | Scharnagl, Hubert | Seeley, Janet | Silander, Kaisa | Stančáková, Alena | Stirrups, Kathleen | Swift, Amy J. | Tiret, Laurence | Uitterlinden, Andre G. | van Pelt, L. Joost | Vedantam, Sailaja | Wainwright, Nicholas | Wijmenga, Cisca | Wild, Sarah H. | Willemsen, Gonneke | Wilsgaard, Tom | Wilson, James F. | Young, Elizabeth H. | Zhao, Jing Hua | Adair, Linda S. | Arveiler, Dominique | Assimes, Themistocles L. | Bandinelli, Stefania | Bennett, Franklyn | Bochud, Murielle | Boehm, Bernhard O. | Boomsma, Dorret I. | Borecki, Ingrid B. | Bornstein, Stefan R. | Bovet, Pascal | Burnier, Michel | Campbell, Harry | Chakravarti, Aravinda | Chambers, John C. | Chen, Yii-Der Ida | Collins, Francis S. | Cooper, Richard S. | Danesh, John | Dedoussis, George | de Faire, Ulf | Feranil, Alan B. | Ferrières, Jean | Ferrucci, Luigi | Freimer, Nelson B. | Gieger, Christian | Groop, Leif C. | Gudnason, Vilmundur | Gyllensten, Ulf | Hamsten, Anders | Harris, Tamara B. | Hingorani, Aroon | Hirschhorn, Joel N. | Hofman, Albert | Hovingh, G. Kees | Hsiung, Chao Agnes | Humphries, Steve E. | Hunt, Steven C. | Hveem, Kristian | Iribarren, Carlos | Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta | Jula, Antti | Kähönen, Mika | Kaprio, Jaakko | Kesäniemi, Antero | Kivimaki, Mika | Kooner, Jaspal S. | Koudstaal, Peter J. | Krauss, Ronald M. | Kuh, Diana | Kuusisto, Johanna | Kyvik, Kirsten O. | Laakso, Markku | Lakka, Timo A. | Lind, Lars | Lindgren, Cecilia M. | Martin, Nicholas G. | März, Winfried | McCarthy, Mark I. | McKenzie, Colin A. | Meneton, Pierre | Metspalu, Andres | Moilanen, Leena | Morris, Andrew D. | Munroe, Patricia B. | Njølstad, Inger | Pedersen, Nancy L. | Power, Chris | Pramstaller, Peter P. | Price, Jackie F. | Psaty, Bruce M. | Quertermous, Thomas | Rauramaa, Rainer | Saleheen, Danish | Salomaa, Veikko | Sanghera, Dharambir K. | Saramies, Jouko | Schwarz, Peter E.H. | Sheu, Wayne H-H | Shuldiner, Alan R. | Siegbahn, Agneta | Spector, Tim D. | Stefansson, Kari | Strachan, David P. | Tayo, Bamidele O. | Tremoli, Elena | Tuomilehto, Jaakko | Uusitupa, Matti | van Duijn, Cornelia M. | Vollenweider, Peter | Wallentin, Lars | Wareham, Nicholas J. | Whitfield, John B. | Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.R. | Altshuler, David | Ordovas, Jose M. | Boerwinkle, Eric | Palmer, Colin N.A. | Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur | Chasman, Daniel I. | Rotter, Jerome I. | Franks, Paul W. | Ripatti, Samuli | Cupples, L. Adrienne | Sandhu, Manjinder S. | Rich, Stephen S. | Boehnke, Michael | Deloukas, Panos | Mohlke, Karen L. | Ingelsson, Erik | Abecasis, Goncalo R. | Daly, Mark J. | Neale, Benjamin M. | Kathiresan, Sekar
Nature genetics  2013;45(11):1345-1352.
Triglycerides are transported in plasma by specific triglyceride-rich lipoproteins; in epidemiologic studies, increased triglyceride levels correlate with higher risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). However, it is unclear whether this association reflects causal processes. We used 185 common variants recently mapped for plasma lipids (P<5×10−8 for each) to examine the role of triglycerides on risk for CAD. First, we highlight loci associated with both low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides, and show that the direction and magnitude of both are factors in determining CAD risk. Second, we consider loci with only a strong magnitude of association with triglycerides and show that these loci are also associated with CAD. Finally, in a model accounting for effects on LDL-C and/or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, a polymorphism's strength of effect on triglycerides is correlated with the magnitude of its effect on CAD risk. These results suggest that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins causally influence risk for CAD.
doi:10.1038/ng.2795
PMCID: PMC3904346  PMID: 24097064
7.  The Chromosome 9p21 Variant Not Predicting Long-Term Cardiovascular Mortality in Chinese with Established Coronary Artery Disease: An Eleven-Year Follow-Up Study 
BioMed Research International  2014;2014:626907.
Introduction. We examined whether the variant at chromosome 9p21, rs4977574, was associated with long-term cardiovascular mortality in Han Chinese patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Methodology. Subjects who underwent coronary angiography for chest pain were consecutively enrolled. Fasting blood samples were collected for laboratory and genotype assessments. The information was correlated with data collected from the national death database. Results. There were 925 cases with CAD and 634 without CAD enrolled in the present study. The G allele conferred a significant increase in risk of CAD (odds ratio = 1.47, P = 0.003 in the dominant model; odds ratio = 1.36, P = 0.018 in the recessive model). During a median of 11 years (inter-quartile range between 5.2 and 12.5 years) of follow-up, neither the total nor the cardiovascular mortality was different among CAD subjects with different genotypes. Using Cox regression analysis, genotypes of rs4977574 still failed to predict cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio = 1.25, P = 0.138 in the dominant model; hazard ratio = 1.05, P = 0.729 in the recessive model). Conclusions. The rs4977574 at chromosome 9p21 is associated with presence of CAD in Han Chinese. However, rs4977574 could not predict cardiovascular mortality in these CAD subjects during the eleven-year period of the study.
doi:10.1155/2014/626907
PMCID: PMC3996981  PMID: 24804228
8.  Effect of GAS6 and AXL Gene Polymorphisms on Adiposity, Systemic Inflammation, and Insulin Resistance in Adolescents 
The present study was designed to explore the effects of GAS6 and AXL gene polymorphisms on adiposity, systemic inflammation, and insulin resistance in adolescents. After multistage sampling from the data of the Taipei Children Heart Study-III, we collected 358 boys and 369 girls with an average age of 13.3 years. We genotyped the adolescents' GAS6 rs8191973, GAS6 rs8191974, AXL rs4802113, and AXL rs2304232 polymorphisms. Significantly higher body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and hsCRP levels were found in boys with the GG genotype of GAS6 rs8191974 than A allele carriers; higher IL-6 and insulin levels and increased HOMA-IR were found in boys with the GG genotype of AXL rs2304232 than the A allele carriers. There was a significant difference in hsCRP levels of boys with the TT, TC, and CC genotypes of AXL rs4802113. Boys with both the GG genotype of GAS6 rs8191973 and the GG genotype of GAS6 rs8191974 exhibited higher BMI, WC, IL-6, and hsCRP levels than the boys carrying both the C allele of the GAS6 rs8191973 and the A allele of the GAS6 rs8191974. In conclusion, GAS6 and AXL polymorphisms are associated with adiposity, systemic inflammation, and insulin resistance in adolescents, especially in boys.
doi:10.1155/2014/674069
PMCID: PMC3948192  PMID: 24696684
9.  Genome-Wide Association of Body Fat Distribution in African Ancestry Populations Suggests New Loci 
Liu, Ching-Ti | Monda, Keri L. | Taylor, Kira C. | Lange, Leslie | Demerath, Ellen W. | Palmas, Walter | Wojczynski, Mary K. | Ellis, Jaclyn C. | Vitolins, Mara Z. | Liu, Simin | Papanicolaou, George J. | Irvin, Marguerite R. | Xue, Luting | Griffin, Paula J. | Nalls, Michael A. | Adeyemo, Adebowale | Liu, Jiankang | Li, Guo | Ruiz-Narvaez, Edward A. | Chen, Wei-Min | Chen, Fang | Henderson, Brian E. | Millikan, Robert C. | Ambrosone, Christine B. | Strom, Sara S. | Guo, Xiuqing | Andrews, Jeanette S. | Sun, Yan V. | Mosley, Thomas H. | Yanek, Lisa R. | Shriner, Daniel | Haritunians, Talin | Rotter, Jerome I. | Speliotes, Elizabeth K. | Smith, Megan | Rosenberg, Lynn | Mychaleckyj, Josyf | Nayak, Uma | Spruill, Ida | Garvey, W. Timothy | Pettaway, Curtis | Nyante, Sarah | Bandera, Elisa V. | Britton, Angela F. | Zonderman, Alan B. | Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J. | Chen, Yii-Der Ida | Ding, Jingzhong | Lohman, Kurt | Kritchevsky, Stephen B. | Zhao, Wei | Peyser, Patricia A. | Kardia, Sharon L. R. | Kabagambe, Edmond | Broeckel, Ulrich | Chen, Guanjie | Zhou, Jie | Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia | Neuhouser, Marian L. | Rampersaud, Evadnie | Psaty, Bruce | Kooperberg, Charles | Manson, JoAnn E. | Kuller, Lewis H. | Ochs-Balcom, Heather M. | Johnson, Karen C. | Sucheston, Lara | Ordovas, Jose M. | Palmer, Julie R. | Haiman, Christopher A. | McKnight, Barbara | Howard, Barbara V. | Becker, Diane M. | Bielak, Lawrence F. | Liu, Yongmei | Allison, Matthew A. | Grant, Struan F. A. | Burke, Gregory L. | Patel, Sanjay R. | Schreiner, Pamela J. | Borecki, Ingrid B. | Evans, Michele K. | Taylor, Herman | Sale, Michele M. | Howard, Virginia | Carlson, Christopher S. | Rotimi, Charles N. | Cushman, Mary | Harris, Tamara B. | Reiner, Alexander P. | Cupples, L. Adrienne | North, Kari E. | Fox, Caroline S.
PLoS Genetics  2013;9(8):e1003681.
Central obesity, measured by waist circumference (WC) or waist-hip ratio (WHR), is a marker of body fat distribution. Although obesity disproportionately affects minority populations, few studies have conducted genome-wide association study (GWAS) of fat distribution among those of predominantly African ancestry (AA). We performed GWAS of WC and WHR, adjusted and unadjusted for BMI, in up to 33,591 and 27,350 AA individuals, respectively. We identified loci associated with fat distribution in AA individuals using meta-analyses of GWA results for WC and WHR (stage 1). Overall, 25 SNPs with single genomic control (GC)-corrected p-values<5.0×10−6 were followed-up (stage 2) in AA with WC and with WHR. Additionally, we interrogated genomic regions of previously identified European ancestry (EA) WHR loci among AA. In joint analysis of association results including both Stage 1 and 2 cohorts, 2 SNPs demonstrated association, rs2075064 at LHX2, p = 2.24×10−8 for WC-adjusted-for-BMI, and rs6931262 at RREB1, p = 2.48×10−8 for WHR-adjusted-for-BMI. However, neither signal was genome-wide significant after double GC-correction (LHX2: p = 6.5×10−8; RREB1: p = 5.7×10−8). Six of fourteen previously reported loci for waist in EA populations were significant (p<0.05 divided by the number of independent SNPs within the region) in AA studied here (TBX15-WARS2, GRB14, ADAMTS9, LY86, RSPO3, ITPR2-SSPN). Further, we observed associations with metabolic traits: rs13389219 at GRB14 associated with HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting insulin, and rs13060013 at ADAMTS9 with HDL-cholesterol and fasting insulin. Finally, we observed nominal evidence for sexual dimorphism, with stronger results in AA women at the GRB14 locus (p for interaction = 0.02). In conclusion, we identified two suggestive loci associated with fat distribution in AA populations in addition to confirming 6 loci previously identified in populations of EA. These findings reinforce the concept that there are fat distribution loci that are independent of generalized adiposity.
Author Summary
Central obesity is a marker of body fat distribution and is known to have a genetic underpinning. Few studies have reported genome-wide association study (GWAS) results among individuals of predominantly African ancestry (AA). We performed a collaborative meta-analysis in order to identify genetic loci associated with body fat distribution in AA individuals using waist circumference (WC) and waist to hip ratio (WHR) as measures of fat distribution, with and without adjustment for body mass index (BMI). We uncovered 2 genetic loci potentially associated with fat distribution: LHX2 in association with WC-adjusted-for-BMI and at RREB1 for WHR-adjusted-for-BMI. Six of fourteen previously reported loci for waist in EA populations were significant in AA studied here (TBX15-WARS2, GRB14, ADAMTS9, LY86, RSPO3, ITPR2-SSPN). These findings reinforce the concept that there are loci for body fat distribution that are independent of generalized adiposity.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1003681
PMCID: PMC3744443  PMID: 23966867
10.  LYSINE-SPECIFIC DEMETHYLASE 1: AN EPIGENETIC REGULATOR OF SALT-SENSITIVE HYPERTENSION 
American journal of hypertension  2012;25(7):812-817.
Background
Hypertension represents a complex heritable disease in which environmental factors may directly affect gene function via epigenetic mechanisms. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that dietary salt influences the activity of a histone modifying enzyme, lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD-1), which in turn is associated with salt-sensitivity of blood pressure (BP).
Methods
Animal and human studies were performed. Salt-sensitivity of LSD-1 expression was assessed in wild-type and LSD-1 heterozygote knockout (LSD-1+/−) mice. Clinical relevance was tested by multivariate associations between single nuclear polymorphisms (SNPs) in the LSD-1 gene and salt-sensitivity of BP, with control of dietary sodium, in a primary African-American hypertensive cohort and two replication hypertensive cohorts (Caucasian and Mexican-American).
Results
LSD1 expression was modified by dietary salt in wild-type mice with lower levels associated with liberal salt intake. LSD-1+/− mice expressed lower LSD-1 protein levels than wild-type mice in kidney tissue. Similar to LSD-1+/− mice, African-American minor allele carriers of two LSD-1 SNPs displayed greater change in systolic BP in response to change from low to liberal salt diet (rs671357, p=0.01; rs587168, p=0.005). This association was replicated in the Hispanic (rs587168, p=0.04) but not the Caucasian cohort. Exploratory analyses demonstrated decreased serum aldosterone concentrations in African-American minor allele carriers similar to findings in the LSD-1+/− mice, decreased alpha-EnaC expression in LSD-1+/− mice, and impaired renovascular responsiveness to salt loading in minor allele carriers.
Conclusion
The results of this translational research study support a role for LSD1 in the pathogenesis of salt-sensitive hypertension.
doi:10.1038/ajh.2012.43
PMCID: PMC3721725  PMID: 22534796
Hypertension; Salt-sensitivity; LSD1; Genetics; Epigenetic
11.  Sex-stratified Genome-wide Association Studies Including 270,000 Individuals Show Sexual Dimorphism in Genetic Loci for Anthropometric Traits 
Randall, Joshua C. | Winkler, Thomas W. | Kutalik, Zoltán | Berndt, Sonja I. | Jackson, Anne U. | Monda, Keri L. | Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O. | Esko, Tõnu | Mägi, Reedik | Li, Shengxu | Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie | Feitosa, Mary F. | Croteau-Chonka, Damien C. | Day, Felix R. | Fall, Tove | Ferreira, Teresa | Gustafsson, Stefan | Locke, Adam E. | Mathieson, Iain | Scherag, Andre | Vedantam, Sailaja | Wood, Andrew R. | Liang, Liming | Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur | Thorleifsson, Gudmar | Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T. | Dimas, Antigone S. | Karpe, Fredrik | Min, Josine L. | Nicholson, George | Clegg, Deborah J. | Person, Thomas | Krohn, Jon P. | Bauer, Sabrina | Buechler, Christa | Eisinger, Kristina | Bonnefond, Amélie | Froguel, Philippe | Hottenga, Jouke-Jan | Prokopenko, Inga | Waite, Lindsay L. | Harris, Tamara B. | Smith, Albert Vernon | Shuldiner, Alan R. | McArdle, Wendy L. | Caulfield, Mark J. | Munroe, Patricia B. | Grönberg, Henrik | Chen, Yii-Der Ida | Li, Guo | Beckmann, Jacques S. | Johnson, Toby | Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur | Teder-Laving, Maris | Khaw, Kay-Tee | Wareham, Nicholas J. | Zhao, Jing Hua | Amin, Najaf | Oostra, Ben A. | Kraja, Aldi T. | Province, Michael A. | Cupples, L. Adrienne | Heard-Costa, Nancy L. | Kaprio, Jaakko | Ripatti, Samuli | Surakka, Ida | Collins, Francis S. | Saramies, Jouko | Tuomilehto, Jaakko | Jula, Antti | Salomaa, Veikko | Erdmann, Jeanette | Hengstenberg, Christian | Loley, Christina | Schunkert, Heribert | Lamina, Claudia | Wichmann, H. Erich | Albrecht, Eva | Gieger, Christian | Hicks, Andrew A. | Johansson, Åsa | Pramstaller, Peter P. | Kathiresan, Sekar | Speliotes, Elizabeth K. | Penninx, Brenda | Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa | Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta | Gyllensten, Ulf | Boomsma, Dorret I. | Campbell, Harry | Wilson, James F. | Chanock, Stephen J. | Farrall, Martin | Goel, Anuj | Medina-Gomez, Carolina | Rivadeneira, Fernando | Estrada, Karol | Uitterlinden, André G. | Hofman, Albert | Zillikens, M. Carola | den Heijer, Martin | Kiemeney, Lambertus A. | Maschio, Andrea | Hall, Per | Tyrer, Jonathan | Teumer, Alexander | Völzke, Henry | Kovacs, Peter | Tönjes, Anke | Mangino, Massimo | Spector, Tim D. | Hayward, Caroline | Rudan, Igor | Hall, Alistair S. | Samani, Nilesh J. | Attwood, Antony Paul | Sambrook, Jennifer G. | Hung, Joseph | Palmer, Lyle J. | Lokki, Marja-Liisa | Sinisalo, Juha | Boucher, Gabrielle | Huikuri, Heikki | Lorentzon, Mattias | Ohlsson, Claes | Eklund, Niina | Eriksson, Johan G. | Barlassina, Cristina | Rivolta, Carlo | Nolte, Ilja M. | Snieder, Harold | Van der Klauw, Melanie M. | Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V. | Gejman, Pablo V. | Shi, Jianxin | Jacobs, Kevin B. | Wang, Zhaoming | Bakker, Stephan J. L. | Mateo Leach, Irene | Navis, Gerjan | van der Harst, Pim | Martin, Nicholas G. | Medland, Sarah E. | Montgomery, Grant W. | Yang, Jian | Chasman, Daniel I. | Ridker, Paul M. | Rose, Lynda M. | Lehtimäki, Terho | Raitakari, Olli | Absher, Devin | Iribarren, Carlos | Basart, Hanneke | Hovingh, Kees G. | Hyppönen, Elina | Power, Chris | Anderson, Denise | Beilby, John P. | Hui, Jennie | Jolley, Jennifer | Sager, Hendrik | Bornstein, Stefan R. | Schwarz, Peter E. H. | Kristiansson, Kati | Perola, Markus | Lindström, Jaana | Swift, Amy J. | Uusitupa, Matti | Atalay, Mustafa | Lakka, Timo A. | Rauramaa, Rainer | Bolton, Jennifer L. | Fowkes, Gerry | Fraser, Ross M. | Price, Jackie F. | Fischer, Krista | KrjutÅ¡kov, Kaarel | Metspalu, Andres | Mihailov, Evelin | Langenberg, Claudia | Luan, Jian'an | Ong, Ken K. | Chines, Peter S. | Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M. | Saaristo, Timo E. | Edkins, Sarah | Franks, Paul W. | Hallmans, Göran | Shungin, Dmitry | Morris, Andrew David | Palmer, Colin N. A. | Erbel, Raimund | Moebus, Susanne | Nöthen, Markus M. | Pechlivanis, Sonali | Hveem, Kristian | Narisu, Narisu | Hamsten, Anders | Humphries, Steve E. | Strawbridge, Rona J. | Tremoli, Elena | Grallert, Harald | Thorand, Barbara | Illig, Thomas | Koenig, Wolfgang | Müller-Nurasyid, Martina | Peters, Annette | Boehm, Bernhard O. | Kleber, Marcus E. | März, Winfried | Winkelmann, Bernhard R. | Kuusisto, Johanna | Laakso, Markku | Arveiler, Dominique | Cesana, Giancarlo | Kuulasmaa, Kari | Virtamo, Jarmo | Yarnell, John W. G. | Kuh, Diana | Wong, Andrew | Lind, Lars | de Faire, Ulf | Gigante, Bruna | Magnusson, Patrik K. E. | Pedersen, Nancy L. | Dedoussis, George | Dimitriou, Maria | Kolovou, Genovefa | Kanoni, Stavroula | Stirrups, Kathleen | Bonnycastle, Lori L. | Njølstad, Inger | Wilsgaard, Tom | Ganna, Andrea | Rehnberg, Emil | Hingorani, Aroon | Kivimaki, Mika | Kumari, Meena | Assimes, Themistocles L. | Barroso, Inês | Boehnke, Michael | Borecki, Ingrid B. | Deloukas, Panos | Fox, Caroline S. | Frayling, Timothy | Groop, Leif C. | Haritunians, Talin | Hunter, David | Ingelsson, Erik | Kaplan, Robert | Mohlke, Karen L. | O'Connell, Jeffrey R. | Schlessinger, David | Strachan, David P. | Stefansson, Kari | van Duijn, Cornelia M. | Abecasis, Gonçalo R. | McCarthy, Mark I. | Hirschhorn, Joel N. | Qi, Lu | Loos, Ruth J. F. | Lindgren, Cecilia M. | North, Kari E. | Heid, Iris M.
PLoS Genetics  2013;9(6):e1003500.
Given the anthropometric differences between men and women and previous evidence of sex-difference in genetic effects, we conducted a genome-wide search for sexually dimorphic associations with height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip-ratio (133,723 individuals) and took forward 348 SNPs into follow-up (additional 137,052 individuals) in a total of 94 studies. Seven loci displayed significant sex-difference (FDR<5%), including four previously established (near GRB14/COBLL1, LYPLAL1/SLC30A10, VEGFA, ADAMTS9) and three novel anthropometric trait loci (near MAP3K1, HSD17B4, PPARG), all of which were genome-wide significant in women (P<5×10−8), but not in men. Sex-differences were apparent only for waist phenotypes, not for height, weight, BMI, or hip circumference. Moreover, we found no evidence for genetic effects with opposite directions in men versus women. The PPARG locus is of specific interest due to its role in diabetes genetics and therapy. Our results demonstrate the value of sex-specific GWAS to unravel the sexually dimorphic genetic underpinning of complex traits.
Author Summary
Men and women differ substantially regarding height, weight, and body fat. Interestingly, previous work detecting genetic effects for waist-to-hip ratio, to assess body fat distribution, has found that many of these showed sex-differences. However, systematic searches for sex-differences in genetic effects have not yet been conducted. Therefore, we undertook a genome-wide search for sexually dimorphic genetic effects for anthropometric traits including 133,723 individuals in a large meta-analysis and followed promising variants in further 137,052 individuals, including a total of 94 studies. We identified seven loci with significant sex-difference including four previously established (near GRB14/COBLL1, LYPLAL1/SLC30A10, VEGFA, ADAMTS9) and three novel anthropometric trait loci (near MAP3K1, HSD17B4, PPARG), all of which were significant in women, but not in men. Of interest is that sex-difference was only observed for waist phenotypes, but not for height or body-mass-index. We found no evidence for sex-differences with opposite effect direction for men and women. The PPARG locus is of specific interest due to its link to diabetes genetics and therapy. Our findings demonstrate the importance of investigating sex differences, which may lead to a better understanding of disease mechanisms with a potential relevance to treatment options.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1003500
PMCID: PMC3674993  PMID: 23754948
12.  No Interactions Between Previously Associated 2-Hour Glucose Gene Variants and Physical Activity or BMI on 2-Hour Glucose Levels 
Scott, Robert A. | Chu, Audrey Y. | Grarup, Niels | Manning, Alisa K. | Hivert, Marie-France | Shungin, Dmitry | Tönjes, Anke | Yesupriya, Ajay | Barnes, Daniel | Bouatia-Naji, Nabila | Glazer, Nicole L. | Jackson, Anne U. | Kutalik, Zoltán | Lagou, Vasiliki | Marek, Diana | Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J. | Stringham, Heather M. | Tanaka, Toshiko | Aadahl, Mette | Arking, Dan E. | Bergmann, Sven | Boerwinkle, Eric | Bonnycastle, Lori L. | Bornstein, Stefan R. | Brunner, Eric | Bumpstead, Suzannah J. | Brage, Soren | Carlson, Olga D. | Chen, Han | Chen, Yii-Der Ida | Chines, Peter S. | Collins, Francis S. | Couper, David J. | Dennison, Elaine M. | Dowling, Nicole F. | Egan, Josephine S. | Ekelund, Ulf | Erdos, Michael R. | Forouhi, Nita G. | Fox, Caroline S. | Goodarzi, Mark O. | Grässler, Jürgen | Gustafsson, Stefan | Hallmans, Göran | Hansen, Torben | Hingorani, Aroon | Holloway, John W. | Hu, Frank B. | Isomaa, Bo | Jameson, Karen A. | Johansson, Ingegerd | Jonsson, Anna | Jørgensen, Torben | Kivimaki, Mika | Kovacs, Peter | Kumari, Meena | Kuusisto, Johanna | Laakso, Markku | Lecoeur, Cécile | Lévy-Marchal, Claire | Li, Guo | Loos, Ruth J.F. | Lyssenko, Valeri | Marmot, Michael | Marques-Vidal, Pedro | Morken, Mario A. | Müller, Gabriele | North, Kari E. | Pankow, James S. | Payne, Felicity | Prokopenko, Inga | Psaty, Bruce M. | Renström, Frida | Rice, Ken | Rotter, Jerome I. | Rybin, Denis | Sandholt, Camilla H. | Sayer, Avan A. | Shrader, Peter | Schwarz, Peter E.H. | Siscovick, David S. | Stančáková, Alena | Stumvoll, Michael | Teslovich, Tanya M. | Waeber, Gérard | Williams, Gordon H. | Witte, Daniel R. | Wood, Andrew R. | Xie, Weijia | Boehnke, Michael | Cooper, Cyrus | Ferrucci, Luigi | Froguel, Philippe | Groop, Leif | Kao, W.H. Linda | Vollenweider, Peter | Walker, Mark | Watanabe, Richard M. | Pedersen, Oluf | Meigs, James B. | Ingelsson, Erik | Barroso, Inês | Florez, Jose C. | Franks, Paul W. | Dupuis, Josée | Wareham, Nicholas J. | Langenberg, Claudia
Diabetes  2012;61(5):1291-1296.
Gene–lifestyle interactions have been suggested to contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes. Glucose levels 2 h after a standard 75-g glucose challenge are used to diagnose diabetes and are associated with both genetic and lifestyle factors. However, whether these factors interact to determine 2-h glucose levels is unknown. We meta-analyzed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) × BMI and SNP × physical activity (PA) interaction regression models for five SNPs previously associated with 2-h glucose levels from up to 22 studies comprising 54,884 individuals without diabetes. PA levels were dichotomized, with individuals below the first quintile classified as inactive (20%) and the remainder as active (80%). BMI was considered a continuous trait. Inactive individuals had higher 2-h glucose levels than active individuals (β = 0.22 mmol/L [95% CI 0.13–0.31], P = 1.63 × 10−6). All SNPs were associated with 2-h glucose (β = 0.06–0.12 mmol/allele, P ≤ 1.53 × 10−7), but no significant interactions were found with PA (P > 0.18) or BMI (P ≥ 0.04). In this large study of gene–lifestyle interaction, we observed no interactions between genetic and lifestyle factors, both of which were associated with 2-h glucose. It is perhaps unlikely that top loci from genome-wide association studies will exhibit strong subgroup-specific effects, and may not, therefore, make the best candidates for the study of interactions.
doi:10.2337/db11-0973
PMCID: PMC3331745  PMID: 22415877
13.  Systemic Soluble TNF Receptors 1 and 2 are Associated with Severity of Diabetic Retinopathy in Hispanics 
Ophthalmology  2012;119(5):1041-1046.
Purpose
To investigate the associations of serum amyloid A protein (SAA) and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors 1 and 2 (sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2) with diabetic retinopathy (DR) in Hispanics.
Design
Prospective, nonrandomized, cross-sectional, family-based observational cohort study.
Participants
Four hundred seventy-three Hispanics type II diabetic subjects, in families ascertained via proband with DR.
Methods
Levels of SAA, sTNF-R1, and sTNF-R2 were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). DR was assessed by fundus photography and graded using modified Airlie House classification.
Main Outcome Measures
Levels of SAA, sTNF-R1, and sTNF-R2 to severity of DR with and without covariates.
Results
A direct association of sTNF-R1 (2.37±0.13, 2.15±0.09, 3.09±0.24, 3.25±0.46, 5.02±0.61 ng/ml; p<0.0001) and sTNF-R2 (6.04±0.20, 6.25±0.52, 7.96±0.70, 8.14±1.13, 14.83±1.68 ng/ml; p<0.0001) was found for no DR, mild non-proliferative DR (NPDR), moderate NPDR, severe NPDR, and proliferative DR (PDR), respectively. These associations remained significant after adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, hemoglobin A1c, diabetes duration, systolic blood pressure, and serum creatinine (p<0.0001 for sTNF-R1 and p=0.0004 for sTNF-R2). A similar pattern was observed when we adjusted for urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio in place of serum creatinine (p=0.005 for sTNF-R1 and p=0.02 for sTNF-R2).
Conclusions
Levels of sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2 are highly correlated with severity of DR, suggesting that inflammation and insulin resistance may play a critical role in the development of DR. These may be useful biomarkers for DR, aiding in etiologic studies, and possibly in identifying at-risk patients for active intervention.
doi:10.1016/j.ophtha.2011.10.040
PMCID: PMC3343221  PMID: 22330960
14.  Gene-Centric Meta-Analysis of Lipid Traits in African, East Asian and Hispanic Populations 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(12):e50198.
Meta-analyses of European populations has successfully identified genetic variants in over 100 loci associated with lipid levels, but our knowledge in other ethnicities remains limited. To address this, we performed dense genotyping of ∼2,000 candidate genes in 7,657 African Americans, 1,315 Hispanics and 841 East Asians, using the IBC array, a custom ∼50,000 SNP genotyping array. Meta-analyses confirmed 16 lipid loci previously established in European populations at genome-wide significance level, and found multiple independent association signals within these lipid loci. Initial discovery and in silico follow-up in 7,000 additional African American samples, confirmed two novel loci: rs5030359 within ICAM1 is associated with total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (p = 8.8×10−7 and p = 1.5×10−6 respectively) and a nonsense mutation rs3211938 within CD36 is associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels (p = 13.5×10−12). The rs3211938-G allele, which is nearly absent in European and Asian populations, has been previously found to be associated with CD36 deficiency and shows a signature of selection in Africans and African Americans. Finally, we have evaluated the effect of SNPs established in European populations on lipid levels in multi-ethnic populations and show that most known lipid association signals span across ethnicities. However, differences between populations, especially differences in allele frequency, can be leveraged to identify novel signals, as shown by the discovery of ICAM1 and CD36 in the current report.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050198
PMCID: PMC3517599  PMID: 23236364
15.  Genome-wide association study identifies six new loci influencing pulse pressure and mean arterial pressure 
Wain, Louise V | Verwoert, Germaine C | O’Reilly, Paul F | Shi, Gang | Johnson, Toby | Johnson, Andrew D | Bochud, Murielle | Rice, Kenneth M | Henneman, Peter | Smith, Albert V | Ehret, Georg B | Amin, Najaf | Larson, Martin G | Mooser, Vincent | Hadley, David | Dörr, Marcus | Bis, Joshua C | Aspelund, Thor | Esko, Tõnu | Janssens, A Cecile JW | Zhao, Jing Hua | Heath, Simon | Laan, Maris | Fu, Jingyuan | Pistis, Giorgio | Luan, Jian’an | Arora, Pankaj | Lucas, Gavin | Pirastu, Nicola | Pichler, Irene | Jackson, Anne U | Webster, Rebecca J | Zhang, Feng | Peden, John F | Schmidt, Helena | Tanaka, Toshiko | Campbell, Harry | Igl, Wilmar | Milaneschi, Yuri | Hotteng, Jouke-Jan | Vitart, Veronique | Chasman, Daniel I | Trompet, Stella | Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L | Alizadeh, Behrooz Z | Chambers, John C | Guo, Xiuqing | Lehtimäki, Terho | Kühnel, Brigitte | Lopez, Lorna M | Polašek, Ozren | Boban, Mladen | Nelson, Christopher P | Morrison, Alanna C | Pihur, Vasyl | Ganesh, Santhi K | Hofman, Albert | Kundu, Suman | Mattace-Raso, Francesco US | Rivadeneira, Fernando | Sijbrands, Eric JG | Uitterlinden, Andre G | Hwang, Shih-Jen | Vasan, Ramachandran S | Wang, Thomas J | Bergmann, Sven | Vollenweider, Peter | Waeber, Gérard | Laitinen, Jaana | Pouta, Anneli | Zitting, Paavo | McArdle, Wendy L | Kroemer, Heyo K | Völker, Uwe | Völzke, Henry | Glazer, Nicole L | Taylor, Kent D | Harris, Tamara B | Alavere, Helene | Haller, Toomas | Keis, Aime | Tammesoo, Mari-Liis | Aulchenko, Yurii | Barroso, Inês | Khaw, Kay-Tee | Galan, Pilar | Hercberg, Serge | Lathrop, Mark | Eyheramendy, Susana | Org, Elin | Sõber, Siim | Lu, Xiaowen | Nolte, Ilja M | Penninx, Brenda W | Corre, Tanguy | Masciullo, Corrado | Sala, Cinzia | Groop, Leif | Voight, Benjamin F | Melander, Olle | O’Donnell, Christopher J | Salomaa, Veikko | d’Adamo, Adamo Pio | Fabretto, Antonella | Faletra, Flavio | Ulivi, Sheila | Del Greco, M Fabiola | Facheris, Maurizio | Collins, Francis S | Bergman, Richard N | Beilby, John P | Hung, Joseph | Musk, A William | Mangino, Massimo | Shin, So-Youn | Soranzo, Nicole | Watkins, Hugh | Goel, Anuj | Hamsten, Anders | Gider, Pierre | Loitfelder, Marisa | Zeginigg, Marion | Hernandez, Dena | Najjar, Samer S | Navarro, Pau | Wild, Sarah H | Corsi, Anna Maria | Singleton, Andrew | de Geus, Eco JC | Willemsen, Gonneke | Parker, Alex N | Rose, Lynda M | Buckley, Brendan | Stott, David | Orru, Marco | Uda, Manuela | van der Klauw, Melanie M | Zhang, Weihua | Li, Xinzhong | Scott, James | Chen, Yii-Der Ida | Burke, Gregory L | Kähönen, Mika | Viikari, Jorma | Döring, Angela | Meitinger, Thomas | Davies, Gail | Starr, John M | Emilsson, Valur | Plump, Andrew | Lindeman, Jan H | ’t Hoen, Peter AC | König, Inke R | Felix, Janine F | Clarke, Robert | Hopewell, Jemma C | Ongen, Halit | Breteler, Monique | Debette, Stéphanie | DeStefano, Anita L | Fornage, Myriam | Mitchell, Gary F | Smith, Nicholas L | Holm, Hilma | Stefansson, Kari | Thorleifsson, Gudmar | Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur | Samani, Nilesh J | Preuss, Michael | Rudan, Igor | Hayward, Caroline | Deary, Ian J | Wichmann, H-Erich | Raitakari, Olli T | Palmas, Walter | Kooner, Jaspal S | Stolk, Ronald P | Jukema, J Wouter | Wright, Alan F | Boomsma, Dorret I | Bandinelli, Stefania | Gyllensten, Ulf B | Wilson, James F | Ferrucci, Luigi | Schmidt, Reinhold | Farrall, Martin | Spector, Tim D | Palmer, Lyle J | Tuomilehto, Jaakko | Pfeufer, Arne | Gasparini, Paolo | Siscovick, David | Altshuler, David | Loos, Ruth JF | Toniolo, Daniela | Snieder, Harold | Gieger, Christian | Meneton, Pierre | Wareham, Nicholas J | Oostra, Ben A | Metspalu, Andres | Launer, Lenore | Rettig, Rainer | Strachan, David P | Beckmann, Jacques S | Witteman, Jacqueline CM | Erdmann, Jeanette | van Dijk, Ko Willems | Boerwinkle, Eric | Boehnke, Michael | Ridker, Paul M | Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta | Chakravarti, Aravinda | Abecasis, Goncalo R | Gudnason, Vilmundur | Newton-Cheh, Christopher | Levy, Daniel | Munroe, Patricia B | Psaty, Bruce M | Caulfield, Mark J | Rao, Dabeeru C | Tobin, Martin D | Elliott, Paul | van Duijn, Cornelia M
Nature genetics  2011;43(10):1005-1011.
Numerous genetic loci influence systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in Europeans 1-3. We now report genome-wide association studies of pulse pressure (PP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP). In discovery (N=74,064) and follow-up studies (N=48,607), we identified at genome-wide significance (P= 2.7×10-8 to P=2.3×10-13) four novel PP loci (at 4q12 near CHIC2/PDGFRAI, 7q22.3 near PIK3CG, 8q24.12 in NOV, 11q24.3 near ADAMTS-8), two novel MAP loci (3p21.31 in MAP4, 10q25.3 near ADRB1) and one locus associated with both traits (2q24.3 near FIGN) which has recently been associated with SBP in east Asians. For three of the novel PP signals, the estimated effect for SBP was opposite to that for DBP, in contrast to the majority of common SBP- and DBP-associated variants which show concordant effects on both traits. These findings indicate novel genetic mechanisms underlying blood pressure variation, including pathways that may differentially influence SBP and DBP.
doi:10.1038/ng.922
PMCID: PMC3445021  PMID: 21909110
16.  A Bivariate Genome-Wide Approach to Metabolic Syndrome 
Diabetes  2011;60(4):1329-1339.
OBJECTIVE
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is defined as concomitant disorders of lipid and glucose metabolism, central obesity, and high blood pressure, with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This study tests whether common genetic variants with pleiotropic effects account for some of the correlated architecture among five metabolic phenotypes that define MetS.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Seven studies of the STAMPEED consortium, comprising 22,161 participants of European ancestry, underwent genome-wide association analyses of metabolic traits using a panel of ∼2.5 million imputed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Phenotypes were defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) criteria for MetS in pairwise combinations. Individuals exceeding the NCEP thresholds for both traits of a pair were considered affected.
RESULTS
Twenty-nine common variants were associated with MetS or a pair of traits. Variants in the genes LPL, CETP, APOA5 (and its cluster), GCKR (and its cluster), LIPC, TRIB1, LOC100128354/MTNR1B, ABCB11, and LOC100129150 were further tested for their association with individual qualitative and quantitative traits. None of the 16 top SNPs (one per gene) associated simultaneously with more than two individual traits. Of them 11 variants showed nominal associations with MetS per se. The effects of 16 top SNPs on the quantitative traits were relatively small, together explaining from ∼9% of the variance in triglycerides, 5.8% of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, 3.6% of fasting glucose, and 1.4% of systolic blood pressure.
CONCLUSIONS
Qualitative and quantitative pleiotropic tests on pairs of traits indicate that a small portion of the covariation in these traits can be explained by the reported common genetic variants.
doi:10.2337/db10-1011
PMCID: PMC3064107  PMID: 21386085
17.  Metabolic Syndrome Derived from Principal Component Analysis and Incident Cardiovascular Events: The Multi Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC) 
Background. The NCEP metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a combination of dichotomized interrelated risk factors from predominantly Caucasian populations. We propose a continuous MetS score based on principal component analysis (PCA) of the same risk factors in a multiethnic cohort and compare prediction of incident CVD events with NCEP MetS definition. Additionally, we replicated these analyses in the Health, Aging, and Body composition (Health ABC) study cohort. Methods and Results. We performed PCA of the MetS elements (waist circumference, HDL, TG, fasting blood glucose, SBP, and DBP) in 2610 Caucasian Americans, 801 Chinese Americans, 1875 African Americans, and 1494 Hispanic Americans in the multiethnic study of atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort. We selected the first principal component as a continuous MetS score (MetS-PC). Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the association between MetS-PC and 5.5 years of CVD events (n = 377) adjusting for age, gender, race, smoking and LDL-C, overall and by ethnicity. To facilitate comparison of MetS-PC with the binary NCEP definition, a MetS-PC cut point was chosen to yield the same 37% prevalence of MetS as the NCEP definition (37%) in the MESA cohort. Hazard ratio (HR) for CVD events were estimated using the NCEP and Mets-PC-derived binary definitions. In Cox proportional models, the HR (95% CI) for CVD events for 1-SD (standard deviation) of MetS-PC was 1.71 (1.54–1.90) (P < 0.0001) overall after adjusting for potential confounders, and for each ethnicity, HRs were: Caucasian, 1.64 (1.39–1.94), Chinese, 1.39 (1.06–1.83), African, 1.67 (1.37–2.02), and Hispanic, 2.10 (1.66-2.65). Finally, when binary definitions were compared, HR for CVD events was 2.34 (1.91–2.87) for MetS-PC versus 1.79 (1.46–2.20) for NCEP MetS. In the Health ABC cohort, in a fully adjusted model, MetS-PC per 1-SD (Health ABC) remained associated with CVD events (HR = 1.21, 95%CI 1.12–1.32) overall, and for each ethnicity, Caucasian (HR = 1.24, 95%CI 1.12–1.39) and African Americans (HR = 1.16, 95%CI 1.01–1.32). Finally, when using a binary definition of MetS-PC (cut point 0.505) designed to match the NCEP definition in terms of prevalence in the Health ABC cohort (35%), the fully adjusted HR for CVD events was 1.39, 95%CI 1.17–1.64 compared with 1.46, 95%CI 1.23–1.72 using the NCEP definition. Conclusion. MetS-PC is a continuous measure of metabolic syndrome and was a better predictor of CVD events overall and in individual ethnicities. Additionally, a binary MetS-PC definition was better than the NCEP MetS definition in predicting incident CVD events in the MESA cohort, but this superiority was not evident in the Health ABC cohort.
doi:10.1155/2012/919425
PMCID: PMC3318892  PMID: 22536533
18.  Common variants in the calcium-sensing receptor gene are associated with total serum calcium levels 
Human Molecular Genetics  2010;19(21):4296-4303.
Serum calcium levels are tightly regulated. We performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in population-based studies participating in the CHARGE Consortium to uncover common genetic variations associated with total serum calcium levels. GWAS of serum calcium concentrations was performed in 20 611 individuals of European ancestry for ∼2.5 million genotyped and imputed single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The SNP with the lowest P-value was rs17251221 (P = 2.4 * 10−22, minor allele frequency 14%) in the calcium-sensing receptor gene (CASR). This lead SNP was associated with higher serum calcium levels [0.06 mg/dl (0.015 mmol/l) per copy of the minor G allele] and accounted for 0.54% of the variance in serum calcium concentrations. The identification of variation in CASR that influences serum calcium concentration confirms the results of earlier candidate gene studies. The G allele of rs17251221 was also associated with higher serum magnesium levels (P = 1.2 * 10−3), lower serum phosphate levels (P = 2.8 * 10−7) and lower bone mineral density at the lumbar spine (P = 0.038), but not the femoral neck. No additional genomic loci contained SNPs associated at genome-wide significance (P < 5 * 10−8). These associations resemble clinical characteristics of patients with familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia, an autosomal-dominant disease arising from rare inactivating mutations in the CASR gene. We conclude that common genetic variation in the CASR gene is associated with similar but milder features in the general population.
doi:10.1093/hmg/ddq342
PMCID: PMC2951868  PMID: 20705733
19.  Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Variants Associated with Histologic Features of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease 
Gastroenterology  2010;139(5):1567-1576.e6.
Background & Aims
There is little data available from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of liver histology in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We conducted a pilot GWAS in patients with NAFLD, characterized by histology, who were enrolled in the NASH CRN Database Study.
Methods
We studied clinical, laboratory, and histological data from 236 non-Hispanic Caucasian women with NAFLD. We analyzed 324,623 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the 22 autosomal chromosomes. Multivariate-adjusted logistic regression analyses were conducted for binary outcomes and linear regression analysis was applied for quantitative traits. A P-value < 1×10−6 was considered to be significant.
Results
In multivariate models adjusted for age, body mass index, diabetes, waist:hip ratios, and levels of hemoglobin A1c, the NAFLD activity score was associated with the SNP rs2645424 on chromosome 8 in farnesyl diphosphate farnesyl transferase 1 (FDFT1) (P=6.8×10−7). The degree of fibrosis was associated with the SNP rs343062 on chromosome 7 (P=2.7×10−8). SNPs associated with lobular inflammation included SNP rs1227756 on chromosome 10 in COL13A1 (P=2.0×10−7), rs6591182 on chromosome 11 (P=8.6×10−7), and rs887304 on chromosome 12 in EFCAB4B (P=7.7×10−7). SNPs associated with serum levels of alanine aminotransferase included rs2499604 on chromosome 1 (P=2.2×10−6), rs6487679 on chromosome 12 in PZP (P=1.3×10−6), rs1421201 on chromosome 18 (P=1.0×10−5), and rs2710833 on chromosome 4 (P=6.3×10−7). There were no significant associations between genotypes and steatosis, ballooning degeneration, portal inflammation, or other features of NAFLD.
Conclusions
A GWAS significantly associated genetic variants with features of hepatic histology in patients with NAFLD. These findings should be validated in larger and more diverse cohorts.
doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2010.07.057
PMCID: PMC2967576  PMID: 20708005
GWAS; NASH; NAS; NASH CRN; FDFT1; AST
20.  Association analyses of 249,796 individuals reveal eighteen new loci associated with body mass index 
Speliotes, Elizabeth K. | Willer, Cristen J. | Berndt, Sonja I. | Monda, Keri L. | Thorleifsson, Gudmar | Jackson, Anne U. | Allen, Hana Lango | Lindgren, Cecilia M. | Luan, Jian’an | Mägi, Reedik | Randall, Joshua C. | Vedantam, Sailaja | Winkler, Thomas W. | Qi, Lu | Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie | Heid, Iris M. | Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur | Stringham, Heather M. | Weedon, Michael N. | Wheeler, Eleanor | Wood, Andrew R. | Ferreira, Teresa | Weyant, Robert J. | Segré, Ayellet V. | Estrada, Karol | Liang, Liming | Nemesh, James | Park, Ju-Hyun | Gustafsson, Stefan | Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O. | Yang, Jian | Bouatia-Naji, Nabila | Esko, Tõnu | Feitosa, Mary F. | Kutalik, Zoltán | Mangino, Massimo | Raychaudhuri, Soumya | Scherag, Andre | Smith, Albert Vernon | Welch, Ryan | Zhao, Jing Hua | Aben, Katja K. | Absher, Devin M. | Amin, Najaf | Dixon, Anna L. | Fisher, Eva | Glazer, Nicole L. | Goddard, Michael E. | Heard-Costa, Nancy L. | Hoesel, Volker | Hottenga, Jouke-Jan | Johansson, Åsa | Johnson, Toby | Ketkar, Shamika | Lamina, Claudia | Li, Shengxu | Moffatt, Miriam F. | Myers, Richard H. | Narisu, Narisu | Perry, John R.B. | Peters, Marjolein J. | Preuss, Michael | Ripatti, Samuli | Rivadeneira, Fernando | Sandholt, Camilla | Scott, Laura J. | Timpson, Nicholas J. | Tyrer, Jonathan P. | van Wingerden, Sophie | Watanabe, Richard M. | White, Charles C. | Wiklund, Fredrik | Barlassina, Christina | Chasman, Daniel I. | Cooper, Matthew N. | Jansson, John-Olov | Lawrence, Robert W. | Pellikka, Niina | Prokopenko, Inga | Shi, Jianxin | Thiering, Elisabeth | Alavere, Helene | Alibrandi, Maria T. S. | Almgren, Peter | Arnold, Alice M. | Aspelund, Thor | Atwood, Larry D. | Balkau, Beverley | Balmforth, Anthony J. | Bennett, Amanda J. | Ben-Shlomo, Yoav | Bergman, Richard N. | Bergmann, Sven | Biebermann, Heike | Blakemore, Alexandra I.F. | Boes, Tanja | Bonnycastle, Lori L. | Bornstein, Stefan R. | Brown, Morris J. | Buchanan, Thomas A. | Busonero, Fabio | Campbell, Harry | Cappuccio, Francesco P. | Cavalcanti-Proença, Christine | Chen, Yii-Der Ida | Chen, Chih-Mei | Chines, Peter S. | Clarke, Robert | Coin, Lachlan | Connell, John | Day, Ian N.M. | Heijer, Martin den | Duan, Jubao | Ebrahim, Shah | Elliott, Paul | Elosua, Roberto | Eiriksdottir, Gudny | Erdos, Michael R. | Eriksson, Johan G. | Facheris, Maurizio F. | Felix, Stephan B. | Fischer-Posovszky, Pamela | Folsom, Aaron R. | Friedrich, Nele | Freimer, Nelson B. | Fu, Mao | Gaget, Stefan | Gejman, Pablo V. | Geus, Eco J.C. | Gieger, Christian | Gjesing, Anette P. | Goel, Anuj | Goyette, Philippe | Grallert, Harald | Gräßler, Jürgen | Greenawalt, Danielle M. | Groves, Christopher J. | Gudnason, Vilmundur | Guiducci, Candace | Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa | Hassanali, Neelam | Hall, Alistair S. | Havulinna, Aki S. | Hayward, Caroline | Heath, Andrew C. | Hengstenberg, Christian | Hicks, Andrew A. | Hinney, Anke | Hofman, Albert | Homuth, Georg | Hui, Jennie | Igl, Wilmar | Iribarren, Carlos | Isomaa, Bo | Jacobs, Kevin B. | Jarick, Ivonne | Jewell, Elizabeth | John, Ulrich | Jørgensen, Torben | Jousilahti, Pekka | Jula, Antti | Kaakinen, Marika | Kajantie, Eero | Kaplan, Lee M. | Kathiresan, Sekar | Kettunen, Johannes | Kinnunen, Leena | Knowles, Joshua W. | Kolcic, Ivana | König, Inke R. | Koskinen, Seppo | Kovacs, Peter | Kuusisto, Johanna | Kraft, Peter | Kvaløy, Kirsti | Laitinen, Jaana | Lantieri, Olivier | Lanzani, Chiara | Launer, Lenore J. | Lecoeur, Cecile | Lehtimäki, Terho | Lettre, Guillaume | Liu, Jianjun | Lokki, Marja-Liisa | Lorentzon, Mattias | Luben, Robert N. | Ludwig, Barbara | Manunta, Paolo | Marek, Diana | Marre, Michel | Martin, Nicholas G. | McArdle, Wendy L. | McCarthy, Anne | McKnight, Barbara | Meitinger, Thomas | Melander, Olle | Meyre, David | Midthjell, Kristian | Montgomery, Grant W. | Morken, Mario A. | Morris, Andrew P. | Mulic, Rosanda | Ngwa, Julius S. | Nelis, Mari | Neville, Matt J. | Nyholt, Dale R. | O’Donnell, Christopher J. | O’Rahilly, Stephen | Ong, Ken K. | Oostra, Ben | Paré, Guillaume | Parker, Alex N. | Perola, Markus | Pichler, Irene | Pietiläinen, Kirsi H. | Platou, Carl G.P. | Polasek, Ozren | Pouta, Anneli | Rafelt, Suzanne | Raitakari, Olli | Rayner, Nigel W. | Ridderstråle, Martin | Rief, Winfried | Ruokonen, Aimo | Robertson, Neil R. | Rzehak, Peter | Salomaa, Veikko | Sanders, Alan R. | Sandhu, Manjinder S. | Sanna, Serena | Saramies, Jouko | Savolainen, Markku J. | Scherag, Susann | Schipf, Sabine | Schreiber, Stefan | Schunkert, Heribert | Silander, Kaisa | Sinisalo, Juha | Siscovick, David S. | Smit, Jan H. | Soranzo, Nicole | Sovio, Ulla | Stephens, Jonathan | Surakka, Ida | Swift, Amy J. | Tammesoo, Mari-Liis | Tardif, Jean-Claude | Teder-Laving, Maris | Teslovich, Tanya M. | Thompson, John R. | Thomson, Brian | Tönjes, Anke | Tuomi, Tiinamaija | van Meurs, Joyce B.J. | van Ommen, Gert-Jan | Vatin, Vincent | Viikari, Jorma | Visvikis-Siest, Sophie | Vitart, Veronique | Vogel, Carla I. G. | Voight, Benjamin F. | Waite, Lindsay L. | Wallaschofski, Henri | Walters, G. Bragi | Widen, Elisabeth | Wiegand, Susanna | Wild, Sarah H. | Willemsen, Gonneke | Witte, Daniel R. | Witteman, Jacqueline C. | Xu, Jianfeng | Zhang, Qunyuan | Zgaga, Lina | Ziegler, Andreas | Zitting, Paavo | Beilby, John P. | Farooqi, I. Sadaf | Hebebrand, Johannes | Huikuri, Heikki V. | James, Alan L. | Kähönen, Mika | Levinson, Douglas F. | Macciardi, Fabio | Nieminen, Markku S. | Ohlsson, Claes | Palmer, Lyle J. | Ridker, Paul M. | Stumvoll, Michael | Beckmann, Jacques S. | Boeing, Heiner | Boerwinkle, Eric | Boomsma, Dorret I. | Caulfield, Mark J. | Chanock, Stephen J. | Collins, Francis S. | Cupples, L. Adrienne | Smith, George Davey | Erdmann, Jeanette | Froguel, Philippe | Grönberg, Henrik | Gyllensten, Ulf | Hall, Per | Hansen, Torben | Harris, Tamara B. | Hattersley, Andrew T. | Hayes, Richard B. | Heinrich, Joachim | Hu, Frank B. | Hveem, Kristian | Illig, Thomas | Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta | Kaprio, Jaakko | Karpe, Fredrik | Khaw, Kay-Tee | Kiemeney, Lambertus A. | Krude, Heiko | Laakso, Markku | Lawlor, Debbie A. | Metspalu, Andres | Munroe, Patricia B. | Ouwehand, Willem H. | Pedersen, Oluf | Penninx, Brenda W. | Peters, Annette | Pramstaller, Peter P. | Quertermous, Thomas | Reinehr, Thomas | Rissanen, Aila | Rudan, Igor | Samani, Nilesh J. | Schwarz, Peter E.H. | Shuldiner, Alan R. | Spector, Timothy D. | Tuomilehto, Jaakko | Uda, Manuela | Uitterlinden, André | Valle, Timo T. | Wabitsch, Martin | Waeber, Gérard | Wareham, Nicholas J. | Watkins, Hugh | Wilson, James F. | Wright, Alan F. | Zillikens, M. Carola | Chatterjee, Nilanjan | McCarroll, Steven A. | Purcell, Shaun | Schadt, Eric E. | Visscher, Peter M. | Assimes, Themistocles L. | Borecki, Ingrid B. | Deloukas, Panos | Fox, Caroline S. | Groop, Leif C. | Haritunians, Talin | Hunter, David J. | Kaplan, Robert C. | Mohlke, Karen L. | O’Connell, Jeffrey R. | Peltonen, Leena | Schlessinger, David | Strachan, David P. | van Duijn, Cornelia M. | Wichmann, H.-Erich | Frayling, Timothy M. | Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur | Abecasis, Gonçalo R. | Barroso, Inês | Boehnke, Michael | Stefansson, Kari | North, Kari E. | McCarthy, Mark I. | Hirschhorn, Joel N. | Ingelsson, Erik | Loos, Ruth J.F.
Nature genetics  2010;42(11):937-948.
Obesity is globally prevalent and highly heritable, but the underlying genetic factors remain largely elusive. To identify genetic loci for obesity-susceptibility, we examined associations between body mass index (BMI) and ~2.8 million SNPs in up to 123,865 individuals, with targeted follow-up of 42 SNPs in up to 125,931 additional individuals. We confirmed 14 known obesity-susceptibility loci and identified 18 new loci associated with BMI (P<5×10−8), one of which includes a copy number variant near GPRC5B. Some loci (MC4R, POMC, SH2B1, BDNF) map near key hypothalamic regulators of energy balance, and one is near GIPR, an incretin receptor. Furthermore, genes in other newly-associated loci may provide novel insights into human body weight regulation.
doi:10.1038/ng.686
PMCID: PMC3014648  PMID: 20935630
21.  A Genome-wide Association Study of Carotid Atherosclerosis in HIV-infected Men 
AIDS (London, England)  2010;24(4):583-592.
Background
The role of host genetics in the development of subclinical atherosclerosis in the context of HIV infected persons who are being treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is not well understood.
Methods
The present genome-wide association study (GWAS) is based on 177 HIV-positive Caucasian males receiving HAART who participated in the Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV Infection (FRAM) Study. Common and internal carotid intima-media thicknesses (cIMT) measured by B-mode ultrasound were used as a subclinical measure of atherosclerosis. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were assayed using the Illumina HumanCNV370-quad beadchip. Copy Number Variants (CNV) were inferred using a hidden Markov Model (PennCNV). Regression analyses were used to assess the association of common and internal cIMT with individual SNPs and CNVs, adjusting for age, duration of antiretroviral treatment, and principal components to account for potential population stratification.
Results
Two SNPs in tight linkage disequilibrium, rs2229116 (a missense, nonsynonymous polymorphism (IIe to Val)) and rs7177922, located in the Ryanodine receptor (RYR3) gene on chromosome 15 were significantly associated with common cIMT (p-value<1.61×10−7). The RYR gene family has been known to play a role in the etiology of cardiovascular disease and has been shown to be regulated by HIV TAT protein.
Conclusions
These results suggest that in the context of HIV infection and HAART, a functional SNP in a biologically plausible candidate gene, RYR3, is associated with increased common carotid IMT, which is a surrogate for atherosclerosis.
doi:10.1097/QAD.0b013e3283353c9e
PMCID: PMC3072760  PMID: 20009918
HIV; HAART; atherosclerosis; GWAS; intima-media thickness
22.  Multiple Novel Loci are Associated with Indices of Renal Function and Chronic Kidney Disease 
Nature genetics  2009;41(6):712-717.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has a heritable component and is an important global public health problem because of its high prevalence and morbidity.1 We conducted genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to identify susceptibility loci for glomerular filtration rate estimated by serum creatinine (eGFRcrea), cystatin C (eGFRcys), and CKD (eGFRcrea<60 ml/min/1.73m2) in European-ancestry participants of four populations-based cohorts (ARIC, CHS, FHS, RS; n=19,877, 2,388 CKD cases), and tested for external replication in 21,466 participants (1,932 CKD cases). Significant associations (p<5*10−8) were identified for SNPs with [1] CKD at the UMOD locus; [2] eGFRcrea at the UMOD, SHROOM3, and GATM/SPATA5L1 loci; [3] eGFRcys at the CST and STC1 loci. UMOD encodes the most common protein in human urine, Tamm-Horsfall protein,2 and rare mutations in UMOD cause Mendelian forms of kidney disease.3 Our findings provide new insights into CKD pathogenesis and underscore the importance of common genetic variants influencing renal function and disease.
doi:10.1038/ng.377
PMCID: PMC3039280  PMID: 19430482
chronic kidney disease; renal function; epidemiology; genetics; genome-wide association study; single nucleotide polymorphism
23.  New genetic loci implicated in fasting glucose homeostasis and their impact on type 2 diabetes risk 
Dupuis, Josée | Langenberg, Claudia | Prokopenko, Inga | Saxena, Richa | Soranzo, Nicole | Jackson, Anne U | Wheeler, Eleanor | Glazer, Nicole L | Bouatia-Naji, Nabila | Gloyn, Anna L | Lindgren, Cecilia M | Mägi, Reedik | Morris, Andrew P | Randall, Joshua | Johnson, Toby | Elliott, Paul | Rybin, Denis | Thorleifsson, Gudmar | Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur | Henneman, Peter | Grallert, Harald | Dehghan, Abbas | Hottenga, Jouke Jan | Franklin, Christopher S | Navarro, Pau | Song, Kijoung | Goel, Anuj | Perry, John R B | Egan, Josephine M | Lajunen, Taina | Grarup, Niels | Sparsø, Thomas | Doney, Alex | Voight, Benjamin F | Stringham, Heather M | Li, Man | Kanoni, Stavroula | Shrader, Peter | Cavalcanti-Proença, Christine | Kumari, Meena | Qi, Lu | Timpson, Nicholas J | Gieger, Christian | Zabena, Carina | Rocheleau, Ghislain | Ingelsson, Erik | An, Ping | O’Connell, Jeffrey | Luan, Jian'an | Elliott, Amanda | McCarroll, Steven A | Payne, Felicity | Roccasecca, Rosa Maria | Pattou, François | Sethupathy, Praveen | Ardlie, Kristin | Ariyurek, Yavuz | Balkau, Beverley | Barter, Philip | Beilby, John P | Ben-Shlomo, Yoav | Benediktsson, Rafn | Bennett, Amanda J | Bergmann, Sven | Bochud, Murielle | Boerwinkle, Eric | Bonnefond, Amélie | Bonnycastle, Lori L | Borch-Johnsen, Knut | Böttcher, Yvonne | Brunner, Eric | Bumpstead, Suzannah J | Charpentier, Guillaume | Chen, Yii-Der Ida | Chines, Peter | Clarke, Robert | Coin, Lachlan J M | Cooper, Matthew N | Cornelis, Marilyn | Crawford, Gabe | Crisponi, Laura | Day, Ian N M | de Geus, Eco | Delplanque, Jerome | Dina, Christian | Erdos, Michael R | Fedson, Annette C | Fischer-Rosinsky, Antje | Forouhi, Nita G | Fox, Caroline S | Frants, Rune | Franzosi, Maria Grazia | Galan, Pilar | Goodarzi, Mark O | Graessler, Jürgen | Groves, Christopher J | Grundy, Scott | Gwilliam, Rhian | Gyllensten, Ulf | Hadjadj, Samy | Hallmans, Göran | Hammond, Naomi | Han, Xijing | Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa | Hassanali, Neelam | Hayward, Caroline | Heath, Simon C | Hercberg, Serge | Herder, Christian | Hicks, Andrew A | Hillman, David R | Hingorani, Aroon D | Hofman, Albert | Hui, Jennie | Hung, Joe | Isomaa, Bo | Johnson, Paul R V | Jørgensen, Torben | Jula, Antti | Kaakinen, Marika | Kaprio, Jaakko | Kesaniemi, Y Antero | Kivimaki, Mika | Knight, Beatrice | Koskinen, Seppo | Kovacs, Peter | Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm | Lathrop, G Mark | Lawlor, Debbie A | Le Bacquer, Olivier | Lecoeur, Cécile | Li, Yun | Lyssenko, Valeriya | Mahley, Robert | Mangino, Massimo | Manning, Alisa K | Martínez-Larrad, María Teresa | McAteer, Jarred B | McCulloch, Laura J | McPherson, Ruth | Meisinger, Christa | Melzer, David | Meyre, David | Mitchell, Braxton D | Morken, Mario A | Mukherjee, Sutapa | Naitza, Silvia | Narisu, Narisu | Neville, Matthew J | Oostra, Ben A | Orrù, Marco | Pakyz, Ruth | Palmer, Colin N A | Paolisso, Giuseppe | Pattaro, Cristian | Pearson, Daniel | Peden, John F | Pedersen, Nancy L. | Perola, Markus | Pfeiffer, Andreas F H | Pichler, Irene | Polasek, Ozren | Posthuma, Danielle | Potter, Simon C | Pouta, Anneli | Province, Michael A | Psaty, Bruce M | Rathmann, Wolfgang | Rayner, Nigel W | Rice, Kenneth | Ripatti, Samuli | Rivadeneira, Fernando | Roden, Michael | Rolandsson, Olov | Sandbaek, Annelli | Sandhu, Manjinder | Sanna, Serena | Sayer, Avan Aihie | Scheet, Paul | Scott, Laura J | Seedorf, Udo | Sharp, Stephen J | Shields, Beverley | Sigurðsson, Gunnar | Sijbrands, Erik J G | Silveira, Angela | Simpson, Laila | Singleton, Andrew | Smith, Nicholas L | Sovio, Ulla | Swift, Amy | Syddall, Holly | Syvänen, Ann-Christine | Tanaka, Toshiko | Thorand, Barbara | Tichet, Jean | Tönjes, Anke | Tuomi, Tiinamaija | Uitterlinden, André G | van Dijk, Ko Willems | van Hoek, Mandy | Varma, Dhiraj | Visvikis-Siest, Sophie | Vitart, Veronique | Vogelzangs, Nicole | Waeber, Gérard | Wagner, Peter J | Walley, Andrew | Walters, G Bragi | Ward, Kim L | Watkins, Hugh | Weedon, Michael N | Wild, Sarah H | Willemsen, Gonneke | Witteman, Jaqueline C M | Yarnell, John W G | Zeggini, Eleftheria | Zelenika, Diana | Zethelius, Björn | Zhai, Guangju | Zhao, Jing Hua | Zillikens, M Carola | Borecki, Ingrid B | Loos, Ruth J F | Meneton, Pierre | Magnusson, Patrik K E | Nathan, David M | Williams, Gordon H | Hattersley, Andrew T | Silander, Kaisa | Salomaa, Veikko | Smith, George Davey | Bornstein, Stefan R | Schwarz, Peter | Spranger, Joachim | Karpe, Fredrik | Shuldiner, Alan R | Cooper, Cyrus | Dedoussis, George V | Serrano-Ríos, Manuel | Morris, Andrew D | Lind, Lars | Palmer, Lyle J | Hu, Frank B. | Franks, Paul W | Ebrahim, Shah | Marmot, Michael | Kao, W H Linda | Pankow, James S | Sampson, Michael J | Kuusisto, Johanna | Laakso, Markku | Hansen, Torben | Pedersen, Oluf | Pramstaller, Peter Paul | Wichmann, H Erich | Illig, Thomas | Rudan, Igor | Wright, Alan F | Stumvoll, Michael | Campbell, Harry | Wilson, James F | Hamsten, Anders | Bergman, Richard N | Buchanan, Thomas A | Collins, Francis S | Mohlke, Karen L | Tuomilehto, Jaakko | Valle, Timo T | Altshuler, David | Rotter, Jerome I | Siscovick, David S | Penninx, Brenda W J H | Boomsma, Dorret | Deloukas, Panos | Spector, Timothy D | Frayling, Timothy M | Ferrucci, Luigi | Kong, Augustine | Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur | Stefansson, Kari | van Duijn, Cornelia M | Aulchenko, Yurii S | Cao, Antonio | Scuteri, Angelo | Schlessinger, David | Uda, Manuela | Ruokonen, Aimo | Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta | Waterworth, Dawn M | Vollenweider, Peter | Peltonen, Leena | Mooser, Vincent | Abecasis, Goncalo R | Wareham, Nicholas J | Sladek, Robert | Froguel, Philippe | Watanabe, Richard M | Meigs, James B | Groop, Leif | Boehnke, Michael | McCarthy, Mark I | Florez, Jose C | Barroso, Inês
Nature genetics  2010;42(2):105-116.
Circulating glucose levels are tightly regulated. To identify novel glycemic loci, we performed meta-analyses of 21 genome-wide associations studies informative for fasting glucose (FG), fasting insulin (FI) and indices of β-cell function (HOMA-B) and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in up to 46,186 non-diabetic participants. Follow-up of 25 loci in up to 76,558 additional subjects identified 16 loci associated with FG/HOMA-B and two associated with FI/HOMA-IR. These include nine new FG loci (in or near ADCY5, MADD, ADRA2A, CRY2, FADS1, GLIS3, SLC2A2, PROX1 and FAM148B) and one influencing FI/HOMA-IR (near IGF1). We also demonstrated association of ADCY5, PROX1, GCK, GCKR and DGKB/TMEM195 with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Within these loci, likely biological candidate genes influence signal transduction, cell proliferation, development, glucose-sensing and circadian regulation. Our results demonstrate that genetic studies of glycemic traits can identify T2D risk loci, as well as loci that elevate FG modestly, but do not cause overt diabetes.
doi:10.1038/ng.520
PMCID: PMC3018764  PMID: 20081858
24.  Genetic variation in GIPR influences the glucose and insulin responses to an oral glucose challenge 
Saxena, Richa | Hivert, Marie-France | Langenberg, Claudia | Tanaka, Toshiko | Pankow, James S | Vollenweider, Peter | Lyssenko, Valeriya | Bouatia-Naji, Nabila | Dupuis, Josée | Jackson, Anne U | Kao, W H Linda | Li, Man | Glazer, Nicole L | Manning, Alisa K | Luan, Jian’an | Stringham, Heather M | Prokopenko, Inga | Johnson, Toby | Grarup, Niels | Boesgaard, Trine W | Lecoeur, Cécile | Shrader, Peter | O’Connell, Jeffrey | Ingelsson, Erik | Couper, David J | Rice, Kenneth | Song, Kijoung | Andreasen, Camilla H | Dina, Christian | Köttgen, Anna | Le Bacquer, Olivier | Pattou, François | Taneera, Jalal | Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur | Rybin, Denis | Ardlie, Kristin | Sampson, Michael | Qi, Lu | van Hoek, Mandy | Weedon, Michael N | Aulchenko, Yurii S | Voight, Benjamin F | Grallert, Harald | Balkau, Beverley | Bergman, Richard N | Bielinski, Suzette J | Bonnefond, Amelie | Bonnycastle, Lori L | Borch-Johnsen, Knut | Böttcher, Yvonne | Brunner, Eric | Buchanan, Thomas A | Bumpstead, Suzannah J | Cavalcanti-Proença, Christine | Charpentier, Guillaume | Chen, Yii-Der Ida | Chines, Peter S | Collins, Francis S | Cornelis, Marilyn | Crawford, Gabriel J | Delplanque, Jerome | Doney, Alex | Egan, Josephine M | Erdos, Michael R | Firmann, Mathieu | Forouhi, Nita G | Fox, Caroline S | Goodarzi, Mark O | Graessler, Jürgen | Hingorani, Aroon | Isomaa, Bo | Jørgensen, Torben | Kivimaki, Mika | Kovacs, Peter | Krohn, Knut | Kumari, Meena | Lauritzen, Torsten | Lévy-Marchal, Claire | Mayor, Vladimir | McAteer, Jarred B | Meyre, David | Mitchell, Braxton D | Mohlke, Karen L | Morken, Mario A | Narisu, Narisu | Palmer, Colin N A | Pakyz, Ruth | Pascoe, Laura | Payne, Felicity | Pearson, Daniel | Rathmann, Wolfgang | Sandbaek, Annelli | Sayer, Avan Aihie | Scott, Laura J | Sharp, Stephen J | Sijbrands, Eric | Singleton, Andrew | Siscovick, David S | Smith, Nicholas L | Sparsø, Thomas | Swift, Amy J | Syddall, Holly | Thorleifsson, Gudmar | Tönjes, Anke | Tuomi, Tiinamaija | Tuomilehto, Jaakko | Valle, Timo T | Waeber, Gérard | Walley, Andrew | Waterworth, Dawn M | Zeggini, Eleftheria | Zhao, Jing Hua | Illig, Thomas | Wichmann, H Erich | Wilson, James F | van Duijn, Cornelia | Hu, Frank B | Morris, Andrew D | Frayling, Timothy M | Hattersley, Andrew T | Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur | Stefansson, Kari | Nilsson, Peter | Syvänen, Ann-Christine | Shuldiner, Alan R | Walker, Mark | Bornstein, Stefan R | Schwarz, Peter | Williams, Gordon H | Nathan, David M | Kuusisto, Johanna | Laakso, Markku | Cooper, Cyrus | Marmot, Michael | Ferrucci, Luigi | Mooser, Vincent | Stumvoll, Michael | Loos, Ruth J F | Altshuler, David | Psaty, Bruce M | Rotter, Jerome I | Boerwinkle, Eric | Hansen, Torben | Pedersen, Oluf | Florez, Jose C | McCarthy, Mark I | Boehnke, Michael | Barroso, Inês | Sladek, Robert | Froguel, Philippe | Meigs, James B | Groop, Leif | Wareham, Nicholas J | Watanabe, Richard M
Nature genetics  2010;42(2):142-148.
Glucose levels 2 h after an oral glucose challenge are a clinical measure of glucose tolerance used in the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. We report a meta-analysis of nine genome-wide association studies (n = 15,234 nondiabetic individuals) and a follow-up of 29 independent loci (n = 6,958–30,620). We identify variants at the GIPR locus associated with 2-h glucose level (rs10423928, β (s.e.m.) = 0.09 (0.01) mmol/l per A allele, P = 2.0 × 10−15). The GIPR A-allele carriers also showed decreased insulin secretion (n = 22,492; insulinogenic index, P = 1.0 × 10−17; ratio of insulin to glucose area under the curve, P = 1.3 × 10−16) and diminished incretin effect (n = 804; P = 4.3 × 10−4). We also identified variants at ADCY5 (rs2877716, P = 4.2 × 10−16), VPS13C (rs17271305, P = 4.1 × 10−8), GCKR (rs1260326, P = 7.1 × 10−11) and TCF7L2 (rs7903146, P = 4.2 × 10−10) associated with 2-h glucose. Of the three newly implicated loci (GIPR, ADCY5 and VPS13C), only ADCY5 was found to be associated with type 2 diabetes in collaborating studies (n = 35,869 cases, 89,798 controls, OR = 1.12, 95% CI 1.09–1.15, P = 4.8 × 10−18).
doi:10.1038/ng.521
PMCID: PMC2922003  PMID: 20081857
25.  Genome-Wide Association Studies of Serum Magnesium, Potassium, and Sodium Concentrations Identify Six Loci Influencing Serum Magnesium Levels 
PLoS Genetics  2010;6(8):e1001045.
Magnesium, potassium, and sodium, cations commonly measured in serum, are involved in many physiological processes including energy metabolism, nerve and muscle function, signal transduction, and fluid and blood pressure regulation. To evaluate the contribution of common genetic variation to normal physiologic variation in serum concentrations of these cations, we conducted genome-wide association studies of serum magnesium, potassium, and sodium concentrations using ∼2.5 million genotyped and imputed common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 15,366 participants of European descent from the international CHARGE Consortium. Study-specific results were combined using fixed-effects inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis. SNPs demonstrating genome-wide significant (p<5×10−8) or suggestive associations (p<4×10−7) were evaluated for replication in an additional 8,463 subjects of European descent. The association of common variants at six genomic regions (in or near MUC1, ATP2B1, DCDC5, TRPM6, SHROOM3, and MDS1) with serum magnesium levels was genome-wide significant when meta-analyzed with the replication dataset. All initially significant SNPs from the CHARGE Consortium showed nominal association with clinically defined hypomagnesemia, two showed association with kidney function, two with bone mineral density, and one of these also associated with fasting glucose levels. Common variants in CNNM2, a magnesium transporter studied only in model systems to date, as well as in CNNM3 and CNNM4, were also associated with magnesium concentrations in this study. We observed no associations with serum sodium or potassium levels exceeding p<4×10−7. Follow-up studies of newly implicated genomic loci may provide additional insights into the regulation and homeostasis of human serum magnesium levels.
Author Summary
Magnesium, potassium, and sodium are involved in important physiological processes. To better understand how common genetic variation may contribute to inter-individual differences in serum concentrations of these electrolytes, we evaluated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the genome in association with serum magnesium, potassium, and sodium levels in 15,366 participants of European descent from the CHARGE Consortium. We then verified the associations in an additional 8,463 study participants. Six different genomic regions contain variants that are reproducibly associated with serum magnesium levels, and only one of the regions had been previously known to influence serum magnesium concentrations in humans. The identified SNPs also show association with clinically defined hypomagnesemia, and some of them with traits that have been linked to serum magnesium levels, including kidney function, fasting glucose, and bone mineral density. We further provide evidence for a physiological role of magnesium transporters in humans which have previously only been studied in model systems. None of the SNPs evaluated in our study are significantly associated with serum levels of sodium or potassium. Additional studies are needed to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms in order to help us understand the contribution of these newly identified regions to magnesium homeostasis.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1001045
PMCID: PMC2916845  PMID: 20700443

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