peroxisome; lipid metabolism; reactive oxygen species; peroxisome biogenesis; endoplasmic reticulum; peroxisomal endomembrane system; development; aging
iNOS localizes to both the cytosol and peroxisomes in hepatocytes in vitro and in vivo. The structural determinants for iNOS localization are not known. One plausible mechanism for iNOS localization to the peroxisome is through the interaction with peroxisomal import proteins PEX5 or PEX7. siRNA knockdown of PEX7 reduced iNOS colocalization with the peroxisomal protein PMP70. Proteomic studies using MALDI-MS identified iNOS association with the 50-kD ezrin binding PDZ protein (EBP50). Confocal microscopy studies and immunoelectron microscopy confirmed iNOS association with EBP50, with greatest colocalization occurring at 8 hours of cytokine exposure. EBP50 associated with peroxisomes in a PEX5 and PEX7-dependent manner. iNOS localization to peroxisomes was contingent on EBP50 expression in LPS-treated mice. Thus, iNOS targeting to peroxisomes in hepatocytes involves interaction with PEX7 and EBP50. The targeting of iNOS protein to the peroxisome may shift the balance of metabolic processes that rely on heme proteins susceptible to modification by radical oxygen and nitrogen radicals.
Inflammation; Sepsis; Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase; Peroxisome; Liver; Subcellular Localization
The formation of membrane contact sites between cellular organelles is required for proper organelle communication and maintenance in the compartmentalized eukaryotic cell. We recently identified a tether that links peroxisomes to the cortical ER in the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The tether is made up of the peroxisome biogenic protein Pex3p and the peroxisome inheritance factor Inp1p, and is formed by Inp1p-mediated linkage of ER-bound Pex3p and peroxisomal Pex3p. Here we discuss how this tether is fine-tuned to ensure that peroxisomes are stably maintained over generations of yeast cells.
peroxisome; endoplasmic reticulum; organelle tether; organelle inheritance; membrane contact site; molecular motor; high resolution microscopy
The dimorphic yeast Yarrowia lipolytica is used as a model to study fungal differentiation because it grows as yeast-like cells or forms hyphal cells in response to changes in environmental conditions. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of a gene, ZNC1, involved in the dimorphic transition in Y. lipolytica. The ZNC1 gene encodes a 782 amino acid protein that contains a Zn(II)2C6 fungal-type zinc finger DNA-binding domain and a leucine zipper domain. ZNC1 transcription is elevated during yeast growth and decreases during the formation of mycelium. Cells in which ZNC1 has been deleted show increased hyphal cell formation. Znc1p-GFP localizes to the nucleus, but mutations within the leucine zipper domain of Znc1p, and to a lesser extent within the Zn(II)2C6 domain, result in a mislocalization of Znc1p to the cytoplasm. Microarrays comparing gene expression between znc1::URA3 and wild-type cells during both exponential growth and the induction of the yeast-to-hypha transition revealed 1,214 genes whose expression was changed by 2-fold or more under at least one of the conditions analyzed. Our results suggest that Znc1p acts as a transcription factor repressing hyphal cell formation and functions as part of a complex network regulating mycelial growth in Y. lipolytica.
Human peroxisome biogenesis disorders are lethal genetic diseases in which abnormal peroxisome assembly compromises overall peroxisome and cellular function. Peroxisomes are ubiquitous membrane-bound organelles involved in several important biochemical processes, notably lipid metabolism and the use of reactive oxygen species for detoxification. Using cultured cells, we systematically characterized the peroxisome assembly phenotypes associated with dsRNA-mediated knockdown of 14 predicted Drosophila homologs of PEX genes (encoding peroxins; required for peroxisome assembly and linked to peroxisome biogenesis disorders), and confirmed that at least 13 of them are required for normal peroxisome assembly. We also demonstrate the relevance of Drosophila as a genetic model for the early developmental defects associated with the human peroxisome biogenesis disorders. Mutation of the PEX1 gene is the most common cause of peroxisome biogenesis disorders and is one of the causes of the most severe form of the disease, Zellweger syndrome. Inherited mutations in Drosophila Pex1 correlate with reproducible defects during early development. Notably, Pex1 mutant larvae exhibit abnormalities that are analogous to those exhibited by Zellweger syndrome patients, including developmental delay, poor feeding, severe structural abnormalities in the peripheral and central nervous systems, and early death. Finally, microarray analysis defined several clusters of genes whose expression varied significantly between wild-type and mutant larvae, implicating peroxisomal function in neuronal development, innate immunity, lipid and protein metabolism, gamete formation, and meiosis.
Pex34p is a novel peroxisomal protein involved in controlling peroxisome abundance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Pex34p acts to control peroxisome numbers both alone and in cooperation with the Pex11 protein family of peroxisome divisional proteins.
Peroxisomes are ubiquitous organelles involved in diverse metabolic processes, most notably the metabolism of lipids and the detoxification of reactive oxygen species. Peroxisomes are highly dynamic and change in size and number in response to both intra- and extracellular cues. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, peroxisome growth and division are controlled by both the differential import of soluble matrix proteins and a specialized divisional machinery that includes peroxisome-specific factors, such as members of the Pex11 protein family, and general organelle divisional factors, such as the dynamin-related protein Vps1p. Global yeast two-hybrid analyses have demonstrated interactions between the product of the S. cerevisiae gene of unknown function, YCL056c, and Pex proteins involved in peroxisome biogenesis. Here we show that the protein encoded by YCL056c, renamed Pex34p, is a peroxisomal integral membrane protein that acts independently and also in concert with the Pex11 protein family members Pex11p, Pex25p, and Pex27p to control the peroxisome populations of cells under conditions of both peroxisome proliferation and constitutive peroxisome division. Yeast two-hybrid analysis showed that Pex34p interacts physically with itself and with Pex11p, Pex25p, and Pex27p but not with Vps1p. Pex34p can act as a positive effector of peroxisome division as its overexpression leads to increased numbers of peroxisomes in wild type and pex34Δ cells. Pex34p requires the Pex11 family proteins to promote peroxisome division. Our discovery of Pex34p as a protein involved in the already complex control of peroxisome populations emphasizes the necessity of cells to strictly regulate their peroxisome populations to be able to respond appropriately to changing environmental conditions.
SifA is a virulence protein required for assembly and tubulation of a modified phagosome that promotes Salmonella replication. We show that SifA expressed in yeast induces membrane invagination during peroxisome proliferation and requires functional Rho1p. This is consistent with SifA ability to interact with RhoA and the fact that it is a GEF structural homologue.
The Salmonella typhimurium effector protein SifA regulates the assembly and tubulation of the Salmonella phagosome. SifA localizes to the phagosome and interacts with the membrane via its prenylated tail. SifA is a structural homologue of another bacterial effector that acts as a GTP-exchange factor for Rho family GTPases and can bind GDP-RhoA. When coexpressed with a bacterial lipase that is activated by RhoA, SifA can induce tubulation of mammalian endosomes. In an effort to develop a genetic system to study SifA function, we expressed SifA and characterized its activity in yeast. GFP-SifA predominantly localized to yeast peroxisomal membranes. Under peroxisome-inducing conditions, GFP-SifA reduced the number of free peroxisomes and promoted the formation of large peroxisomes with membrane invaginations. GFP-SifA activity depended on the recruitment to peroxisomes of wild-type Rho1p and Pex25p, a receptor for Rho1p. GFP-SifA could also rescue the actin organization defects in pex25Δ and rho1 mutants, suggesting that SifA may recruit and potentiate Rho1p activity. We reexamined the distribution of GFP-SifA in mammalian cells and found the majority colocalizing with LAMP1-positive compartment and not with the peroxisomal marker PMP70. Together, these data suggest that SifA may use a similar mode of action via Rho proteins to alter yeast peroxisomal and mammalian endosomal membranes. Further definition of SifA activity on yeast peroxisomes could provide more insight into its role in regulating host membrane dynamics and small GTPases.
Peroxisomes are intracellular organelles that house a number of diverse metabolic processes, notably those required for β-oxidation of fatty acids. Peroxisomes biogenesis can be induced by the presence of peroxisome proliferators, including fatty acids, which activate complex cellular programs that underlie the induction process. Here, we used multi-parameter quantitative phenotype analyses of an arrayed mutant collection of yeast cells induced to proliferate peroxisomes, to establish a comprehensive inventory of genes required for peroxisome induction and function. The assays employed include growth in the presence of fatty acids, and confocal imaging and flow cytometry through the induction process. In addition to the classical phenotypes associated with loss of peroxisomal functions, these studies identified 169 genes required for robust signaling, transcription, normal peroxisomal development and morphologies, and transmission of peroxisomes to daughter cells. These gene products are localized throughout the cell, and many have indirect connections to peroxisome function. By integration with extant data sets, we present a total of 211 genes linked to peroxisome biogenesis and highlight the complex networks through which information flows during peroxisome biogenesis and function.
Pex3 links peroxisome formation and inheritance. By binding to class V myosin, biogenesis protein Pex3 also directs the organelles into daughter cells.
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, peroxisomal inheritance from mother cell to bud is conducted by the class V myosin motor, Myo2p. However, homologues of S. cerevisiae Myo2p peroxisomal receptor, Inp2p, are not readily identifiable outside the Saccharomycetaceae family. Here, we demonstrate an unexpected role for Pex3 proteins in peroxisome inheritance. Both Pex3p and Pex3Bp are peroxisomal integral membrane proteins that function as peroxisomal receptors for class V myosin through direct interaction with the myosin globular tail. In cells lacking Pex3Bp, peroxisomes are preferentially retained by the mother cell, whereas most peroxisomes gather and are transferred en masse to the bud in cells overexpressing Pex3Bp or Pex3p. Our results reveal an unprecedented role for members of the Pex3 protein family in peroxisome motility and inheritance in addition to their well-established role in peroxisome biogenesis at the endoplasmic reticulum. Our results point to a temporal link between peroxisome formation and inheritance and delineate a general mechanism of peroxisome inheritance in eukaryotic cells.
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the class V myosin motor Myo2p propels the movement of most organelles. We recently identified Inp2p as the peroxisome-specific receptor for Myo2p. In this study, we delineate the region of Myo2p devoted to binding peroxisomes. Using mutants of Myo2p specifically impaired in peroxisome binding, we dissect cell cycle–dependent and peroxisome partitioning–dependent mechanisms of Inp2p regulation. We find that although total Inp2p levels oscillate with the cell cycle, Inp2p levels on individual peroxisomes are controlled by peroxisome inheritance, as Inp2p aberrantly accumulates and decorates all peroxisomes in mother cells when peroxisome partitioning is abolished. We also find that Inp2p is a phosphoprotein whose level of phosphorylation is coupled to the cell cycle irrespective of peroxisome positioning in the cell. Our findings demonstrate that both organelle positioning and cell cycle progression control the levels of organelle-specific receptors for molecular motors to ultimately achieve an equidistribution of compartments between mother and daughter cells.
Two pathways have been identified for peroxisome formation: (i) growth and division and (ii) de novo synthesis. Recent experiments determined that peroxisomes originate at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Although many proteins have been implicated in the peroxisome biogenic program, no proteins in the eukaryotic secretory pathway have been identified as having roles in peroxisome formation. Using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae regulatable Tet promoter Hughes clone collection, we found that repression of the ER-associated secretory proteins Sec20p and Sec39p resulted in mislocalization of the peroxisomal matrix protein chimera Pot1p-green fluorescent protein (GFP) to the cytosol. Likewise, the peroxisomal membrane protein chimera Pex3p-GFP localized to tubular-vesicular structures in cells suppressed for Sec20p, Sec39p, and Dsl1p, which form a complex at the ER. Loss of Sec39p attenuated formation of Pex3p-derived peroxisomal structures following galactose induction of Pex3p-GFP expression from the GAL1 promoter. Expression of Sec20p, Sec39p, and Dsl1p was moderately increased in yeast grown under conditions that proliferate peroxisomes, and Sec20p, Sec39p, and Dsl1p were found to cofractionate with peroxisomes and colocalize with Pex3p-monomeric red fluorescent protein under these conditions. Our results show that SEC20, SEC39, and DSL1 are essential secretory genes involved in the early stages of peroxisome assembly, and this work is the first to identify and characterize an ER-associated secretory machinery involved in peroxisome biogenesis.
Reversible phosphorylation is the most common posttranslational modification used in the regulation of cellular processes. This study of phosphatases and kinases required for peroxisome biogenesis is the first genome-wide analysis of phosphorylation events controlling organelle biogenesis. We evaluate signaling molecule deletion strains of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for presence of a green fluorescent protein chimera of peroxisomal thiolase, formation of peroxisomes, and peroxisome functionality. We find that distinct signaling networks involving glucose-mediated gene repression, derepression, oleate-mediated induction, and peroxisome formation promote stages of the biogenesis pathway. Additionally, separate classes of signaling proteins are responsible for the regulation of peroxisome number and size. These signaling networks specify the requirements of early and late events of peroxisome biogenesis. Among the numerous signaling proteins involved, Pho85p is exceptional, with functional involvements in both gene expression and peroxisome formation. Our study represents the first global study of signaling networks regulating the biogenesis of an organelle.
Yarrowia lipolytica Pex23p and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pex30p, Pex31p, and Pex32p comprise a family of dysferlin domain–containing peroxins. We show that the deletion of their Pichia pastoris homologues, PEX30 and PEX31, does not affect the function or division of methanol-induced peroxisomes but results in fewer and enlarged, functional, oleate-induced peroxisomes. Synthesis of Pex30p is constitutive, whereas that of Pex31p is oleate-induced but at a much lower level relative to Pex30p. Pex30p interacts with Pex31p and is required for its stability. At steady state, both Pex30p and Pex31p exhibit a dual localization to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and peroxisomes. However, Pex30p is localized mostly to the ER, whereas Pex31p is predominantly on peroxisomes. Consistent with ER-to-peroxisome trafficking of these proteins, Pex30p accumulates on peroxisomes upon overexpression of Pex31p. Additionally, Pex31p colocalizes with Pex30p at the ER in pex19Δ cells and can be chased from the ER to peroxisomes in a Pex19p-dependent manner. The dysferlin domains of Pex30p and Pex31p, which are dispensable for their interaction, stability, and subcellular localization, are essential for normal peroxisome number and size. The growth environment-specific role of these peroxins, their dual localization, and the function of their dysferlin domains provide novel insights into peroxisome morphogenesis.
Eukaryotic cells have evolved molecular mechanisms to ensure the faithful inheritance of organelles by daughter cells in order to maintain the benefits afforded by the compartmentalization of biochemical functions. Little is known about the inheritance of peroxisomes, organelles of lipid metabolism. We have analyzed peroxisome dynamics and inheritance in the dimorphic yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. Most peroxisomes are anchored at the periphery of cells of Y. lipolytica. In vivo video microscopy showed that at cell division, approximately half of the anchored peroxisomes in the mother cell are dislodged individually from their static positions and transported to the bud. Peroxisome motility is dependent on the actin cytoskeleton. YlInp1p is a peripheral peroxisomal membrane protein that affects the partitioning of peroxisomes between mother cell and bud in Y. lipolytica. In cells lacking YlInp1p, most peroxisomes were transferred to the bud, with only a few remaining in the mother cell, while in cells overexpressing YlInp1p, peroxisomes were preferentially retained in the mother cell, resulting in buds nearly devoid of peroxisomes. Our results are consistent with a role for YlInp1p in anchoring peroxisomes in cells. YlInp1p has a role in the dimorphic transition in Y. lipolytica, as cells lacking the YlINP1 gene more readily convert from the yeast to the mycelial form in oleic acid-containing medium, the metabolism of which requires peroxisomal activity, than does the wild-type strain. This study reports the first analysis of organelle inheritance in a true dimorphic yeast and identifies the first protein required for peroxisome inheritance in Y. lipolytica.
In transcriptional regulatory networks, the coincident binding of a combination of factors to regulate a gene implies the existence of complex mechanisms to control both the gene expression profile and specificity of the response. Unraveling this complexity is a major challenge to biologists. Here, a novel network topology-based clustering approach was applied to condition-specific genome-wide chromatin localization and expression data to characterize a dynamic transcriptional regulatory network responsive to the fatty acid oleate. A network of four (predicted) regulators of the response (Oaf1p, Pip2p, Adr1p and Oaf3p) was investigated. By analyzing trends in the network structure, we found that two groups of multi-input motifs form in response to oleate, each controlling distinct functional classes of genes. This functionality is contributed in part by Oaf1p, which is a component of both types of multi-input motifs and has two different regulatory activities depending on its binding context. The dynamic cooperation between Oaf1p and Pip2p appears to temporally synchronize the two different responses. Together, these data suggest a network mechanism involving dynamic combinatorial control for coordinating transcriptional responses.
Oaf3p; oleate; peroxisome; regulatory network; stress response
Cells respond to fatty acid exposure by metabolic reorganization and proliferation of peroxisomes. Described here is the development and application of a genome-wide screen to identify nonessential yeast genes necessary for efficient metabolism of myristic and oleic acids. Comparison of the resultant fitness data set with an integrated data set of genes transcriptionally responsive to fatty acids revealed very little overlap between the data sets. Furthermore, the fitness data set enriched for genes involved in peroxisome biogenesis and other processes related to cell morphology, whereas the expression data set enriched for genes related to metabolism. These data suggest that in response to fatty acid exposure, transcriptional control is biased towards metabolic reorganization, and structural changes tend to be controlled post-transcriptionally. They also suggest that fatty acid responsive metabolic networks are more robust than those related to cell structure. Statistical analyses of these and other global data sets suggest that the utilization of distinct control mechanisms for the execution of morphological versus metabolic responses is widespread.
Cells have evolved molecular mechanisms for the efficient transmission of organelles during cell division. Little is known about how peroxisomes are inherited. Inp1p is a peripheral membrane protein of peroxisomes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that affects both the morphology of peroxisomes and their partitioning during cell division. In vivo 4-dimensional video microscopy showed an inability of mother cells to retain a subset of peroxisomes in dividing cells lacking the INP1 gene, whereas cells overexpressing INP1 exhibited immobilized peroxisomes that failed to be partitioned to the bud. Overproduced Inp1p localized to both peroxisomes and the cell cortex, supporting an interaction of Inp1p with specific structures lining the cell periphery. The levels of Inp1p vary with the cell cycle. Inp1p binds Pex25p, Pex30p, and Vps1p, which have been implicated in controlling peroxisome division. Our findings are consistent with Inp1p acting as a factor that retains peroxisomes in cells and controls peroxisome division. Inp1p is the first peroxisomal protein directly implicated in peroxisome inheritance.
We describe unusual ergosterol- and ceramide-rich (ECR) domains in the membrane of yeast peroxisomes. Several key features of these detergent-resistant domains, including the nature of their sphingolipid constituent and its unusual distribution across the membrane bilayer, clearly distinguish them from well characterized detergent-insoluble lipid rafts in the plasma membrane. A distinct set of peroxisomal proteins, including two ATPases, Pex1p and Pex6p, as well as phosphoinositide- and GTP-binding proteins, transiently associates with the cytosolic face of ECR domains. All of these proteins are essential for the fusion of the immature peroxisomal vesicles P1 and P2, the earliest intermediates in a multistep pathway leading to the formation of mature, metabolically active peroxisomes. Peroxisome fusion depends on the lateral movement of Pex1p, Pex6p, and phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate–binding proteins from ECR domains to a detergent-soluble portion of the membrane, followed by their release to the cytosol. Our data suggest a model for the multistep reorganization of the multicomponent peroxisome fusion machinery that transiently associates with ECR domains.
We have combined classical subcellular fractionation with large-scale quantitative mass spectrometry to identify proteins that enrich specifically with peroxisomes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In two complementary experiments, isotope-coded affinity tags and tandem mass spectrometry were used to quantify the relative enrichment of proteins during the purification of peroxisomes. Mathematical modeling of the data from 306 quantified proteins led to a prioritized list of 70 candidates whose enrichment scores indicated a high likelihood of them being peroxisomal. Among these proteins, eight novel peroxisome-associated proteins were identified. The top novel peroxisomal candidate was the small GTPase Rho1p. Although Rho1p has been shown to be tethered to membranes of the secretory pathway, we show that it is specifically recruited to peroxisomes upon their induction in a process dependent on its interaction with the peroxisome membrane protein Pex25p. Rho1p regulates the assembly state of actin on the peroxisome membrane, thereby controlling peroxisome membrane dynamics and biogenesis.
The peroxisome has long been known for its role in lipid metabolism and hydrogen peroxide detoxification. However, growing evidence supports the view that this organelle can also function both as an intracellular signaling compartment and as an organizing platform that orchestrates certain developmental decisions from inside the cell. This review highlights various strategies that peroxisomes employ to regulate the processes of development, differentiation, and morphogenesis and critically evaluates several molecular mechanisms by which peroxisomes promote these processes.
The peroxin Pex23p of the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica exhibits high sequence similarity to the hypothetical proteins Ylr324p, Ygr004p, and Ybr168p encoded by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome. Ylr324p, Ygr004p, and Ybr168p are integral to the peroxisomal membrane and act to control peroxisome number and size. Synthesis of Ylr324p and Ybr168p, but not of Ygr004p, is induced during incubation of cells in oleic acid-containing medium, the metabolism of which requires intact peroxisomes. Cells deleted for YLR324w exhibit increased numbers of peroxisomes, whereas cells deleted for YGR004w or YBR168w exhibit enlarged peroxisomes. Ylr324p and Ybr168p cannot functionally substitute for one another or for Ygr004p, whereas Ygr004p shows partial functional redundancy with Ylr324p and Ybr168p. Ylr324p, Ygr004p, and Ybr168p interact within themselves and with Pex28p and Pex29p, which have been shown also to regulate peroxisome size and number. Systematic deletion of genes demonstrated that PEX28 and PEX29 function upstream of YLR324w, YGR004w, and YBR168w in the regulation of peroxisome proliferation. Our data suggest a role for Ylr324p, Ygr004p, and Ybr168p—now designated Pex30p, Pex31p, and Pex32p, respectively—together with Pex28p and Pex29p in controlling peroxisome size and proliferation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
We describe an unusual mechanism for organelle division. In the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, only mature peroxisomes contain the complete set of matrix proteins. These mature peroxisomes assemble from several immature peroxisomal vesicles in a multistep pathway. The stepwise import of distinct subsets of matrix proteins into different immature intermediates along the pathway causes the redistribution of a peroxisomal protein, acyl-CoA oxidase (Aox), from the matrix to the membrane. A significant redistribution of Aox occurs only in mature peroxisomes. Inside mature peroxisomes, the membrane-bound pool of Aox interacts with Pex16p, a membrane-associated protein that negatively regulates the division of early intermediates in the pathway. This interaction inhibits the negative action of Pex16p, thereby allowing mature peroxisomes to divide.
organelle division; membrane fission; peroxisome assembly; peroxin; liposomes
Transcriptome profiling identified the gene PEX25 encoding Pex25p, a peroxisomal membrane peroxin required for the regulation of peroxisome size and maintenance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Pex25p is related to a protein of unknown function encoded by the open reading frame, YOR193w, of the S. cerevisiae genome. Yor193p is a peripheral peroxisomal membrane protein that exhibits high sequence similarity not only to Pex25p but also to the peroxisomal membrane peroxin Pex11p. Unlike Pex25p and Pex11p, Yor193p is constitutively expressed in wild-type cells grown in oleic acid-containing medium, the metabolism of which requires intact peroxisomes. Cells deleted for the YOR193w gene show a few enlarged peroxisomes. Peroxisomes are greatly enlarged in cells harboring double deletions of the YOR193w and PEX25 genes, the YOR193w and PEX11 genes, and the PEX25 and PEX11 genes. Yeast two-hybrid analyses showed that Yor193p interacts with Pex25p and itself, Pex25p interacts with Yor193p and itself, and Pex11p interacts only with itself. Overexpression of YOR193w, PEX25, or PEX11 led to peroxisome proliferation and the formation of small peroxisomes. Our data suggest a role for Yor193p, renamed Pex27p, in controlling peroxisome size and number in S. cerevisiae.
The peroxin Pex24p of the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica exhibits high sequence similarity to two hypothetical proteins, Yhr150p and Ydr479p, encoded by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome. Like YlPex24p, both Yhr150p and Ydr479p have been shown to be integral to the peroxisomal membrane, but unlike YlPex24p, their levels of synthesis are not increased upon a shift of cells from glucose- to oleic acid–containing medium. Peroxisomes of cells deleted for either or both of the YHR150w and YDR479c genes are increased in number, exhibit extensive clustering, are smaller in area than peroxisomes of wild-type cells, and often exhibit membrane thickening between adjacent peroxisomes in a cluster. Peroxisomes isolated from cells deleted for both genes have a decreased buoyant density compared with peroxisomes isolated from wild-type cells and still exhibit clustering and peroxisomal membrane thickening. Overexpression of the genes PEX25 or VPS1, but not the gene PEX11, restored the wild-type phenotype to cells deleted for one or both of the YHR150w and YDR479c genes. Together, our data suggest a role for Yhr150p and Ydr479p, together with Pex25p and Vps1p, in regulating peroxisome number, size, and distribution in S. cerevisiae. Because of their role in peroxisome dynamics, YHR150w and YDR479c have been designated as PEX28 and PEX29, respectively, and their encoded peroxins as Pex28p and Pex29p.
biogenesis; peroxin; protein similarity; open reading frame; membrane fission