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1.  Gene Expression Profiling Reveals Regulation of ERK Phosphorylation by Androgen-Induced Tumor Suppressor U19/EAF2 in the Mouse Prostate 
Cancer Microenvironment  2013;6(3):247-261.
U19/EAF2 is regulated by androgens in the prostate and capable of regulating transcriptional elongation of RNA Pol II via interaction with the ELL family proteins. Inactivation of U19/EAF2 induces tumorigenesis in multiple organs; however the mechanism of U19/EAF2 tumor suppression remains unclear. To elucidate potential mechanisms of U19/EAF2 action, we performed cDNA microarray analysis and identified 164 mRNA transcripts regulated by U19/EAF2 in the mouse ventral prostate. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that U19/EAF2 knockout activates the RAS-BRAF-ERK signaling pathway, which is known to play important roles in carcinogenesis. qPCR verified increased expression of BRAF mRNA, and immunostaining and Western blot analysis demonstrated increased expression of p-ERK at the protein level suggested U19/EAF2 knockout activates this important pathway. These findings indicate that loss of EAF2 up-regulates transcription of RAS cascade genes including Grb2, PI3K, and BRAF, leading to elevated p-ERK levels, which may represent a major functional role of U19/EAF2 in the prostate. Furthermore, these observations suggest that U19/EAF2 is a key player in crosstalk between androgen receptor and the RAS-BRAF-ERK signaling pathway.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12307-013-0132-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s12307-013-0132-4
PMCID: PMC3855377  PMID: 23440596
EAF2; Prostate cancer; ERK
2.  Age-Dependent Signature of Metallothionein Expression in Primary CD4 T Cell Responses Is Due to Sustained Zinc Signaling 
Rejuvenation research  2008;11(6):1001-1011.
The ability to mount adaptive immune responses to vaccinations and viral infections declines with increasing age. To identify mechanisms leading to immunosenescence, primary CD4 T cell responses were examined in 60- to 75-year-old individuals lacking overt functional defects. Transcriptome analysis indicated a selective defect in zinc homeostasis. CD4 T cell activation was associated with zinc influx via the zinc transporter Zip6, leading to increased free cytoplasmic zinc and activation of negative feedback loops, including the induction of zinc-binding metallothioneins. In young adults, activation-induced cytoplasmic zinc concentrations declined after 2 days to below prestimulation levels. In contrast, activated naïve CD4 T cells from older individuals failed to downregulate cytoplasmic zinc, resulting in excessive induction of metallothioneins. Activation-induced metallothioneins regulated the redox state in activated T cells and accounted for an increased proliferation of old CD4 T cells, suggesting that regulation of T cell zinc homeostasis functions as a compensatory mechanism to preserve the replicative potential of naïve CD4 T cells with age.
doi:10.1089/rej.2008.0747
PMCID: PMC2848531  PMID: 19072254
3.  Age-Dependent Signature of Metallothionein Expression in Primary CD4 T Cell Responses Is Due to Sustained Zinc Signaling 
Rejuvenation Research  2008;11(6):1001-1011.
Abstract
The ability to mount adaptive immune responses to vaccinations and viral infections declines with increasing age. To identify mechanisms leading to immunosenescence, primary CD4 T cell responses were examined in 60- to 75-year-old individuals lacking overt functional defects. Transcriptome analysis indicated a selective defect in zinc homeostasis. CD4 T cell activation was associated with zinc influx via the zinc transporter Zip6, leading to increased free cytoplasmic zinc and activation of negative feedback loops, including the induction of zinc-binding metallothioneins. In young adults, activation-induced cytoplasmic zinc concentrations declined after 2 days to below prestimulation levels. In contrast, activated naïve CD4 T cells from older individuals failed to downregulate cytoplasmic zinc, resulting in excessive induction of metallothioneins. Activation-induced metallothioneins regulated the redox state in activated T cells and accounted for an increased proliferation of old CD4 T cells, suggesting that regulation of T cell zinc homeostasis functions as a compensatory mechanism to preserve the replicative potential of naïve CD4 T cells with age.
doi:10.1089/rej.2008.0747
PMCID: PMC2848531  PMID: 19072254

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